IV Международный конкурс
научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
«СТАРТ В НАУКЕ»
САМЫЕ ДЛИННЫЕ ГЕОГРАФИЧЕСКИЕ НАЗВАНИЯ
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With the help of geographical names, we learn about the world. It is impossible to imagine the modern world without geographical names. In English lessons, we not only learn the language, but also read a lot of material about the English-speaking countries. We wanted to learn more about New Zealand. In search of information we came across a very long name. We were wondering, where else have such long names of geographical objects. It turned out that they are all connected with the English-speaking countries. The longest name in Britain has (North Wales), Canada, New Zealand, USA, Australia. Therefore, the idea of writing a research work on the topic.
For our research, we chose the theme "The longest place name in the world", because this material contains valuable information for students, teachers and other people who want to learn interesting facts related to the English-speaking countries. In our work, we collected and described various information about the longest place names in the world, provides a definition of the place name, studied the place names of the native land.
Relevance. This topic may be of interest for those who travel a lot and would like to see unusual places. Also, this issue is important from a linguistic point of view.
The aim of research is study the longest place names in the world and explore the place names of the native land.
The objectives of our work are :
1. to study the literature on the subject.
2. to study the theoretical basis of science of toponymy.
3. to study the map and other information sources.
5. to create a list of place names.
6. to conduct a study the history of these names.
7. to conduct a study on the place names of the native land.
The object of our study is geographic features in different countries. The subject of our research is long place names in English speaking countries.
We assume that the place names reflect the characteristics of geographic features.
Theoretical significance of our work is that we have summarized the material studied by us.
This material contains valuable information for students, teachers and people who want to learn interesting facts related to the English-speaking countries.
The basis of our study are the students of our school.
In our research we used such methods as the study of literature, compilation and systematization of the material on this topic, a conduct.
Chapter I. Geographical names from the linguistic point of view
I.1. Science of toponymics
Toponymy is the science that studies geographical names, their origin, meaning, development, current status, spelling and pronunciation. Toponymy is an integral scientific discipline that is at the crossroads and uses data from three fields of knowledge: geography, history and linguistics. Toponym is the general name for any place or geographical entity. Related, more specific types of toponym include hydronym for a body of water and oronym for a mountain or hill. A toponymist is one who studies toponymy. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "toponymy" first appeared in English in 1876; since then, toponym has come to replace "place-name" in professional discourse among geographers. From the point of linguistic view, toponyms is the spoken language, proper names. They represent a whole layer of the language and reflect the history of its formation and development. Geographical names are an element of language, linguistic category, and therefore subject to the laws of language and should be studied by linguists. Toponymy is closely tied to geography: to learn the place names only when you clearly imagine these objects. Toponymy is connected with history: people go, move, but the names of mountains, rivers, lakes remain in the memory of those peoples who came to replace them, in many geographical names are stored memories about historical events. The toponymy is a branch of the broader science of onomastics, which is one of the sciences of language and learn the proper names.
Onomastics  is the science that studies all types of proper names and their origins. It is linguistics section studying proper names, history of their emergence and transformation as a result of long-term use in the origin language or in connection with borrowing from other languages of communication. In a narrower sense onomastika is proper names of different types (vocabulary of names).
Geographical names and the names are long-lived, preserving the memory of the people who gave them, so it is great interest in them.
I.2.Place names on the nature of geographical objects
Place name ( From the ancient Greek τόπος - place + ὄνομα - name, title) is a proper name, denoting the name of a geographic object. Toponyms are studied by science toponymy.
Types of names on the nature of geographical object. Among the place names are allocated different classes, such as:
1. horonyms - the names of all the territories, regions and districts;
2. astionyms - names of cities;
3. urbonyms - name intracity facilities;
4. hodonyms - street names;
5. agoronyms - the names of the areas;
6. dromonyms - the names of Railways;
7. hydronyms - geographical names of water bodies, including:
8. Pelagonyms - the names of the seas;
9. Limnonyms - the names of the lakes;
10. potamonyms - names of rivers;
11. Gelonyms - the names of the marshes, wetlands;
12. Oronyms - name raised landforms (mountains, ridges, peaks, hills);
13. Oykonyms - the names of populated areas; (Caumont - the name of the rural settlement)
14.Mikrotoponymy - the names of small objects (land, tracts, hayfields, pastures, marshes, felling sites, burnt areas, pastures, wells, keys, whirlpools, rapids, etc., usually known only to a limited number of people living in a certain area..);
15.Geonymy - road names, driveways, etc...
The place-names (especially hydronyms) stably preserved archaisms and dialect, they often go back to the language of the substrates of the peoples living in this territory in the past, so you can use them to determine the boundaries of the settlement of ethnic communities. Practical transcription of place names, which establishes their original and uniform writing and transmission in other languages, it is important for mapping.
I.3. Place names of origin
1. Patronyms are name derived from the names, surnames, nicknames, founder of villages.
2. Metaphors are names representing comparison.
3. Ethnonyms are names derived from the names of the people, tribes.
4. Apellatives are name that evolved from common nouns words that indicate when something in the nature of an object.
5. Memorial names are officially immortalized historical figures.
6. Demunitives are names representing diminutive noun.
7. The symbolic name is the name of displaying ideals of social history.
8. Matronimy is the names of the the name derived from the mother's name, surname from a nickname her mother.
I.4. Conclusions to chapter I
Having studied the literature on this topic we can draw conclusion:
In chapter II we planned to make up the list of the longest place names, analyze them and find the longest place names in our region, study them from the linguistic point of view.
