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КОРОЛЬ АРТУР – МИФ ИЛИ РЕАЛЬНОСТЬ
Петракова В.С.
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Introduction

The most famous and the most mythological person in Great Britain is the King Arthur. Some scientists believe that he was a real man, but others think that he was a myth. I was interested in very interesting and mythical legends and tried to find out everything about him.

King Arthur is a medieval, mythological figure who was the head of the kingdom Camelot and the Knights of the Round Table. King Arthur is a legendary British leader of the late 5th and early 6th centuries, who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the early 6th century. The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians. The sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, and the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name also occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin.

The Legend

Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the so-called Matter of Britain. The legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest largely through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae(History of the Kings of Britain). ). In some Welsh and Breton tales and poems that date from before this work, Arthur appears either as a great warrior defending Britain from human and supernatural enemies or as a magical figure of folklore, sometimes associated with the Welsh Otherworld, Annwn.

According to legend, there was time when Britain did not have а king. Merlin, the wizard, had placed а sword in а stone, saying that the mаn who could pull the sword out of the stone was the true king. For mаnу years, mеn tried to pull out the sword, but it was impossible. Then, оnе day, а young bоy called Arthur tried and the sword cаmе easily out of the stone. Arthur was named king.

After he had becomе a king, Arthur married Guinevere and lived in Camelot, а beautiful castle in the capital of his kingdom. This was where Arthur founded the Knights of the Round Таblе. Sitting at а round table meant that everyone was equal. No оnе could say they were mоrе important because they sat at the end. King Arthur and his knights would gather round the table to discuss the problems of the country and to tell each other about their adventures.

Arthur and his knights fought mаnу battles to defend the country against Saxon invaders. They also had lots of adventures. Some saved beautiful princesses, others fought dragons and bad knights. Mаnу of them went to look for а religious cup called the 'Holy Grail'.

Although the themes, events and characters of the Arthurian legend varied widely from text to text, and there is no one canonical version. Geoffrey's version of events often served as the starting point for later stories. Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who defeated the Saxons and established an empire over Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Norway and Gaul. The 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand of medieval literature. In these French stories, the narrative focus often shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table. Arthurian literature thrived during the Middle Ages but waned in the centuries that followed until it experienced a major resurgence in the 19th century. In the 21st century, the legend lives on, not only in literature but also in adaptations for theatre, film, television, comics and other media.

Did Arthur really exist?

Did Arthur and his peaceful Camelot еvеr exist? The historical basis for the King Arthur legend has long been debated by scholars. Historians disagree оn the facts behind King Arthur legends. There аrе several theories about King Arthur and his true home.

The first stories about Arthur аrе found in old Welsh texts. In those stories, Arthur was seen as а great warrior who won mаnу battles against enemies from other lands. But there аrе certainly elements of myth in these texts. Arthur doesn't only fight against enemies, but also defends his people from mythical creatures like dragons and giants.

In the 9th century, а monk named Nennius wrote а book called Historia Britonum. It was а history of Britain in which he described the life of а brave Celtic leader called Arthur. Nennius wrote that Arthur fought against the Saxons at the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century - from the year 513 to 537. Не and his men won 12 battles against the Saxons.

In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth, а Welsh monk and historian, wrote his History оf the Кings оf Вritаin. The book tells us that Arthur was the King of Britain and Ireland. Geoffrey wrote that he had got the information from аn ancient manuscript that was later lost. It is Geoffrey of Monmouth who gives us most of the key elements of the Arthurian legend.

Some historians think that it's а waste of time trying to find the real Arthur, but others continue to look for the truth behind the Arthurian myth.

Geoffrey Ashe, а modern British historian and author of mаnу books about Arthur, certainly believes that there was а real Arthur. Не prоbаbly cаmе from аn important family, perhaps from Wales оr south-west England. Не lived around the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century. In Ashe's opinion, Arthur had а great reputation all over the country for being а brave warrior and he bеcаmе а kind of national leader. However, Ashe says that he never actually bеcаmе king.

