IV Международный конкурс
научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
«СТАРТ В НАУКЕ»
 
     

NATIONAL SPORTS AND GAMES FROM ENGLISH AND KAZAKH COUNTRIES
Сапахова А.А.
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Annotation

In this scientifically research theme: “National Sports and Games in England and Kazakhstan ”.

School -girl’s grade by 7 “B” Sapakhova Aruzhan, analyzing this research work and provides of the sports and national games in England and Kazakhstan.To provide most of these cultural forms were based on life situations and national peculiarities: and their intent was to teach succeeding generations to be healthy, strong, brave, smart, observant, resourceful, resilient and humane.

Sports and national games is one of the branches of E English and Kazakh national culture, Here we will briefly describe some of them.

Аннотация

Ғылыми –зерттеу жұмыстың тақырыбы: «Ұлыбритания мен Қазақстанның спорттық –ұлттық ойындары».

7 «Б» сынып оқушысы Сапахова Аружан, өзінің ғылыми жұмысын талдау барысында, Ағылшын мен Қазақтың спорттық – ұлттық ойындарын ашып көрсетті. Осы аталған мәдени формаларды тұрмыс-тіршілікте қолдану барысында, ұлттардың ерекшелік жағдайларын қарастырды, және олардың ұрпақтан-ұрпаққа жалғастыру көз-қарастарын, күш-жігерлерін, сенімдері мен даналығын, тапқырлығын, жеке тұлғаның адамгершілігі мен сабырлылығын анықтаған.

Спорттық –ұлттық ойындар – бұл ағылшын мен қазақтардың ұлттық мәдениеттерінің кейбір маңыздылықтарын қысқаша сипаттады.

Аннотация

Тема: научно –исследовательской работы: «Национальные спортивные игры Англиий и Казахстана».

Ученица 7 «Б» класса Сапахова Аружан, анализирует эту исследовательскую работу и раскрывает спортивных и национальные виды игр в Англии и Казахстана. Проведение большинства этих культурных форм были основаны на жизненных ситуациях и национальных особенностях. Их намерение научить будущее поколение, быть здоровыми, сильными, смелыми, умными, наблюдательными, находчивыми.

Спортивные и национальные игры - это один из ветвей английской и казахской национальной культуры, здесь кратко описываются некоторые из них.

Introduction

Many kinds of sport originated from England. The English have a proverb, "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy". They do not think that play is more important than work; they think that Jack will do his work better if he plays as well. so he is encouraged to do both. Association football, or soccer is one of the most popular games in the British Isles played from late August until the beginning of May. In summer the English national sport is cricket. When the English say: "that's not cricket" it means "that's not fair", "to play the game" means "to be fair".

There are several places in Britain associated with a particular kind of sport. One of them is Wimbledon where the All-England Lawn Tennis Championship are held in July (since 1877). The other one is Wimble - a stadium in north London where international football matches, the Cup Finals and other events have taken place since 1923.

The Kazakhs are ethnicity and nation, indigenous and general population of Kazakhstan. Kazakhs are also living in nearby regions of China, Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Mongolia.

At present Kazakhstan is experiencing a period of national revival and the revival of national statehood. During the Soviet period Kazakhs’ traditions were proclaimed the relics of the past and were methodically eradicated. The following set of videos introduces you to the traditional games of Kazakhs.

The most significant ones are dedicated to such memorable events as birth of a child, marriage, or connected to celebrating the most favorable holidays. In addition to being tradition-rich, these holidays are always accompanied with holding national games. Many of the games are interesting due to their ancient roots and enchanting sight. However here we are going to focus on the most exciting ones.

1. National Sports of Great Britain between Kazakh National Games

Sport holds animportant place in our life. When we listen to the radio in the morning, we can alwayshear sport news. When we open a newspaper,we can always find information about some game or other or an article about our favourite kind of sports. Television programmes about sport are also verypopular, and we can watch something interesting every day. Sport helps people to keep in good health.

Sport also makes us more organized inour daily activities. National game and sports competitions are popular in our country. People go in for many kinds ofsports. There are sports grounds nearevery school, every institute, every factory and plant. Besides thereare sports clubs and sport school in every town. Many people go there for training. As to me I go in for table-tennis.

