• English-language advertising in the United States and the United Kingdom has a number of common features, which may be explained by the fact that these are not only ethnicities that speak the same English language, but also belong to the same low-contextual culture
• However, our analysis revealed a number of differences in advertising in the UK and USA due to the fact that it is a nation with different culture, history, worldview, as reflected in ECM in General and in advertising, as it is a separate component.
• All four types of language games are widely used in the United States. In particular, the language game at the phonetic level and word-forming language game. While in the UK, the language game on the graphic level is more widespread, as advertising in the UK is more focused on visualization. When comparing the use of language games in advertising text, we concluded that the frequency of use of this technique is equivalent, but in these countries, different types of language games are used to different degrees. It is difficult to save the language game when translating it into Russian.
• We have identified American and British phraseological units that reflect the cultural realities of the ethnic groups we study. However, translating phraseological units is one of the most difficult aspects that a translator may face.
* Allusion expressed through references to history, national heroes, as well as domestic cinema and animation is quite common in English-language advertising. Taking this linguistic and cultural feature into account when translating advertising is very important, since often the Russian consumer may not know any historical figures or facts.
* American humor aimed at the mass consumer is characterized by sharpness, simplicity and rudeness. For Americans, there may be funny falls or some failures, slips on ice or a banana. Considering the features of English humor, we can conclude that it is based on subtlety, elegance and diplomacy. The peculiarity of English humor is so widely known that it is put in line with the English Queen and big Ben.
• Considering American advertising, we can conclude that it is very bright, loud, it is customary to offer customers discounts and all sorts of offers. Advertising in the UK, on the contrary, is very calm and measured. the predominant colors used in advertising are gray, white, dark green and black, with bright accents. Advertising is not Intrusive, on the contrary, quite often you can not find a single word uttered by the announcer behind the scenes.
* The study of scientific publications on linguistic and cultural characteristics suggests that any translation of an advertising text should be based on the language and cultural picture of the world of the country where the advertising campaign is planned.
Advertising is an integral part of our lives. According to statistics, each person spends two years of their life watching ads. For most people, advertising is a key aspect when making a purchase decision. In addition, competitiveness allows the manufacturer to find new sales, channels and enter the world market.
The relevance of this work is determined by the fact that the continuous development and globalization of commodity relations around the world contribute to the need for manufacturers to develop their production and enter new markets. Successful advertising, and in the future, the sale of goods in another country cannot do without taking into account the linguistic and cultural characteristics of the target audience.
The subject of the study is the linguistic and cultural features of advertising in the United States and the United Kingdom.
The object of this study is American and British advertising.
The purpose of this study is to identify the linguistic and cultural characteristics of advertising in the United States and the United Kingdom and to determine the specifics of translating English-language advertising texts into Russian.
Achieving the goal required solving a number of tasks:
Defining the nature, goals, functions, and types of advertising;
Identify the role of intercultural communication in advertising, its language and linguistic and cultural features;
Study and analyze advertising in the United States and identify its linguistic and cultural features;
Study and analyze advertising in the UK to identify its linguistic and cultural features;
Conduct a comparative analysis of the linguistic and cultural characteristics of advertising in the United States and the United Kingdom;
Determine the features of translation of English-language advertising discourse, taking into account national linguistic and cultural characteristics.
1. THE LANGUAGE OF ADVERTISING
1.1 The concept of advertising, its goals and functions
Every person in their life has faced advertising. For the most part, people perceive advertising as something negative, such as the imposition of goods and services that they do not need. In fact, according to many marketing scientists, advertising is a means of marketing, can be a type of communication of information about goods and services, and even be a kind of art.
he word itself came to us from Latin. "RECLAMARE" is Latin for shouting.
This is how the ancient world touted their products in the market. Advertising today is information about products and services that is distributed through various channels and paid for by the advertiser in order to attract new customers, increase sales and attract attention to the object of advertising.
1.2 advertising Language
The main" weapon " in working with clients is the advertising text. It is a well-written advertising text that has a miraculous property-to attract the attention of consumers.
However, not all texts are of interest to customers. The presence of language tools in the advertising text ensures the interest of consumers.
There are a number of language tools that are used in the preparation of advertising text. It is these language tools that make it special.