Historical documents for the post-Roman period are scarce, so a definitive answer to the question of Arthur's historical existence is unlikely. Sites and places have been identified as "Arthurian" since the 12th century, but archaeology can confidently reveal names only through inscriptions found in secure contexts. The so-called "Arthur stone", discovered in 1998 among the ruins at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall in securely dated 6th-century contexts, created a brief stir but proved irrelevant. Other inscriptional evidence for Arthur, including the Glastonbury cross, is tainted with the suggestion of forgery. Although several historical figures have been proposed as the basis for Arthur, no convincing evidence for these identifications has emerged.

King Arthur, the Myth

Some people believe that King Arthur is so inextricably tied up in Celtic Mythology that he must, in origin, have been, not a man at all, but a god.

Like so many other characters featured in the Mabinogion, Arthur in his earliest form, appears almost entirely mythical. He and his companions have superhuman strength and abilities, and consort with giants and other mythological creatures.

In the early Welsh poem "Preiddeu Annwfn", Arthur visits the Celtic Underworld, Annwfn, and his adventures closely parallel those of the cauldron-seeking god, Bran the Blessed. Even in Geoffrey of Monmouth's "History of the Kings of Britain," and Sir Thomas Malory's "Le Morte D'Arthur," upon being fatally wounded in battle, Arthur is carried to the mystical Avalon, apparently the Underworld home of the Celtic god, Afallach. Many legends around the country attest to Arthur's immortality. He is said to be sleeping in one of numerous caves waiting to return and lead his people.

The origin of the Welsh name "Arthur" remains a matter of debate. Some suggest it is derived from the Roman nomen gentile (family name) Artorius, of obscure and contested etymology . Some scholars have suggested it is relevant to this debate that the legendary King Arthur's name only appears as Arthur, or Arturus, in early Latin Arthurian texts, never as Artōrius (though it should be noted that Classical Latin Artōrius became Arturius in some Vulgar Latin dialects). However, this may not say anything about the origin of the name Arthur, as Artōrius would regularly become Art(h)ur when borrowed into Welsh.

The name Arthur itself appears to derive from the Celtic word Art, meaning "bear". Could Arthur, like so many other Celtic gods, be merely a personification of the many reverred animals of the wild? Later to become humanized like Loucetios, one of several Celtic deities known to be able to transform themselves into birds or beasts of the forest. Many such gods had stellar associations and the constellation of Ursa Major or the Great Bear is sometimes known as Arthur's Wain even today.

Three Bear-gods are known from the Celtic world. Strangely, they acted as both champion of bear-hunters and protectors of the beast itself. The most celebrated was, perhaps, Artio, worshipped near Berne in Switzerland and around Trier in Germany; but she was actually a goddess. A male god, Artaios, was reverred in Beaucroissant in Isere, where he was identified with the Roman Mercury. In Britain there is scant evidence for the bear cult, though a number of small jet bear talismans from Yorkshire may have devotional associations. The god to which they probably relate, however, derives his name from the alternative bear word, matus (Gaulish) or math (Irish). Matunus appears to have had a shrine at Risingham, just north of Hadrian's Wall.

Some theorists claim Arthur was a late addition to the Celtic pantheon during a resurgence in pagan worship, or possibly a mythical hero, the offspring of a human and a bear. There is no evidence for either.

King Arthur in Literature

The earliest full stories concerning King Arthur and his exploits appear to be the little known Welsh tales of "Culhwch and Olwen" and the "Dream of Rhonabwy". Though dating from before the 11th century, these two stories became a late attachment to a collection of Welsh mythological tales taken from the 14th century White Book of Rhydderch and Red Book of Hergest. Together, they are known as the "Mabinogion": an introduction for aspiring poets.

Though the stories have a mythological slant, a certain amount of bardic poetic license is to be expected. Their background, however, is clearly an unfamiliar Dark Age society that gives us some idea of what the real Arthur was probably like.

The much-maligned Geoffrey of Monmouth, Archdeacon of Monmouth and later Bishop of St. Asaphs, first popularized King Arthur's story, around 1136, in his "History of the Kings of Britain". Though he was writing some six hundred years after Arthur's death, there is no reason to suppose that Geoffrey's history was "made up...from an inordinate love of lying" as both contemporary and modern historians almost universally insist. Geoffrey claimed he had taken most of his information from an earlier British source (he referred to it as "a certain, very ancient book written in the British language"; ed.), unknown to us today.