They are a football team, a voley-ball team, a basket-ball team, atable-tennis team. The British are known to be great sport-lover, so when theyare neither playing nor watching games they like to talk about them. Many ofthe games we play now have come from

Britain. One of the most British games is cricket. Summer isn’t summer without cricket. But as almost everywhere else inthe world, the game, which attracts the greatest attention, is football, orsoccer. There are plenty of professional and amateur soccer clubs all over Britain. International football matches and the Cup Finals take place at Wembley. A great number of people play and watch tennis. People between the ageof 16-60 show every degree of skill. The British also like to play golf, basketball, hockey, grass-hockey. You can sometimes hear that there are no winter sports in Britain.

Kazakh culture and national games

Kazakhs, like other cultural groups, have inherited various forms of entertainment and games from their forefathers. As you will observe, most of these cultural forms were based on life situations and national peculiarities: and their intent was to teach succeeding generations to be healthy, strong, brave, smart, observant, resourceful, resilient and humane, Entertainment is one of the branches of Kazakh national culture, Here we will briefly describe some of them.

2. ENGLISH- NATIONAL“RUGBY FOOTBALL” GAMES

Rugby football is a type of football developed at Rugby School in Rugby, Warwickshire, one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century.[1] The two main types of rugby are rugby league and rugby union. Although these two forms share many elements, the two codes have gradually developed with distinct sets of rules.

Global status of rugby codes

Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, and is dominated by the first tier unions: Argentina, Australia, England, France, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa and Wales. Second and third tier unions include Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Fiji, Georgia, Japan, Mexico, Namibia, Peru, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Samoa, Spain, Tonga, the United States, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby (WR), whose headquarters are located in Dublin, Ireland. It is the national sport in New Zealand, Wales, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and Madagascar, and is the most popular form of rugby globally,[18] with the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, having been admitted into the programme of the Olympic Games from Rio de Janeiro in 2016 onwards

3. KAZAKH- NATIONAL GAMES “ASYK”

Asyk - game was played both in summer and winter. Let me describe the terms of the game. Two boys would have a target and attempt to hit it with a saka from three step distance. If one hit the target, an asyk from his opponents arsenal would be his. He would then continue throwing until he missed, taking an asyk from his partner until missing. Then it would be his opponents turn to win back lost asyks. Asyk is also forgotten by many children, but in rural places of Kazakhstan some boys still play it. Often boys would be so engrossed in the game that they would ignore eating, going to school or helping parents to finish a game. As we discussed earlier, parents brought up a child to hold work in respect. So they would complain about those who constantly played asyk or ball as laggards, and extol boys who rather spent their time grazing sheep as successful. Everything should rather be done in moderation and in its own time. So Asyk is not a bad game, but it mustn't be turned into an extended game of chance.

Asyk atu — a popular Kazakh national game which meaning is to beat out with one’s own asyk (a bone of a knee sheep joint) one or several asyks from a raw at a certain distance, which become the property of a player.

Posters on the eve of President’s elections in Kazakhstanput the national game “asyk atu” into mobile Internet-space. A young man developed the game-application asyk atu for smartphones.

As the developer cleared out that the application bears exceptionally social character. “I started to the development in May this year, as I wanted to create something national. I wanted the growing generation not to forget their traditions. I myself loved to play this game in my childhood, thus I chose asyk artu”.

Asyk game- Kazakh traditional game. Played more than willing to play in the daytime and at night. Kündizgisi attaches to fire at tüngisi abilities. Recall quick to recover from theto take of täuke, beech, secured, and the best shots were cast for the lead saka is oñqı. There are more than willing to play the following types: gambling, tauke Recall ompı Khan (Khan shooting), qaqpaqıl, etc.

For example, 2 to 4 people to participate in a game of chance. They must be looking forward to a good priming pan sharpened four. Players will be able to set up a mutual agreement with the winner of the prize four take to rushed alternately.If spinning: four beech or four secured, and taking four or four täyke fee, half of the prize, made four drops four quick takes the whole prize. Thus, the game will continue. Murtınan rushed to build and hip ompı said.