Let's look at the main language tools:
Pun or "play on words".
Deviations from the standard spelling.
Alliteration and assonance.
Repetition of a keyword, group of words, or sentences
Rhetorical question and rhetorical appeal
We have analyzed a huge variety of language tools that marketers use to attract the attention of new customers.
1.3 Linguistic and Cultural features of advertising
One of the aspects that should be taken into account when translating advertising text are cultural barriers: aesthetic barrier, ethical barrier, religious barrier, and national barrier. Special attention should be paid to the national barrier, which describes religious issues, issues of social relations in society, as well as gestures and facial expressions.
In addition to cultural features, the advertising text must have a number of language features that attract consumers or "catch their eye". The following lexical tools are most commonly used: alliteration, anaphora, rhetorical questions and addresses, exclamation points, wordplay, hyperbole, epithets, metaphors, and other tropes to attract the attention of consumers. Using language tools, advertisers focus on certain advantages of the advertised product or service, as well as resort to means that "force" consumers to remember the advertising text.
Thus, we can conclude that without taking into account the linguistic and cultural, intercultural and linguistic features that demonstrate the interaction of language and culture, the translation of advertising texts cannot be considered successful.
CHAPTER 2. TAKING INTO ACCOUNT NATIONAL CULTURAL PECULIARITIES WHEN TRANSLATING ADVERTISING
2.1 linguistic and Cultural features of advertising in the United States
The United States is one of the most multi-ethnic countries in the world, and for this reason, American advertising is considered the most creative, original, and at the same time traditional. For a foreign observer, American advertising may seem too Intrusive and straightforward. However, American citizens do not think so. In this section, we will look at the specific cultural and language features of advertising in the United States.
The advertising posters, slogans and texts analyzed by us allowed us to identify the features that are typical for advertising in this country.
Honoring a variety of values. Americans value patriotism, love, family values, sports, a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition very highly. Using these values in advertising significantly increases customer loyalty to a brand or specific product. So the Coca-Cola company in America used the image of a typical happy American family. Everyone held a bottle of their favorite Coca-Cola and smiled, and the slogan on the poster read: "It is a family affair", which translates into Russian as: "Этосемейноедело".
Individualism. Features of individualism in American culture are often manifested. Advertising is no exception. Products that are advertised by manufacturers show the individuality of their customers. This product will bring you the success you have been waiting for. An excellent example is an ad for Intel Corporation, which produces computer components and devices. Ads tell us about the benefits of Intel 360 replay. The video begins with a typical American young man – Brady, wakes up, washes, and prepares Breakfast and all this can be played again and it is thanks to the replay that Brady can feel like a real hero. At the end of the video, Intel says its slogan: "Wait till you see it in a game!", which in Russian sounds like: "Посмотринанеговигре!".
Having considered the cultural features of American advertising, let's move on to the most interesting features for our study – the linguistic and cultural features of American advertising.
For foreign viewers or readers, an advertising text or image using toponymy may not give anything, but for native American culture, this place will have a certain meaning and create a positive or negative image, thereby affecting the perception of advertising information by the consumer. A great example of using toponyms in advertising is an ad for a Mercedes-AMG GT Roadster. The plot of this commercial begins with the fact that all subsequent actions take place in a typical American roadhouse. The contingent of this institution are rockers and motorcycle bikers, wild rebels, for whom there are only two values – their motorcycle and freedom. One of the characters in the ad includes the famous Steppenwolf song - Born To Be Wild, which accompanies the entire video sequence. The use of this song reminds the people of America of the times when rock and motorcycle formed the image of conquerors of ladies ' hearts, for whom the road is a symbol of freedom. Back to the video sequence. A scuffle begins in the institution, when one of the gang members suddenly enters and informs everyone that a certain person has blocked their motorcycles and they can not go on the road. Everyone goes outside to deal with the insolent man, but what was their surprise when they saw that all their bikes were blocked by the new Mercedes-AMG GT Roadster, and its owner is an actor from the famous movie "Easy Rider" - Peter Fonda, who is an idol among the biker subculture.
At the end, we see Peter Fonda get into a new Mercedes-AMG GT Roadster and drive off along the famous route 66, symbolizing freedom, courage and a new page in the life of everyone who dares to go on this road. It is this road, and specifically its name, that projects the image of a strong, independent and free person in the minds of Americans.
