Bullying in our lives

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Bullying in our lives

Грищук Е.Д. 1
1МАОУ "Гимназия №2"
Королёва Л.Д. 1
1МАОУ "Гимназия №2"
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

Introduction

Have you ever bullied or been bullied? If you have bullied or been bullied then you should know how bullying feels like. Bullying is very negative and creates major problems for our society. Nothing good comes out of bullying. It could very well change or ruin a person's life. In fact, it does ruin many people's lives. Kids can be mentally scarred if they are teased often. Even worse, they could be killed or fatally injured if the bullying gets extreme. There are many causes for bullying which must be taken care of before bullying can be stopped. T.V. violence, families in poverty, and mis-teachings are just several of the many serious causes for bullying. Bullying must be stopped or prevented no matter how long it will take, it is a deeply concerning matter.

Where does cruelty come from in children? What are the reasons for the soulless, sometimes chilling from the dry figures of statistics of criminal behavior of children?

After all, it all starts small: bullying animals, quarrel then fight with classmates and peers. Then it all ends with huge numbers of child crime statistics, the growth of criminal manifestations and shocking cases of brutal murders.

Recently, in the media, especially on the Internet, there are reports of child abuse, posted videos about beating and bullying classmates and physically weaker children.

I have chosen this topic because bullying is serious problem, and I would like to know how to resist it.

The object of my research is: Bullying

The subject of my research is: The problem of bullying in society

Tasks:

Learn, what bullying is

Get acquainted with the forms and types of bullying

Learn, how to resist bullying

Hypothesis: Bullying is a widespread phenomenon in our society

Analytic methods: Searching, inquiry were used to carry out the research

Aim of the research: Find out how serious a problem bullying is

What is bullying

While state laws have little consistency in their definition of bullying, the accepted definition by the U.S. Department of Education and by many mental health professionals is unwanted physical or verbal aggression directed at a specific person, repeated over a period, involves an imbalance of power, and acts to exclude the victim from a group. It is further characterized by the bully repeatedly using higher social status over the victim to exert power and to hurt the victim. When the harassment, name calling, gossiping, outing, rumor spreading, threats, or other forms of intimidation expand from being done in person or by phone to the use of emails, chat rooms, blogs, or other social media over the Internet, it is referred to as cyber bullying or online bullying. In contrast, hazing is part of initiation of the victim into a group, and meanness does not involve an imbalance of power. Further, meanness involves hurtful behaviors between people who are equals, in social standing and otherwise. [4]

Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. The behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time. Both kids who are bullied and who bully others may have serious, lasting problems.

People usually think of bullying as taking place between children at school. However, it can also occur at work and include aggressive behaviors like verbal abuse, sabotaging the victim's job or work relationship, or misusing authority. Adult bullies who engage in these behaviors are males 60% of the time. While men who bully tend to victimize both genders equally, women bullies target other women about 80% of the time.

Bullying does not always have to be childish play, it can be extremely violent. People may be bruised, injured, or even killed. Kids under bad influence may turn very violent. Parents, relatives, friends, T.V., music and pictures may all influence people, especially when they are depressed or are in a lowered state of mind. Violence on T.V. is a very big influence, particularly the wrestling and fighting shows. Also, T.V. shows are quite readily available for anyone to watch. Kids may try "moves" on people at school because they believe it's cool. As well, cooperation from childrens' parents is important, some parents actually encourage their children to fight to look cool or don't teach them properly. Kids must take their own initiative, as well, they must find out what's wrong and what's right for themselves sometimes. Many kids don't take bullying seriously. However, when a real incident occurs, they are unprepared, shocked, regretful, or dead.[2]

The spread of bullying

According to foreign and domestic psychologists, bullying-a phenomenon quite common in school. Up to 10% of children regularly (once a week and more often) and 55% – occasionally (from time to time) are bullied by classmates, 26% of mothers consider their children victims of bullying.

Some statistics on bullying suggest that 28% of students from grades six through 12 have a history of being the victim of bullying, while 30% of high school students acknowledge having bullied other students. About 10%-14% of children have been the victim of bullying for more than six months. Most victims of cyberbullying have also been victims of school bullying.[6]

Boys tend to engage in bullying more often than girls, especially at high school age and beyond, and are more likely to engage in physical or verbal bullying, physically or verbally, while girls more often engage in relational bullying.