Ompı game on a flat area, a flat, even playing in the room.

The greater the number of the player, the game will be more interesting. The goal is to win more than willing to. Draws a point guard 20 steps between the two minerals embedded in a line along the middle of the pitch, each of the two ankles. Bound asyks build ompısınan rushed to the middle of the face.

Children saqa alternately ten steps away from attempts to win a quick shot down ompı. If atwşı ompı not immediately, then made haste, and did not have a ompığa asyks if any, will only be able to rush to the left.

Asyk bound, the game will continue to be updated. Widespread among the people more than willing to play, there are other types. [1]

Kazakh traditional game of quick game. Small animals (sheep and goats) will be held not in a hurry to hurry mere bones.

Recall willing to restore to take tauke beech, secured, and shot into the lead for the making saka, right hand shot oñqı suitable called. Asıq quick game include the following: gambling, täuke Recall ompı Khan ( Khan shooting), qaqpaqıl, etc.

4.CHESS GAMES

Chess is a board game for two players.[1] It is played on a square board, made of 64 smaller squares, with eight squares on each side. Each player starts with sixteen pieces: eight pawns, two knights, two bishops, two rooks, one queen and one king.[2] The goal of the game is for each player to try and checkmate the king of the opponent. Checkmate is a threat ('check') to the opposing king which no move can stop. It ends the game.[3][4]

During the game the two opponents take turns to move one of their pieces to a different square of the board. One player ('White') has pieces of a light color; the other player ('Black') has pieces of a dark color. There are rules about how pieces move, and about taking the opponent's pieces off the board. The player with white pieces always makes the first move.[4] Because of this, White has a small advantage, and wins more often than Black in tournament games

Setup

Chess is played on a square board of eight rows (called ranks and denoted with numbers 1 to 8) and eight columns (called files and denoted with letters a to h) of squares. The colors of the 64 squares alternate and are referred to as "light" and "dark" squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player.

By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, and the players are referred to as "White" and "Black" respectively. Each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, which consist of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, and eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color, the white queen on a light square and the black queen on a dark.

Movement

The player with the white pieces always moves first. After the first move, players alternately move one piece per turn (except for castling, when two pieces are moved). Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, which is captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies.

A player may not make any move that would put or leave his or her king under attack. A player cannot "pass"; at each turn they have to make a legal move (this is the basis for the finesse called zugzwang). If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; it is either a checkmate (a loss for the player with no legal moves) if the king is under attack, or a stalemate (a draw) if the king is not.

Each chess piece has its own style of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares where the piece can move if no other pieces (including one's own piece) are on the squares between the piece's initial position and its destination.

  • The king moves one square in any direction. The king has also a special move which is called castling and involves also moving a rook.

  • The rook can move any number of squares along any rank or file, but may not leap over other pieces. Along with the king, the rook is involved during the king's castling move.

  • The bishop can move any number of squares diagonally, but may not leap over other pieces.

  • The queen combines the power of the rook and bishop and can move any number of squares along rank, file, or diagonal, but it may not leap over other pieces.

  • The knight moves to any of the closest squares that are not on the same rank, file, or diagonal, thus the move forms an "L"-shape: two squares vertically and one square horizontally, or two squares horizontally and one square vertically. The knight is the only piece that can leap over other pieces.

  • The pawn may move forward to the unoccupied square immediately in front of it on the same file, or on its first move it may advance two squares along the same file provided both squares are unoccupied (black "●"s in the diagram); or the pawn may capture an opponent's piece on a square diagonally in front of it on an adjacent file, by moving to that square (black "x"s). The pawn has two special moves: the en passant capture and pawn promotion.

Castling

Once in every game, each king is allowed to make a special move, known as castling. Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook (which is on the player's first rank[note 1]) and then placing the rook on the last square the king has just crossed. Castling is permissible under the following conditions:[4]

  • Neither the king nor the rook may have been previously moved during the game.

  • There must be no pieces between the king and the rook.

  • The king may not be in check, nor may the king pass through squares that are under attack by enemy pieces, nor move to a square where it is in check.

