IV Международный конкурс
научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
«СТАРТ В НАУКЕ»
 
     

АНГЛИЙСКИЕ СОКРАЩЕНИЯ В ПЕРЕПИСКЕ
Гончарук А.В.
Текст научной работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия научной работы доступна в формате PDF


Passport of the project

Title English abbreviation in correspondence

Aims and objects

Aim: to examine the topic and to tell others about most important and common English abbreviations

Objects: 1. Investigate the tips of using different abbreviations

2. Learn the main problems of wrong using different abbreviations

3. Find out the rules of right using different English abbreviations

4. Make a presentation about the rules of right using different abbreviations

5. Make up a book of abbreviations and verification tasks for classmates

Material security and technical equipment

  1. Internet access

  2. Life experience

Introduction

Abbreviation (abbreviation, abbreviated words) — is abbreviated spelling of a word or group of words. Any language is saturated with acronyms, and we are so used to them that use them everywhere. And if some of them are known to us even from a young age, then, we meet with some lifelong. Abbreviations know is necessary because some of them are not only simple but also quite important cuts that will be useful in work, travel, business communication and correspondence, as well as in many other areas of our lives. Abbreviations are in any language, in fact, every language abbreviation borrows from other languages. Sometimes we automatically use one or another abbreviation and not remember how she stands.

In correspondence a number of abbreviations are used, some of which are only suitable for informal communication, some even for electronic communication only (e.g. emoticons). In formal business letters, a clear, formal writing style should be used; however, there exist some instances in which the use of abbreviations is appropriate to save both space and time.

Abbreviations are shortened versions of one or two words which are still pronounced the same way, even if they are written as an abbreviation.

Unlike in English, where most abbreviations are capitalized, many Spanish abbreviations are not. Generally, abbreviations that are capitalized are personal titles (such as Sr. and Dr., even though the words themselves are not capitalized when spelled out) and those derived from proper nouns. But there are some exceptions.

I’ve chosen this topic because in my opinion it is relevant. The society is developing and our speech in correspondence too. My work can help to know the basic abbreviations and acronyms that will be useful in conversation.

Let’s try to examine the most important and common.

History of abbreviations

Abbreviations have a long history, created so that spelling out a whole word could be avoided. This might be done to save time and space, and also to provide secrecy. Shortened words were used and initial letters were commonly used to represent words in specific applications. In classical Greece and Rome, the reduction of words to single letters was common. In Roman inscriptions, "Words were commonly abbreviated by using the initial letter or letters of words and most inscriptions have at least one abbreviation." However, "some could have more than one meaning, depending on their context.

Abbreviations in English were frequently used from its earliest days. Manuscripts of copies of the old English poem Beowulf used many abbreviations, for example 7 or & for and, and y for since, so that "not much space is wasted". The standardization of English in the 15th through 17th centuries included such a growth in the use of abbreviations. At first, abbreviations were sometimes represented with various suspension signs, not only periods. While this may seem trivial, it was symptomatic of an attempt by people manually reproducing academic texts to reduce the copy time.

The most familiar and popular abbreviations

The following abbreviations are used in the English language in the organizational structure of the language:

  • etc. — And so on

  • e. — That is to say

  • NB — please note

  • RSVP — please reply respond to the invitation

  • e. g. — For example

The abbreviation i.e. (i.e., that is) is often confused with other abbreviations (e.g., e.g.). The i.e. generally is used to introduce matter that is explanatory as opposed to being the name of an example or list of examples. If you can say for example as a substitute for the abbreviation, you want to use e.g., not i.e. Do not italicize or underline these abbreviations. Most sources recommend avoiding the use of Latin abbreviations except within parenthetical notes and some sources say not to use Latin abbreviations at all (use the English terms instead) except within citations or reference lists.

(app.1)

When you meet an abbreviation in English, be sure to find it and ask the full version of the translation, because you do not know in advance when it will meet you again! Moreover, the knowledge of important abbreviations increases your level of English! (app.2)

Abbreviations in titles

The most common abbreviations in titles:

  • Mr. - Mister - used when addressing men

  • Messrs. - used when addressing two or more men, as in Messrs. Smith and Wesson

  • Mrs. - Misses - used for women if you are sure that they are married and for those who do not prefer another title

  • Ms. - used for women, regardless of their marital status. Usually the safest bet

  • Dr. - Used with addressees who you know have earned a doctorate, not only in medicine

Notice that Miss is not an abbreviation, so we don't put a period after it. Ms. is not an abbreviation, either, but we do use a period after it — probably to keep it consistent with Mr. and Mrs.