Another linguistic and cultural feature of us advertising is wordplay, which is very often found in all types of advertising. The world-famous fast food restaurant Burger King has long been famous for its non-standard approach in advertising. for us, the most interesting will be the advertising of French fries. Burger King marketers created an ad image that featured an image of King Fries with the caption: "SATISFIES". Let's examine this occasionalism in more detail. The word "SATISFIES" consists of two well-known words: "satisfaction" and "fries". They are translated into Russian as: "pleasure" and "French fries". Thus, these two words form one that denotes the feeling of pleasure received from this French fries. This word is not available in Russian, so the translator will face the problem of translating this advertising text.
The first ad in which we saw a reference to historical events was an ad for "Uncle Sam"deodorant. The hero of the video is Uncle Sam, who encourages young people to buy this deodorant and then they can feel themselves on top of the world. During the video, the hero is approached by more and more young and happy Americans who have already bought a miracle drug. We observe that all young people are dressed in the colors of the national flag, from which we can conclude that this is a celebration of independence Day in the United States. Indeed, there are a huge number of people on the streets, orchestral music is playing, and there is a hero of America – uncle Sam. The story of Uncle Sam begins during the British-American war of 1812. After collecting information from American folklore, we learned that the appearance of uncle Sam is associated with the supply of meat to the front. So on the barrels of meat, the supplier wrote two letters: U.S. Meant United States, United States, but the soldiers of the American army said that the meat came from uncle Sam, Uncle Sam. So we can say that uncle Sam is the image of America, or rather the image of the United States government.
Another example of an ad that includes US history is KFC, which offers to buy Great American Bites. Let's look at this ad in more detail. Like past ads, KFC: Great American Bites is a TV ad. The movie begins with the fact that we see cowboys, horses and the corral. This makes it clear that we are at a Rodeo that the world associates with North America. Next, we see how a young cowboy tries to show his skill in taming a wild horse, but apparently, he can not hold the coveted eight seconds in the saddle. The next shot shows a frustrated young cowboy sitting in the stands. His mentor approaches him and hands him KFC-Great American Bites. And the young cowboy smiles, everything will be fine! The final frame of the ad is KFC's new flavors: Texas BBQ and Kansas Chilly. The illustrated new tastes are associated by Americans with farming and ranching, relative to the state of Texas, and with wheat cultivation in the state of Kansas. Accordingly, any American will have this Association and the opinion about the product will be good, so all this is home-made and useful.
2.2 linguistic and Cultural features of advertising in the UK
Speaking of advertising in England, we are talking about very high-quality advertising, which is full of riddles and omissions. At the moment, English advertising is the standard for marketing all over the world. The British attitude to advertising has been developing for centuries. When creating advertising in England, it is customary to take into account traditions and etiquette in order for consumers to become interested in the advertised product. So, let's look at the main features that are typical for English advertising:
The elegance and intelligence of English advertising. As we know, the main feature of the English is politeness and refinement. We also see it in advertising. Take, for example, an ad for Molton Brown shower gel. The TV video begins with a young girl receiving a gift of Molton Brown shower gel for Christmas and a letter inviting her to a special place. Joyful, she is going to take a taxi to the fairy tale. Throughout the video, we hear the unobtrusive melody of the song "Jingle Bells", which creates a certain atmosphere of celebration and magic. Meanwhile, the girl arrives at the mansion and is met by her young man. Happy they go to the ball. At the end of the video, we see a Molton Brown gift set. Analyzing what I saw, I want to note the color scheme that was used in this video. All the aspects that we have considered show us the sophistication of this video.
Family value. Family in the UK is considered the most important. On big holidays, it is customary to gather the whole family and give each other gifts. Advertising supports this trend and in the pre-Christmas period, you can find a large number of ads with the story of a large and happy family.
An example of a phonetic language game can be found in a British Airways ad. Their slogan is "Go further to get closer". Here we see the use of rhyme. One of the most difficult tasks for a translator is to preserve the rhyme and meaning in the slogan. The British Airways slogan "Go further to get closer", which was literally translated into Russian as" Отправляйтесь дальше, чтобы быть ближе", has lost the stylistic technique used by the author of the slogan.