Note that castling is permissible if the rook is attacked, or if the rook crosses a square that is attacked.

En passant

Examples of pawn moves: promotion (left) and en passant (right)

When a pawn advances two squares from its starting position and there is an opponent's pawn on an adjacent file next to its destination square, then the opponent's pawn can capture it en passant (in passing), and move to the square the pawn passed over. However, this can only be done on the very next move, otherwise the right to do so is forfeit. For example, if the black pawn has just advanced two squares from g7 (initial starting position) to g5, then the white pawn on f5 may take it via en passant on g6 (but only on white's next move).

Promotion

When a pawn advances to the eighth rank, as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color. Usually, the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen, but in some cases another piece is chosen; this is called underpromotion. In the diagram on the right, the pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted to an allowed piece. There is no restriction placed on the piece that is chosen on promotion, so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game (for example, two queens).

Check

When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponent's pieces, it is said to be in check. A response to a check is a legal move if it results in a position where the king is no longer under direct attack (that is, not in check). This can involve capturing the checking piece; interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king (which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king); or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack. Castling is not a permissible response to a check. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent; this occurs when the opponent's king is in check, and there is no legal way to remove it from attack. It is illegal for a player to make a move that would put or leave his own king in check.

In casual games it is common to announce "check" when putting the opponent's king in check, however this is not required by the rules of the game, and is not usually done in tournaments.

End of the game

Win

Games may be won in the following ways:

  • Checkmate

  • Resignation – either player may resign, conceding the game to the other player.[5] It is usually considered poor etiquette to play on in a truly hopeless position, and for this reason high level games rarely end with a checkmate.

  • Loss on time – in games with a time control, a player may also lose by running out of time, even with a much superior position.

  • Forfeit – a player who cheats, or violates the laws of the game, or violates the rules specified for the particular tournament may be forfeited. In high level tournaments, players have been forfeited for such things as arriving late for the game (even by a matter of seconds), receiving a call or text on a cell phone, refusing to undergo a drug test, refusing to undergo a body search for electronic devices and unsporting behavior (such as refusing to shake the opponent's hand).

5. TOGYZ KUMALAK

Togyzkumalak - is inherited in the history of our great ancestors intellectual game, numbering four thousand years of history, it is now known all over the world and having no less important than the other world-famous mind games. This game - the material embodiment of the personality of the Kazakhs and their ancestors - the Huns and ancient Turks. Ideological characteristics, rules and game options become for researchers invaluable ethnographic sources of the spiritual life of the Turkic peoples. In accordance with the geography of the publication of various works, studies can be organized on Russian, European, American and Central Asian.

Among Russian researchers, the first author to write about togyzkumalak became etnotraf N.Pantusov. His article "The Kyrgyz togyzkumalak game" was published in 1906 in the city of Kazan. Renowned expert said S. Amanzholov about this article wrote: "Pantusovskoe description too wildly, sometimes incorrect, but because it has not attracted the attention of the public, and could not draw." Naturally, Pantusova as ethnographer, attracted, not the game and its rules. The scientist in this case tried to give an evaluation of the national characteristics of the game. After him, the next Russian ethnographer who studied togyzkumalak was Assia Popova. She is traveling the Kazakh Bayanolgeya Aram to the east of Mongolia, has collected extensive material about the unknown in Kazakhstan she tugulaahe, esenkorgoole and togyzkumalak. The collected material was published in France. Assia Popova believed that all of these games are the heritage of the Kazakhs, and also indicates that togyzkumalak play in Afghanistan, and expanded the scope of the game.

Board of “Togyz Kumalak”

The game Togyz kumalak a special board with two rows of small holes (nine in a row) and two large holes, called "Kazan". Lower (low) number of wells is considered to be part of the player, the opposite number - the enemy. "Kazan" the player is closer to the opponent's side, and the "cauldron" of the enemy - closer to the side of the player.

First process

Second process

6. ENGLISH NATIONAL GAME “HORSE - RACING”

Horse racing is an equestrian sport, involving two or more jockeys riding horses over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports and its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has remained unchanged since the earliest times.[1]

Horse races vary widely in format. Often, countries have developed their own particular horse racing traditions. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits.