In most formal prose, we do not use titles, abbreviated or otherwise, with individuals. Ms. Emily Dickinson is simply Emily Dickinson, and after the first use of her full name, Dickinson will do (unless we need Emily to avoid confusion with other Dickinsons).

Abbreviations in time and date

The most common abbreviations in time and date:

  • a.m. (am) - ante merediem = before midday - used with a 12-hour clock

  • p.m. (pm) - post merediem = after midday - used with a 12-hour clock

  • BC - Before Christ - used to denote years prior to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth

  • AD - Anno Domini - used to denote years after the birth of Jesus of Nazareth

Acronyms

Acronyms have always been an integral part of computer culture, and they have since spawned a new language on the Internet.

(app.2)

There is a difference between acronyms and abbreviations. An acronym is usually formed by taking the first initials of a phrase or compounded-word and using those initials to form a word that stands for something. Thus NATO, which we pronounce NATOH, is an acronym for North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and LASER (which we pronounce "lazer"), is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. FBI, then, is not really an acronym for the Federal Bureau of Investigation; it is an abbreviation. AIDS is an acronym; HIV is an abbreviation. URL is an abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator (World

Wide Web address), but many people pronounce it as "Earl," making it a true acronym, and others insist on pronouncing it as three separate letters, "U * R * L," thus making it an abbreviation. The jury is still out. (I vote for Uncle Earl.)

It appears that there are no hard and fast rules for using periods in either acronyms or abbreviations. More and more, newspapers and journals seem to drop the periods: NAACP, NCAA, etc. Consistency, obviously, is important.

One of the most often asked questions about grammar has to do with the choice of articles — a, an, the — to precede an abbreviation or acronym. Do we say an FBI agent or a FBI agent? Although "F" is obviously a consonant and we would precede any word that begins with "F" with "a," we precede FBI with "an" because the first sound we make when we say FBI is not an "f-sound," it is an "eff-sound." Thus we say we're going to a PTO meeting where an NCO will address us. We say we saw a UFO because, although the abbreviation begins with a 'U," we pronounce the "U" as if it were spelled "yoo." Whether we say an URL or a URL depends on whether we pronounce it as "earl" or as "u*r*l."

Acronyms of education

  • B.A (Bachelor of Arts)

  • B.Sc (Bachelor of Science)

  • M.A (Master of Arts)

  • M.B.A (Master of Business Administration)

  • MD (Medicinae Doctor - Doctor of Medicine)

  • PhD (Philosophiae Doctor - Doctorate of Philosophy)

Acronyms of names

  • familiar institutions — UConn, MIT, UCLA, CIA, FBI, NATO

  • countries — U.S.A., U.K.

  • corporations — IBM, CBS, NPR, CNN, ITT

  • famous people — LBJ, FDR, JFK, MLK

  • very familiar objects — TV, VCR, CD-ROM.

Notice that U.S.A. can also be written USA, but U.S. is better with the periods. Also, we can use U.S. as a modifier (the U.S. policy on immigration) but not as a noun (He left the U.S. U.S.A.).

Terms of mathematical units: 15 in., 15 ft, 15 kg, 15 m, 15 lb

Generally, you would use these abbreviations only in technical writing. There is a space between the number and the abbreviation. Notice that we do not put an s after such abbreviations even when the plural is indicated. Also, we do not use a period with such abbreviations except for in. when it might be confused with the preposition in.

Abbreviations in business correspondence

(app.3)

Formal business letters require a specific protocol no matter what the letter's intent. In most cases, a business letter should be succinct and brief, usually fitting onto one page. While you should use a clear, formal writing style, there are several cases in which using abbreviations are appropriate to save both space and time.

Common texting abbreviations and web jargon

Our messages need to be short and thumb-friendly for typing. Yet we still need to pack in meaningful information along with the baseline ingredients of courtesy and etiquette.

Hundreds of bizarre jargon expressions have spawned as a result. Primarily about shorthand, the new jargon saves us keystrokes to say TY (thank you) and YW (you're welcome). The new jargon also conveys spontaneous emotion and personal expressions ('O RLY', 'FML', 'OMG').

One of the most popular abbreviations is HMU - Hit Me Up. This acronym is used to say "contact me" or otherwise "reach me to follow up on this". It is a modern shorthand way to invite a person to communicate with you further.

  • FTW - For the Win

FTW is an internet expression of enthusiasm. While there were nastier meanings in previous years, FTW today commonly stands for "For the Win". It is an expression of enthusiasm. "FTW" is the same as saying "this is the best" or "this item will make a big difference, I recommend using it"!"

  • e.g. "anti-lock braking, ftw!"