Next, we'll look at words and expressions used only in British English. This category includes words and expressions that can only be used in English advertising and, accordingly, have a certain meaning for the residents of this country. We found an example of this use of this word in an ad for McDonalds UK. Two customers eat at a McDonalds fast food restaurant. They sit near the window and talk peacefully, suddenly it starts to rain.One of the visitors says: "Blimy! It is raining cats and dogs!".
His friend replies: "Good thinking I brought my brolly!". For our study of British vocabulary, the most interesting words are "brolly" and "blimy". Looking at the etymological dictionary of the Cambridge Dictionary, we can conclude that "blimy" can only be found in England and it means surprise. The word "brolly" is a slang word. After analyzing this information, we can translate these phrases as: "Ого, Льеткакизведра!"; "Слава Богу я взял свой зонтик!". In addition to the British vocabulary in this ad, we also found a phraseology - "It is raining cats and dogs!". Referring to the dictionary of English phraseological units, we found that this idiom is used only in England and means "very heavy rain". We can say with confidence that it will not be difficult for the translator to find an analogue of this phraseological unit in Russian. The Russian equivalent of this phraseology: "Льеткакизведра!", so "Raining cats and dogs" will not be difficult to translate.
Another example of using English phraseology in advertising is an ad for Doritos chips aimed at English citizens. In this ad, we met the idiom-«When Pigs Fly». The plot of the video is quite creative, we are shown a farm where a little boy and his father live. Father eats Doritos. The boy approaches him and asks for chips, to which the father replies: "Sure! When pigs fly!". From this point on, the boy begins to design a device that will blow the pig into the air. When all the preparations are finished, the boy approaches his father and says: "Look!". At this moment, the pig on the rocket soars into the air, and the father silently gives his son a pack of chips.
For us, the most interesting phraseology is "When pigs fly". The literal translation of this phraseological unit will look like this: "When the pigs fly". "When pigs fly" has two analogs in Russian: "После дождичка в четверг" and "Когда рак на горе свистнет". The problem lies in the ad, the meaning of which is precisely in the vocabulary of this phraseology. If the translator takes the Russian equivalent of this phraseology, and leaves the same video sequence, then the connection between the advertising text and the video will be broken. Thanks to this example, we saw that it is not always necessary to localize phraseological units, sometimes it is necessary to give a direct translation to preserve the meaning that was put in advertising.
In our life, advertising can be found everywhere: on the radio, on television, on the Internet and on the street in the form of banners or leaflets.
Advertising texts reflect the language and cultural picture of the world, national features and features of the world perception of the ethnic group. Translation of advertising texts should be based on the linguistic and cultural characteristics of the country where the product is planned to be sold. The main features that must be taken into account when translating advertising text include: onomastics, allusion, wordplay, phraseological units, and humor.
The study of scientific publications on linguistic and cultural characteristics suggests that any translation of an advertising text should be based on the language and cultural picture of the world of the country where the advertising campaign is planned.
The analysis allowed us to identify both General and national linguistic and cultural features in advertising texts, TV commercials, and print advertising in the United States and the United Kingdom, and also demonstrate the complexity of translating these features into Russian.
LIST OF USED LITERATURE:
Rosenthal D. E. Dictionary of linguistic terms. – M: publishing house «Nauka», 1966 – 267 с.
Ter-Minasova S. G. Language and intercultural communication: studies. stipend /
S. G. Ter-Minasova. – M.: publishing house «Slovo», 2000 624 p
Rozhkov, I. Ya., the International advertising business. - Moscow: publishing house «Astrel», 2004 - Pp. 31-47
Laurence Delacroix, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. – Harlow:
Letterpart limited, 2014 – 2161 p.
Stella O’Shea, Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary: English-Russian. – Delhi:
Replika Press Pvt. Ltd, 2011 – 1066 p.
The basics of the advertising business. – URL http://uchebnik-online.net
What is advertising - what are its goals and objectives, types and functions. – URL http://kakzarabativat.ru
Language means of expressiveness of the advertising text in English.– URL http://nsportal.ru
The concept of localization in cross-language and intra-language translation. – URL http://revolution.allbest.ru
National and cultural specificity of advertising texts/ - URL https://e-koncept.ru