While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance lies in the gambling associated with it,[2] an activity that in 2008 generated a world-wide market worth around US$115 billion.

There are all kinds of racing in England - horse-racing, motor-car racing, boat-racing, dog-racing, and even races for donkeys. On sports days at school boys and girls run races, and even train for them. There is usually a mile race for older boys, and one who wins it is certainly a good runner.

Usually those who run a race go as fast as possible, but there are some races in which everybody has to go very carefully in order to avoid falling. The most famous boat-race in England is between Oxford and Cambridge. It is rowed over a course on the River Thames, and thousands of people go to watch it. The eight rowers in each boat have great struggle, and at the end there is usually only a short distance between the winners and the losers. The University boat-race started in 1820 and has been rowed on the Thames almost every spring since 1836.

7. KAZAKH NATIONAL GAME “KOKPAR”

Two groups of riders take a part in this game. There was a goat carcass (kokpar) at a distance of 50-60 steps from competitors. Who first picks the carcass up from the ground, the other horsemen had to take it. This struggle between the players continued until the evening. If two groups participate in kopkar, the winner is the team whose player reaches the finish line first. In this competition, horsemen demonstrated agility, strength, accuracy, ability to stay in the saddle.

There are dozens of traditional Kazakh horse games, most with deep histories and stories attached. The rules and actions of the games describe the challenges and hardships of life on the land in Kazakhstan.

Kokpar, or gray wolf, is the most popular traditional horse game. Wolves were sworn enemies of the nomads of Kazakhstan: they attacked horses, sheep and sometimes even hunters and their homes. If a hunter or anyone else managed to kill a wolf, he was to deliver the head of the animal to the tribal leader and give the beheaded carcass to the people to be flayed. Flaying the body of the wolf was a symbolic victory over the animals that constituted such a threat to Kazakh livestock which, of course, represented the difference between full bellies and starvation, between surviving the winter or freezing.

Kokpar was the main attraction of any event, especially Nauryz, the New Year that is celebrated on March 22nd in Central Asian countries. Nowadays, a goat carcass is used instead of the body of a wolf.

“The main objective is to fend off opponents and carry the beheaded goat carcass into your own goal, and to be successful in this game you have to be extremely skillful,” explained Astana resident Gabdulla Ashimov, a 28-year-old project manager at a construction company.

“You also need a special relationship with your horse. In the game, your horse makes 50 percent of the decisions, so feeling and understanding each other is crucial. Moreover, your horse needs to be very strong and have good stamina. … Overall, your victory depends 50 percent on your skills and 50 percent on your horse’s stamina, experience and physical condition.”

8. BAIQE (HORSE RACE)

Horse racing is one of the ancient traditions of Kazakh people. Horses were the "wings" of the zhigit, so they trained them and spent many hours with their beloved race horses. Our ancestors could distinguish the good horses from the bad; there were critics like Tolibai who could predict from among pregnant horses which would bring forth "argimaks" (race horses) and "Tulpars" (battle horses), when a colt was in-utero. So Kazakhs held baige (horse race) at large tois, celebrations and at national holidays. At the races one might see hundreds of horses. In Kazakh history there were ases (held the year following somebody's death) of famous people like Saginai, Mamen, Sasan, Ulan-bulan and tremendous horse races were held. Our nation is always interested in joyful events, so they often organize horse races.

Predicting a race horse from among the others was hard to do. The head of a race horse was reputed to have little meat; they had protruding ribs; swollen bones; were of unpleasant appearance; had broad breasts; and protruding nostrils. Those who believed that they had a winning horse might expect to win a substantial prize, and would thus take great pains to care for their animals the month before a race. They would condition a mount for a race by riding long hours to make the horse sweaty. They then would feed and water appropriately, and give an extra measure of oats. After a good ride, they were sure to cool down the horse, and to keep their animal safe from evil eyes, they covered him with a small horse blanket and made a special mask for his face.