  • e.g. "spellchecker, ftw!"

  • e.g. "low-carb diets, ftw

  • OMG - Oh My God!

  • WBU - What About You?

This expression is used in personal conversations where the two parties are well acquainted. This expression is commonly used to ask for the other person's opinion, or to check for their comfort level with the situation.

  • PROPS - Proper Respect and Acknowledgement

"Props" is a jargon way to say "Proper Recognition" or "Proper Respect Due". Props is commonly used with the prepositional phrase "to (someone)".

  • IDC - I Don't Care

You would use IDC when you are trying to make a decision with your messaging friend, and you are open to multiple options. While IDC is largely an emotion-less term, it can sometimes convey a negative attitude, so it is best to use this expression with friends and not new acquaintances.

  • IDK - I Don't Know

IDK is a straightforward expression: you use IDK when you cannot offer an answer to someone's question. Like most of these messaging jargon terms, you would only use IDK for personal conversations or when there is a trusted work colleague relationship established in advance.

  • SUP - What's Up

Sup is a common personal greeting amongst acquaintances, especially amongst teenagers. You would open a conversation with friends using "sup", in the exact same way you would ask "how are you doing?"

  • TBH - To Be Honest

This expression is used to say 'I am being extra candid by saying this' or 'I am going to admit a weakness or partial failure on my part by saying this'.

  • JK - Just Kidding

JK is used to complete the delivery of a joke, something especially important to do when the joke is a ribbing or a playful insult.

  • WTB - Want to Buy

  • NTIM - Not That It Matters

This is internet shorthand for saying "sadly, this statement is inconsequential". It can be used as a statement of fact, or as a way of martyring oneself while someone pushes you into doing something.NTIM is commonly used when a conversation topic touches on something that is outside of the parties' control, or if something is being forced upon someone.

  • THX- Thanks

  • BISLY - But I Still Love You

This slang acronym is used as playful affection, often during online arguments or debates. It can be used to mean "no hard feelings", or "we're still friends", or "I don't like what you just said, but I won't hold it against you. BISLY is commonly used between people who are familiar with each other.

  • SMH - Shaking My Head

SMH is used to show disbelief at someone's stupidity or bad decision. It's a way to pass judgment on other people's actions.

  • WB - Welcome Back

This pleasant expression is common in online communities (e.g. MMO gaming), or in regular IM conversations at people's work desks. When a person types "back' to announce their return to the computer/phone, the other party types 'WB' to greet the person.

  • TTT - To the Top

Also known as 'Bump'

This abbreviation is used to push an aging conversation thread to the top of the recent list. You would do this to promote a conversation before it gets forgotten. (app.5)

  • UOK - Are You OK?

  • XOXOXOX - Kisses

This is a decades-old expression that dates to the days of handwritten letters. It is used to show non-verbal affection

  • WDYMBT - What Do You Mean By That?

This expression asks for clarification when a person is unclear.

  • BTW - By the Way

  • DH - Darling Husband

  • DW - Darling Wife

BF (Boyfriend)

GF (Girlfriend)

  • CYA - See Ya

(variation:CUL8R - See You Later)

While, you would not use this shorthand for professional email conversations, CYA is very common in personal text messaging and online chat.

  • GG = Good Game

  • GJ = Good Job

  • TTYL - Talk to You Later

  • NP - No Problem

NP is a jargon way to say "you're welcome", or to say "not to worry about that, everything is fine". You can use NP right after someone thanks you in instant messaging. You can also use NP when someone turns down your request or invitation, and you want to tell them that there are no hard feelings.

  • PLZ - Please

PLZ is the shorthand way of saying "please". This is a straightforward acronym that is good to use in daily personal conversation.

  • JTLYK - Just to Let You Know

JTLYK is used to preface information-sharing that could be uncomfortable, or could change previous arrangements for group activities. Commonly, JTLYK means that the information is important, and conveying it is both critical and courteous.

  • TYVM - Thank You Very Much

  • Noob - Newcomer / Rookie / Amateur

"Newb" means "newbie/newcomer" or "amateur/rookie", a derogatory description for the new person in the group. Newb is also spelled "Noob" (both rhyme with "tube"). There is the variation spelling "nub" (which rhymes with "tub"). All mean the same thing.

  • LOL' is one of a few common acronyms for laughter. It stands for 'Laughing Out Loud'.

You will also see variations like LOLZ and LULZ (a version of LOL, ROFL (Rolling on Floor Laughing), and ROFLMAO (Rolling on Floor, Laugh My Ass Off). In the United Kingdom, PMSL is also a popular version of LOL.'LOL' and 'LOLZ' are often spelled all uppercase, but can also be spelled "lol" or "lolz".