Studies show that teachers often underestimate how much bullying is occurring at their school since they only see about 4% of bullying incidents that occur. Further, victims of bullying only report it to school adults one-third of the time, usually when the bullying occurs repeatedly or has causes injury. Parents tend to be aware their child is being bullied only about half the time.

More than 40% of workers in the United States experienced bullying in the workplace. More than 90% of working women are estimated to believe they have been undermined by another woman at some time in their careers. However, due to the stereotype that women should be more nurturing, a woman may perceive normal supervision from another woman as undermining. [3]

Nearly half of high school students and more than half of college students who have been part of a club, team, fraternity, sorority, or other organization have been hazed at some time.

Victims of hazing are at risk for physical or emotional problems, sleep problems, a decline in academic success, impaired relationships, a loss of respect for the group that hazed them, and a loss of trust in other group members. These individuals are also at risk for needing medical or psychiatric hospitalization.

Either being a bully or the victim of bullying increases the risk of engaging in self-harm, as well as suicidal thoughts and actions in both boys and girls. However, research indicates that the risk of both thoughts and attempts at suicide seem to be higher for girl victims and girl bullies no matter how infrequently the bullying occurs. However, the risk of suicidal thoughts seems to increase in boy bullies and victims when the bullying occurs repeatedly. Interestingly, the frequency of suicide gestures/attempts in boy bullies and victims seems to increase even when bullying occurs infrequently.

What are the effects of bullying? What are the effects of hazing?

Bullying can be associated with significantly serious problems. Teens who bully are at greater risk for engaging in delinquent behaviors, including vandalism, as well as violence inside and outside of school. They are also at risk of substance abuse and dropping out of school. Victims of these behaviors also tend to develop or increase their severity of anxiety. Bullies and victims tend to experience depression more than their peers who have not been involved in bullying, which can lead to academic problems, frequent absences from school, loneliness, and social isolation. Research shows that bullies and their victims are also at risk for having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). People who were bullied as children are at risk for having less of a supportive social network during adulthood, and those who were bullies/victims during childhood may have poorer physical and financial health, more antisocial behavior, and be more likely to become a young parent compared to bullies who have never been the victim of bullying. Victims of workplace bullying may suffer from reduced job performance, more absences, and less work satisfaction. Ultimately, bullying may be the cause of higher staff turnover. People who are both victims and perpetrators of bullying seem to be more vulnerable to experiencing both internalizing (for example, loneliness, depression, and anxiety) and externalizing (for example, antisocial) symptoms. [3]

Types of bullying

For an act to be considered bullying it must meet certain criteria. This includes hostile intent, imbalance of power, repetition, distress, and provocation. Bullying can have a wide spectrum of effects on a student including anger, depression, stress, and suicide. Additionally, the bully can develop different social disorders or have a higher chance of engaging in criminal activity.

There are three types of bullying:

Verbal bullying is saying or writing mean things. Verbal bullying includes:

Teasing

Name-calling

Inappropriate sexual comments

Taunting

Threatening to cause harm

Socialbullying, sometimes referred to as relational bullying, involves hurting someone’s reputation or relationships. Social bullying includes:

Leaving someone out on purpose

Telling other children not to be friends with someone

Spreading rumors about someone

Embarrassing someone in public

Physical bullying involves hurting a person’s body or possessions. Physical bullying includes:

Hitting/kicking/pinching

Spitting

Tripping/pushing

Taking or breaking someone’s things

Making mean or rude hand gestures

Cyber, Internet or Online:

This includes people using the Internet to send you dirty, embarrassing and dangerous messages, intended to cause problems for you