In the Tarbagatai mountains there was a mud hut of a man, Kalmaktai by name. The front of this mud hut was plain, but in the middle there was a stone stake. Kalmaktai would lasso his horse, and every day he stretched and elongated it for about a month or until the ground became grassless. This was in fact a manner of training the horse to run in ever-larger circles.

Another important task was to select a person who would ride the race horse. Kazakhs usually chose boys, because they are light and rode horses easily; however, such boys needed to have riding skills. In preparation for a race a boy would be given extra training, and also instruct him how to keep the horse's eyes and under his ears dry; to use a whip; when to change speeds; to remember not to sit straight but to ride sideways, always observing the behavior of competitors. According to the kind of tois involved, the financial position of horse owners, and the number of participating horses, a horse race might be of short, middle, or long distances.

In old times when best race horses gathered they would have one day races sometimes involving different track. Nowadays it is difficult to find thin tailed argimaks, so a racing distance might be 20-30 kilometers or a middle distance track. There are other sorts of races, too. For example, races of kunan (a colt of two or three years) were not far. Kazakhs also had an amble (gait of a horse) race which mostly involved women. Moslems also held camel races. All of these races were held on special celebrations, and were thought to be a kind of physical training. So baige is longstanding and wonderful tradition.

9. GRECO-ROMAN WRESTLING

Greco-Roman Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two (occasionally more) competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems.

Greco-Roman is an international discipline and an Olympic sport. In Greco-Roman style, it is forbidden to hold the opponent below the belt, to make trips, and to actively use the legs in the execution of any action. Recent rule changes in Greco-Roman increase opportunities for and place greater emphasis on explosive, 'high amplitude' throws. Pinning one's opponent to the mat is one way of winning. One of the most well known Greco-Roman wrestlers is Alexander Karelin from Russia.

Beach wrestling

UWW, then known as FILA, codified the current form of beach wrestling in 2004.[12] Beach wrestling is standing wrestling done by wrestlers, male or female, inside a sand-filled circle measuring 6 meters (20 ft) in diameter. The wrestlers wear swimsuits rather than special wrestling uniforms. Wrestlers may also wear spandex or athletic shorts. The objective is to bring the opponent to the ground, push them out of bounds or pin their shoulders to the ground.[

10. KURES (WRESTLING)

One of the ancient traditions of Kazakh people is wrestling. Kazakhs were proud of their famous singers, poets, folk singers, judges, batyrs (warriors) and athletes. Wrestlers would defend the honor of their clan for whom they wrestled. We are proud of our world-known wrestlers, like Baluan Sholak and Kazhymukan. Though there were few famous wrestlers remembered by name, Kazakhs were eager to train their boys to be wrestlers from very young age.

Wrestling took place in large celebrations, holidays, and fairs. There, clans would point to the wrestlers who would defend their honor. Among the Kazakhs, wrestlers respected and appreciated each other. Once Kazhymukan defeated Japanese, Turkish and wrestlers from other countries in an international event, and the world for the fist time knew that Kazakhstan had such competitors.

On his way home after a successful wrestling match Kazhymukan came to a kos (a small felt hut for travelling). When he opened it, he saw a giant man sleeping on his back. Kazheken (his pet name) admired the giant's body and greatly wanted to wrestle with him. So he waked him up and they began wrestling. It seemed to him that the larger man was very strong, and he was difficult to beat. Then Kazheken prayed and said: "Oh, my angel, Baluan Sholak help me, give me more strength." Hearing these words the giant released and kissed him, and Kazhymukan saw tears in his eyes. It turned out that Kazhekens competitor was Baluan Sholak himself.

Because Baluan Sholak could not show himself, he had heard about Kazhymukans recent success and was specially waiting for him to pass nearby and to pay him respect. He was grazing dozens of lambs to treat him to, so when the two wrestlers became acquainted they feasted for two days on these animals. After the war, Kazhymukan was at Sabit Mukanovs home (a famous Kazakh writer), and he whooped when he remembered the incident. Sabit was surprised why he was weeping and inquired as to the cause. Kazhymukan answered that it was nothing for him to drink boxes of vodka or tubs of kumiss, but it was shame and a sin for him to touch the collar of his elder brother (he meant Baluan Sholak). In our childhood we saw several times wrestlers in chain and tomaga. During wrestling if they were not able to win, they might pray and mutter in an effort to acquire more energy. It could become very noisy in the steppe when they did so, for winners might be given a camel, a horse, a cow or a sheep. Nowadays wrestlers are selected according to their weight, and they are sponsored by different institutions and sports organizations. In earlier times, wrestlers were praised by people and sometimes sponsored by wealthy people who would take care of them since their success belonged to all the people.