  • RLY - Oh, Really?

"O RLY", ("oh really") is a slang response to express sarcastic doubt, dismay, or incredulity to another online user. You would use this expression when someone else makes a questionable statement or false claim, and you wish to make a snarky response to their obvious mistruth. (app.6)

  • IMHO - In My Humble Opinion

IMHO is used to demonstrate humility while simultaneously making a suggestion or posing an argument in online conversation. IMHO is also spelled in all lowercase as imho.

  • ASL = Question: Your Age / Sex / Location?

ASL is an abrupt question that is common in online chat environments. It is how regular users try to bluntly identify if you are a man or woman, and if you are in their age range

  • WRT - With Respect to

Also: IRT - In Regards to

WRT is used to make a reference to a specific topic under discussion, especially helpful when the conversation is moving in different directions, and the person wants to focus on one portion of the subject.

  • PMFJI - Pardon Me for Jumping in

Also: PMJI - Pardon My Jumping In

"PMFJI" is "Pardon Me for Jumping In". This is internet shorthand for politely entering a conversation.

  • BBIAB

BBIAB - Be Back in a Bit (see also: BRB - Be Right Back)

BBIAB is another way of saying 'AFK' (away from keyboard). This is a polite expression that users employ to say they are moving away from their computers for a few minutes. In the context of a conversation, it is a polite way to say that 'I won't be responding for a few minutes, as I'm indisposed'.

How to Capitalize and Punctuate Web and Texting Abbreviations

Capitalization is a non-concern when using text message abbreviations and chat jargon. You are welcome use all uppercase (e.g. ROFL) or all lowercase (e.g. rofl), and the meaning is identical. Avoid typing entire sentences in uppercase, though, as that means shouting in online speak.

Proper punctuation is similarly a non-concern with most text message abbreviations. For example, the abbreviation for 'Too Long, Didn't Read' can be abbreviated as TL; DR or as TLDR. Both are acceptable format, with or without punctuation.

Never use periods (dots) between your jargon letters. It would defeat the purpose of speeding up thumb typing. For example, ROFL would never be spelled R.O.F.L., and TTYL would never be spelled T.T.Y.L.

Recommended Etiquette for Using Web and Texting Jargon

Knowing when to use jargon in your messaging is about knowing who your audience is, knowing if the context is informal or professional, and then using good judgment. If you know the people well, and it is a personal and informal communication, then absolutely use abbreviation jargon.

On the flip side, if you are just starting a friendship or professional relationship with the other person, then it is a good idea to avoid abbreviations until you have developed a relationship rapport.

If the messaging is in a professional context with someone at work, or with a customer, or vendor outside your company, then avoid abbreviations all together. Using full word spellings shows professionalism and courtesy. It is much easier to err on the side of being too professional and then relax your communications over time than doing the inverse.

Conclusion

SMS messages can still seem unfathomable to some people. The way people write SMS or text messages has developed and evolved over the years to become almost a different language and, like any language, it can be hard to understand if you are new to it.

Standard SMS messages originally had a limit of 160 characters and, indeed, many still do. Because of that, using abbreviations is a very useful way to make your SMS shorter. (app.7-10)

Type more than 160 characters in a SMS message and your phone will automatically start a second message. This will obviously then cost you more money or use up more of your SMS allowance. To compensate for this, and also to increase typing speed, text language has evolved to reduce words to the least possible amount of letters. This reduction can be in the form of a word with letters cut out (usually the vowels), several words turned into an acronym or even numbers substituted for words.

For cell phone users who are unused to writing like these themselves, reading a text message from someone who uses abbreviations and acronyms can be a difficult task. Even if you don't think you will ever write messages like this, understanding what others may send to you is obviously useful.

Summarizing, abbreviations and acronyms are very useful for modern man. They are used in big amounts daily.

And for me this work was very helpful. I showed my project to my classmates and everybody was surprised how much abbreviations and acronyms they didn’t know. My classmates were interested in this topic after my presentation and they wanted to learn more abbreviations. Because of that I can say with certain that my project was helpful not only for me and I have had a result of my work.