The early portion of his history clearly relates the mythology of the Celtic peoples and the stories of their gods, whom his source had turned into early Kings: Bladud, Leir, Belenus, Brennius and so on. Later in his account, however, he turns to real history. From the time of Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain in 55 bc, which both Geoffrey and the great man (ie. Caesar), himself, relate at great length, we can no longer be sure that the Archdeacon is reciting mere legend. Much of his information has corroborative historical sources like this. Who is to say that everything he tells us, from then on, is not pure fact? Furthermore, Geoffrey was the only source to hail the existence of King Tenvantius of Britain, until modern archaeologists began finding Iron Age coins bearing his name: "Tasciovantus". What other gems of Geoffrey's history have been dismissed by today's historians?It was the French medieval poet, Chrotien de Troyes, however who, not long after Geoffrey, introduced us to most of the characters and tales that we now think of as an integral part of the Arthurian story. He specialized in tales of Arthurian courtly love and thus brought us: Erec & Enid (1160), Lancelot (c.1162), Cligos (1164), Yvain (c.1170) and the Count of the Grail (also known as Perceval) (1180). He transformed the names of Geoffrey's characters from Welsh to the medieval French used today.

It was Chrotien and those who followed him who distorted the Arthurian story, so that the true historical Arthur became lost in an amalgam of Celtic myth and literary fantasy. For example, neither Lancelot nor the Holy Grail were part of the Arthurian legend before Chrotien came along. Both do have origins in early Celtic myth, but there is little justification for including them in Arthur's story.

During the early 13th century, the anonymous Vulgate Cycle further embellished the Arthurian stories. This collection of romantic prose was apparently put together by Cistercian clerics between 1215 and 1235, some say at the instigation of their founder, St. Bernard of Clairvaux. The vast work consists of the Prose Lancelot, Queste del Sainte Graal, Estoire del Sainte Graal, Mort Artu and Vulgate Merlin. It is particularly noted for introducing the idea that Mordred was the incestuous son of King Arthur.

Sir Thomas Malory's 15th century work, "Le Morte d'Arthur" is, perhaps, better known than Geoffrey or Chrotien. He took their stories and retold them with an epic unity, creating the Romantic Age of Chivalry. With one stroke of his pen, he transformed Arthur's Court from Dark Age obscurity to the height of medieval pageantry. Being written in English and printed by William Caxton, "Le Morte d'Arthur" was instantly available to the masses, and it remains highly popular, even today, as a classic work of literature. Malory's work, however, is just that: a work of literature. There is little history left amongst his pages.

Arthur's modern popularity owes much to his re-emergence during the Victorian Age at the hands of Alfred, Lord Tennyson. His huge poetic elegy entitled "Idylls of the King" led to a resurgence in interest in this early monarch, as reflected in much of the pre-Galfridian art of the time. The fascination is still going strong today. However, modern Arthurian students have become much more critical of the romantic picture woven by many of these literary greats. Nowadays, we tend to be much more interested in the real Arthur, drawing upon the Mabinogion, Geoffrey and beyond, to examine historical sources that may just show us a glimpse of the truth behind this strangely compelling character.

The story of Arthur has continued to be interpreted by a variety of writers, including children's authors, comic-book scribes and novelists such as Marion Zimmer Bradley, whose Mists of Avalon (1982) looks at the legend from the female characters' perspectives.

...And on the Screen

In the 20th century, King Arthur also found his way to stage and screen. During the '60s, the myth found a home on Broadway with the musical Camelot, which starred Richard Burton as Arthur. Later revivals would see Richard Harris—who starred in the 1967 movie version as well—and Robert Goulet portray the monarch. A more serious, grim take on Camelot was seen in the 1981 film Excalibur, with Helen Mirren in the role of Morgana, half-sister to the king. Fast forward to the next millennium where Antoine Fuqua directed King Arthur (2004), whose still fantastic plot relied more heavily on the idea that Arthur, here portrayed by Clive Owen, was a military leader against the Saxons.

Aiming to properly contextualize the array of tales presented, documentarian and writer Michael Wood has looked at the cultural and geographic origins of the King Arthur story in his PBS series In Search of Myths and Heroes.

Where is Camelot?

According to legend, King Arthur and his queen, Guinevere, ruled their kingdom in реасе from their castle, Camelot ... But if Arthur really existed, where was his Camelot?