The rules of wrestling included grasping the stomach or torso and lifting opponents overhead. Sometimes a match would last for long hours. They would tie their wrists with a girdle and have wide pants. According to the rules they could only hold opponents by the girdles. In ancient times old men would gather on a big hill to have a chat, and talked about information from "Uzun kulak" (long ears). Their grandsons usually were with them, and when the old men were free for a while, they'd wrestle their grandsons and admire the scene. This was because our forefathers always thought about future generations, and they wanted their offspring to be strong.

11. AUDARYSPAK

(to pull the adversary from a horse in competition)

Audaryspak was also one of the most widespread traditions organized during feasts. It is one of the ways of checking strength and determination. Only strong zhigits would take part in such competitions, and their horses needed to be well chosen. Those who would take part in “Audaryspak” were divided into two groups. The object was to pull an opponent from a horse. Thus, it was very important that the horse and saddle objects were very strong. Sometimes the stronger competitor would drag the adversary with his horse, leading to him being unseated.

As you have become aware, all physical training of the kazakh people was connected with the living conditions and history. Kazakhs had to defend their families and often fight on horseback. Remember that horses might be driven away from one clan by others, or that women might be stolen; so being able to pull an adversary from a horse might become more than a game.

If somebody was trained well how to fight on a horse he wouldn't lose the fight. Kazakhs in general were a very peaceful people. They never liked bloody scenes or killing. When they fought with cudgels, they tried not to hurt an enemy's head badly, but rather intended only to pull a foe from his horse, for without a horse the adversary couldn't fight. In the whole, Audaryspak was very useful in strengthening muscles and training zhigits for bravery, and besides, it was one of the best means to learn self defense.

Conclusion

London was host for the first time in 1908. With 1,500 competitors from 19 nations, the Games were by now an institution of world-wide significance. The programme, moreover, was augmented by the inclusion of Association football (which appeared in 1900 but only in a demonstration match), diving, field hockey, and ice hockey, as well as other sports since discontinued.

The most dramatic episode of these Games was in the marathon, run from Windsor to Shepherd's Bush in London, the site of a new stadium. Pietri (Italy) led into the arena but collapsed and was disqualified for accepting assistance from officials. The gold medal went to the second man home, Hayes (USA), but Queen Alexandra, who was present opposite the finishing line, was so moved by the Italian's plight that she awarded him special gold cup. The 400 metres provided an opportunity for Halswelle (GB) to become the only man in Olympic history to win by a walk-over. The final was declared void after an American had been disqualified for boring. Two other Americans withdrew from re-run final in protest, leaving Halswelle an unopposed passage. Britain won the polo, and all the boxing, lawn tennis, rackets, rowing, and yachting titles as well as five out of six cycle races.

Simplicity and feasibility of manufacture, easy and quick assembly, use of natural materials and high transportability turned yurt into an ideal dwelling of a nomad. Even now you may encounter a yurt in the steppe.

Kazakh National Games tries to overtake (approach) her she lashes him with a whip. If - up to a certain place - the young boy fails to overtake her she would "reward" him with whipping again. If he is a success he earns a kiss.

Audaryspak ("Wrestling on horseback") - this kind of national sports requires skills both in hand-to-hand fighting and in trick riding. In fact two men fight while on horseback.Wins the one that brings his adversary down of his horse. Nowadays a handkerchief replaces the ingot.

Kokpar ("Fighting for a goat's carcass"). A most popular game. It stems from an ancient custom according to which one, who wants to get rid of all evil, should sacrifice a goat. Not infrequently taking part in the game is up to 1,000 horsemen. The game unfolds on an almost infinite steppe range.

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