II. The secrets of the longest place names
II. 1. The list of the longest place names in the world
We decided to make up a list of the longest place names in the world to find out what similarities and differences they have. We used information from the Internet. We have chosen following place names:
According the Guinness book of records the longest place name is the name of the capital of Bangkok. All of these names can be attributed to the ethnonyms and metaphors by origin. It is difficult to read and pronounce these names.
II.2. The longest place names in English-speaking countries
The next we did is the list of the longest place names in English-speaking countries. The aim is to determine the type of the place name and to answer the question: “Who invented this place name?” Let`s arrange the names in ascending order of letters(Appendix I).
The type of a place name is oronyms. The number of letters is 26. The origin of the name is the local language pitjantjatjara.(Appendix II)
2.The lake in Canada Pekwachnamaykoskwaskwaypinwanik is translated as “a place where the wild trout are caught on the hook”. The type of a place name is limnonym. The number of letters is 31. The origin of the name is the language of Cree.(Appendix III)
3. The lake in the USA Chargoggagoggmanchauggagoggchaubunagungamaugg is translated as “a fishing spot on the border is a neutral place for meetings”. The type of a place name is a limnonym. The number of letters is 45. The origin of the name is a lake name. This name is translated from the Algonquin Indian language as “I'll fish on this side, you'll fish on the other side, and nobody fishes in the middle”. Thus an agreement was concluded by two Indian tribes that lived on opposite sides of the lake. Thus, the lake got such a long name. (AppendixIV)
4. Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch is a city in Great Britain. This name is translated as “St. Mary's Church in the hollow of white hazel near a rapid whirlpool at the Church of St. Tysilio with a red cave”.(Appendix V)
Type of name: Actionym
Number of letters: 58
The origin of the name.
Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch was reduced for easy pronunciation and spelling as Llanfair. A station name translated from Welsh dialect means “Church in a plain, which is overgrown by the white hazel trees, near the river with a whirlpool not far from the cave”. The translation of the name describes the geographic area validly in which the old station is located. The old-timers say that such a strange name was given by a unknown local joker. He did this in order to glorify this unremarkable little-known village. Since then the tourists attracted by an unusual name began to flock to the small town.
5.Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu is a hill name in New Zealand. It means “a top where Tamatea , the man with the big knees climbed up at the mountain and swallowed the earth, who traveled and played on his nose flute to his beloved”.
Type of name: Oronymy. Number of letters: 85 (Appendix VI)
The origin of the name. The name comes from the Maori language. A longer version of the name is latest and more formal than the shorter one. However, local residents claim that the longer name has always been used by the local Maori. The people of Wales, where is a settlement with one of the world's longest names, claim that the name was invented specifically in order to get ahead the longest name in the UK.
These longest place names originated from the language of tribes that lived in these areas. These names describe geographic features of the places where these geographic objects are located. These are not a set of letters, but they are short descriptions of these places.
II.3. The longest place names in our area
The next we did is a list of the longest place names in our area. The aim of the study is to find out the longest place names. We took the map of Tuimazy area. We looked for the longest village names, mountain names, names of water bodies. The result of our study is following:
Names of water bodies:
These place names have following common features: village names are from hydronyms, antropomyns; names of water bodies are from animals lived there or trees grown there or a quality of water.
Conclusion to chapter II
We made a list of the longest place names in the world including 11 names. We can find them in Thailand, India , Ireland, Holland, Canada, the USA, the UK, New Zealand, the SAR, Australia, Wales. These names are from the local language. It is difficult to read and pronounce them. These place names represent the phrase which describes typical features of this place. A list of place names in the English-speaking countries consists of five names. These names are a short description of the place where these objects are situated. We found the longest place names in our area too. They are village names, mountain names and names of water bodies. They are originated from the Tatar or Bashkir languages. These place names have following common features: village names are from hydronyms, antropomyns; names of water bodies are from animals lived there or trees grown there or a quality of water.
Having studied the literature on this topic we can draw conclusion:
1) Toponymy is the science that studies geographical names, their origin, meaning, development, current status, spelling and pronunciation.
2) Geographical names are an element of language, linguistic category.
3)Toponymy is connected with geography, history.
4)Place names are names of cities, towns, villages, rivers, seas, areas, regions and etc.
5)Place names can be derived from the names, surnames, nicknames of the founders, the names of the nations, tribes, historical figures and etc.
In chapter II we planned to make a list of the longest place names, analyze
them and find the longest place names in our region, study them from the linguistic point of view.
We made a list of the longest place names in the world including 11 names. We can find them in Thailand, India , Ireland, Holland, Canada, the USA, the UK, New Zealand, the SAR, Australia, Wales. These names are from the local language. It is difficult to read and pronounce them. These place names represent the phrase which describes typical features of this place. A list of place names in the English-speaking countries consists of five names. These names are a short description of the place where these objects are situated. We found the longest place names in our area too. They are village names, mountain names and names of water bodies. They are originated from the Tatar or Bashkir languages. These place names have following common features: village names are from hydronyms, antroponyms; names of water bodies are from animals lived there or trees grown there or a quality of water.
We assumed that the place names reflect the characteristics of geographic features. Our research work proves this hypothesis.
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11.https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki Новая Зеландия
Anthroponyms – a personal name.
Astionyms – unofficial names of cities.
Ethnonyms - the name applied to a given ethnic group.
Hydronym – a proper name of a body of water.
Limnonyms – names of lakes or ponds.
Onomastics – the study of the origin, history and use of proper names.
Oronym – toponym for a mountain or a hill.
Pelagonyms – names of the seas.
Toponym – a place name.
Toponymy – the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The longest place names in English-speaking countries
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