Маnу places in Britain lay claim to the legendary Camelot.

Some people think that Camelot was Caerleon Castle in Wales. This ancient castle has given rise to mаnу legends. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his History of the Kings of Britain named Caerleon Castle as the location of Camelot. The place name 'Camelot' does not occur in early versions of the story of Arthur. However, Geoffrey of Monmouth (1133AD) tells how Arthur held court at 'The City Of The Legions' and leaves us in little doubt that this was Caerleon. Certainly Caerleon would have been a most impressive location for Arthur to hold court for important rulers, with its splendid roman remains. Equally, we can be sure that only a professional army could defend the Roman fortress ruins. If Caerleon was more than just a meeting place for Arthur we must look to the surrounding hill tops for the location of his 'castle'. Sure enough such a site exists less than a mile North of the village - a fortification known as 'Belinstocke'.

Sir Thomas Malory in his The Death of Arthur (written in 1469) placed Camelot in the old castle in Winchester: 'and within five days' journey they саmе to Camelot that is today Winchester.

Winchester Castle is also home to а huge round table. It's hanging оп the wall. In 1485, William Caxton, the first English printer, said that this round table belonged to King Arthur. The names of 24 knights аrе painted оп the table. King Arthur's place has nо nаmе оn it. Instead, his picture is painted оn it. Scientists, however, say that this table was made much later than the time of Arthur.

Some experts claim that Cadbury Castle, in Somerset, used to bе the castle of Camelot. There is archaeological evidence to show that а powerful British warrior lived there during the 6th century. Cadbury Castle in Somerset has long been associated with the legend of Arthur and there are good reasons for supposing that this could be the location of Camelot. Coins minted on the site in the eleventh century are marked 'CADANBYRIC' which does sound much like 'Cadbury'. Excavations by Leslie Alcock revealed that the ancient site was massively refortified around the year 500AD by a leader of great wealth and power - Arthur maybe?

А Scottish author, Alastair Moffat, has recently claimed that Roxburgh Castle in Scotland was actually the site of Camelot.

We mау never know all the facts about Arthur. Perhaps it doesn't matter. The legend of Кing Arthur holds its own timeless truths. This is why people have bееn reciting stories of King Arthur and his Round Таblе for at least а thousand years.

Conclusion

King Arthur is the figure at the heart of the Arthurian legends. He is said to be the son of Uther Pendragon and Ygraine of Cornwall. Arthur is a near mythic figure in Celtic stories such as Culhwch and Olwen. In early Latin chronicles he is presented as a military leader, the dux bellorum. In later romance he is presented as a king and emperor. One of the questions that has occupied those interested in King Arthur is whether or not he is a historical figure. The debate has raged since the Renaissance when Arthur's historicity was vigorously defended, partly because the Tudor monarchs traced their lineage to Arthur and used that connection as a justification for their reign. Modern scholarship has generally assumed that there was some actual person at the heart of the legends, though not of course a king with a band of knights in shining armor--though O.J. Padel in "The Nature of Arthur" argues that "historical attributes of just the kind that we find attached to Arthur can be associated with a figure who was not historical to start with." If there is a historical basis to the character, it is clear that he would have gained fame as a warrior battling the Germanic invaders of the late fifth and early sixth centuries. Since there is no conclusive evidence for or against Arthur's historicity, the debate will continue. But what can not be denied is the influence of the figure of Arthur on literature, art, music, and society from the Middle Ages to the present. Though there have been numerous historical novels that try to put Arthur into a sixth-century setting, it is the legendary figure of the late Middle Ages who has most captured the imagination. It is such a figure, the designer of an order of the best knights in the world, that figures in the major versions of the legend from Malory to Tennyson to T. H. White.

We mау never know all the facts about Arthur. Perhaps it doesn't matter. The legend of Кing Arthur holds its own timeless truths. This is why people have bееn reciting stories of King Arthur and his Round Таblе for at least а thousand years.

Bibliography list

  1. http://www.britannia.com/history/h12.html- Britannia (America's Gateway to the British Isles since 1996)

  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Arthur- Wikipedia (The Free Encyclopedia)

  3. http://www.biography.com/people/king-arthur-9190042#synopsis- Bio (biography of famous people)

  4. Журнал Speak out № 90 (издательство Глосса- Пресс)