Social structure of bullying

Bullying is the result of the bully's need to get and keep control over someone else. The aggression that is involved in bullying interferes with the empathy needed to refrain from bullying others. There are two different types of aggression: proactive aggression and reactive aggression. Proactive aggression is described as being organized, emotionally detached, and driven by the desire for a reward. Reactive aggression is defined as impulsive, in response to a perceived threat or precipitant, and usually associated with intense emotion, especially anxiety or anger. Contrary to the stereotype of the bully who is socially inept trying to make him or herself feel better, bullies who have never been the victim of bullying have rather high self-esteem and tend to be social climbers. Child and adult bullies have a tendency to have low tolerance for frustration, trouble empathizing with others, and a tendency to view innocuous behaviors by their victims as being provocative. They are more likely to suffer from a mental health problem compared to non-bullies. Many non-victimized bullies are thought of as bi-strategic controllers, using both prosocial actions (for example, likeability and popularity) and negative actions (for example, intimidating or coercing others) to engage in these hurtful behaviors toward others. [3]

Bullies who have been the victim of bullying themselves (bully/victims) tend to be more aggressive than bullies who have never been a victim of bullying. They tend to be less popular, more often bullied by their siblings, to be otherwise abused or neglected, and to come from families of low socioeconomic status.

Bystanders of bullying, those who witness it but are neither the primary bully nor the victim, tend to succumb to what they believe is peer pressure to support bullying behavior and fear of becoming the victim of the bully if they don't support the behavior. Further, bystanders are at risk for engaging in bullying themselves if they encourage the bullying by paying attention to the behavior or laughing about it.

Practical part

Mass media influences us, it shapes our way of thinking and speaking. A lot of films all over the world show us the scenes with bullying, some films are dedicated to this topic. To understand how films teach us to prevent bullying and be tolerant we compared three films: American rom-com «Mean Girls», modern American TV series “13 reasons why” and film «Wonder» (Appendix 1)

 

Mean Girls

13 reasons why

Wonder

Victim of bullying

Weird teenagers at high school

New girl at high school

Boy with facial deformity

Type of bullying

Verbal bullying

Physical bullying

Social and verbal bullying

Effect of bullying

Students fell less confident

Commits a suicide

Becomes stronger

I decided to write some advises and benefits of them to help someone avoid or prevent bullying. (Appendix 2)

Advise

Benefit

Pay attention

You can help a person by telling the school administration about bullying

Tell someone so the bully will stop

By telling someone that you are being bullied, you will be standing up for yourself and showing the bullies that you will not put up with their abuse.

Stay calm

It is the bully’s goal to get an emotional response out of you, so do your best to keep calm and avoid showing them how you feel. The bully may feed off of these emotions and increase their efforts.

Stand up for people if they're being bullied

You protect a person from bullying and prevent subsequent bullying

Conclusion

In conclusion, I think bullying is a very serious problem and I think it can be stopped altogether. I have learned many things about bullying, mostly about the prevention of bullying, and I can’t believe how easy it would be to stop bullying. I think it’s very wrong and hurtful to bully others. I just hope that people everywhere can learn to be less tolerant towards bullying in general. I think it would be great to live in a world where people don’t have to worry about what is going to happen to them, but achieving this would take more than just me. I can say that the hypothesis that bullying is a common problem has been confirmed. I also completed all the tasks I set.

Bibliography

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_bullying

https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/bullies.html

https://www.medicinenet.com/bullying/article.htm

https://www.rxlist.com/bullying/article.htm

https://www.stopbullying.gov/bullying/what-is-bullying

http://www.euro.who.int

Appendix

1.

 

Mean Girls

13 reasons why

Wonder

Victim of bullying

Weird teenagers at high school

New girl at high school

Boy with facial deformity

Type of bullying

Verbal bullying

Physical bullying

Social and verbal bullying

Effect of bullying

Students fell less confident

Commits a suicide

Becomes stronger

2.

Advise

Benefit

Pay attention

You can help a person by telling the school administration about bullying

Tell someone so the bully will stop

By telling someone that you are being bullied, you will be standing up for yourself and showing the bullies that you will not put up with their abuse.

Stay calm

It is the bully’s goal to get an emotional response out of you, so do your best to keep calm and avoid showing them how you feel. The bully may feed off of these emotions and increase their efforts.

Stand up for people if they're being bullied

You protect a person from bullying and prevent subsequent bullying

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