References

  • English-Russian dictionary of abbreviations by N. O. Volkova, I. A. Nikonorova

  • English-Russian dictionary of modern abbreviations by «Drofa»

  • «Acronyms and Abbreviations an English-Russian Dictionary for Communications and Modern Information Sciences» by N. N. Slepov

  • https://www.lifewire.com/what-does-rofl-mean-2483551

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_language#Pictograms_and_logograms_.28rebus_abbreviation.29.5B8.5D

  • http://englishfull.ru/znat/anglijskie-sokrashheniya.html

  • http://eng911.ru/words/sleng/fyi-abbreviatura.html

  • http://kiev-bridge.com.ua/blog/engabbrv-corresp.html

  • https://audio-class.ru/slang/slang-abbreviations.php

  • http://en.enlizza.com/abbreviations-in-english/

  • http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/abbreviations.htm

  • http://www.englishleap.com/other-resources/abbreviations

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbreviation#Languages_other_than_English

  • http://www.netlingo.com/acronyms.php

Appendix

(app.1)

Some of the words used in abbreviated form if the informal style of speech:

  • Lab (laboratory) — Laboratory

  • TV (television) — TV

  • Exam (examination) — Exam

  • Ad (advertisement) — Ads

  • Case (suitcase) — Portfolio

  • Mum (mother) — mother

  • Phone (telephone) — Phone

  • Board (blackboard) — Board

  • Fridge (refrigerator) — Refrigerator

  • Bike (bicycle) — Bike

  • Dad (father) — father

  • Flu (influenza) — Influenza

  • Blvd. (Boulevard) — Blvd.

  • Emb. (Embankment) — Embankment

  • Ave. (Avenue) — Prospect

  • Sq. (Square) — Square

  • B. Sc. (Bachelor of Science) — B.Sc.

(app.2)

  • 2 = To or Too

  • 4 = For

  • B4 – Before

  • Y = Why

  • R = Are

  • UR = You Are or Your

  • G2G = Got To Go

  • 2NITE = Tonight

  • 2MOR = Tomorrow

  • AFAIK = As Far As I Know

  • K = Ok

  • THX or THNX = Thanks

  • TY = Thank You

  • TXT = Text

  • CU = See You

  • LOL = Laugh Out Loud (also, somewhat confusingly, Lots Of Love)

  • ATM = At The Moment

  • EZ = Easy

  • L8R = Later

  • BF = Boyfriend (also Best Friend)

  • GF = Girlfriend

  • BTW = By The Way

  • GR8 = Great

  • IDK = I Don't Know

  • IMO = In My Opinion

  • JK = Just Kidding

  • M8 = Mate

  • STR8 = Straight

  • H8 = Hate

  • MSG = Message

  • OIC = Oh, I See

  • OMG = Oh My God

  • PLS or PLZ = Please

  • SRY = Sorry

  • YW = You're Welcome

  • 24/7 = Twenty Four Seven, as in all the time

  • 143 = I love you

  • 303 = Mom

  • 4EVER = Forever

  • AML = All My Love

(app.3)

Other abbreviations are read as words are called acronyms:

  • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)

  • AIDS (Acuired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

  • HIV (Human immunodeficient virus)

  • HR (Human Resources)

  • PC (Personal computer)

  • USP (Unique Selling Proposition)

  • VIP (Very Important Person)

  • WWW (World Wide Web)

(app.4)

Formal widely used abbreviations:

  • ASAP - as soon as possible

  • attn - attention: to show that a letter is for the attention of a particular person

  • BYOB - bring your own bottle: used on invitations to show that you should bring your own beverage to a party or get-together

  • cc - used on a business letter or e-mail to indicate that a copy of a given letter is being sent to the person mentioned

  • c/o or c/- - care of: used in the address on a letter or parcel that you are sending to someone at another person’s house

  • encl. - enclosed or enclosure: used at the top or bottom of a letter to show that an attachment has been included in the letter

  • FAO - for the attention of: written in front of someone’s name on a document, letter, or envelope to show that it is intended for them

  • FYI - for your information: written on a business letter or e-mail to show that it is being sent to someone for their information only; they are not expected to reply or take any action

  • pp - on behalf of - written in front of someone’s name when you are signing a letter for them

  • PPS - written before a note at the end of a letter, after the PS note

  • PS - postscript: used for introducing some additional information at the end of a letter after you have signed your name

  • PTO - please turn over: used at the bottom of a page to indicate that there is a second page (informal)

  • RE - used in business letters to introduce their subject matter

  • ref. - reference: used in a business letter when you are giving the numbers and letters that show exactly which document or piece of information you are writing about

  • RSVP - used on written invitations to ask the invited person to confirm their attendance

  • a/c – account

  • AGM - annual general meeting

  • a/o - account of (on behalf of)

  • AOB - any other business

  • EGM - extraordinary general meeting

  • GDP - gross domestic product

  • GNP - gross national product

  • IOU - I owe you

  • K - thousand

  • FAQ – frequently asked question(s)

(app.5) (app.6)

(app.7)

(app.8)

(app.9) (app.10