Польза плавания для здоровья человека

XII Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Польза плавания для здоровья человека

Какурин Б.А. 1
1Первый Рузский казачий кадетский корпус им.Доватора Л.М.
Лалаева Е.С. 1
1Первый Рузский казачий кадетский корпус им.Доватора Л.М.
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
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Introduction

Swimming is hygiene,

Tempering and health.

When I was born, the doctors diagnosed me with hip dysplasia, in other words, their incorrect formation. And, if my parents did not devote so much time to my health, then the future could threaten me with constant dislocations and pain in the joints when walking. For medical reasons, I had to go to the swimming pool. Another problem of my health already in the first year of life was the presence of excess weight, although I was naturally fed. At the age of 1 month, due to the fact that I was not given all the vaccinations, my mother invited the coach home, and we started training…

I still do swimming. At the age of 11, I already have quite a lot of diplomas and medals, the 1st youth sports category in swimming, the "Young Swimmer of Kuzbass" badge, silver and gold TRP badges and do not have any health problems. In this regard, I wanted to do research work and set this goal: to find out whether swimming really affects human health?

Research objectives:

1. Study information on the health effects of swimming from literature and online sources.

2. Find out what a person needs to do swimming for.

3. Conduct a study of changes in my health status over the 11 years of my life.

4. Draw conclusions and conduct explanatory work among cadets (students) about the benefits of swimming.

The object of the study is the change in my health over the years of swimming.

The subject of the study is the effect of swimming on my health.

Hypothesis-let's assume that swimming is good for human health. To prove this hypothesis, I decided to use the following research methods:

- study and analysis of information about the benefits of swimming from various sources;

- a survey of the coach and parents about the importance of swimming classes;

- analysis of my medical record on colds and viral diseases and on my average weight by years of life.

1. Theoretical part

1.1 History of swimming development

The ancient Greeks and Egyptians attached great importance to the ability to swim. They thought that a man who could not keep well on the water was at least worthy of ridicule. "He can neither read nor swim," was the ancient Greek phrase for a man unworthy of being called a citizen.

For many years, in many states, swimming occupied an important place in military affairs. The ability to overcome water obstacles in clothing, in military armor, with things and cargo, intelligence, special tasks of a diversionary nature required excellent swimming training.

The ability to swim well was also given great importance in the Russian navy. Peter I introduced special swimming classes for Russian sailors. Under the leadership of Peter I, exercises were held – " fun " with overcoming water obstacles and battles on the water. Swimming was included in the number of academic disciplines of the Maritime Academy, opened in 1719. By the end of the 18th century, swimming was a compulsory subject in all cadet corps, including the land corps.

Sports swimming originated at the turn of the 15th-16th centuries. In Western Europe, especially in England, the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century served as a period of revival of swimming as one of the most popular recreational activities:

- the first swimming schools appear in England and Germany, and later in France and Austria. The first artificial swimming pools with heated water are being built (London, 1743!!!);

- the priority of the trendsetters of swimming fashion can be fully given to the military and students of Liverpool, London and other cities of the foggy Albion;

- it was in London in 1869 that the world's first sports organization of swimmers was established – the Association of Sports Swimming Enthusiasts in England;

- for those who did not want to compete in the pools, they arranged swims in the open sea. The first hero of the marathon swims was Captain Matthew Webb of the English Navy. In 1875, he swam 34,600 meters in 21 hours, 44 minutes, and 55 seconds. Its distance extended from the coast of England to the coast of France in the English Channel;

- the first truly athletic swimming competitions were held in 1877 in England;

- in 2020, the first in the world was installed in London!!! suspended swimming pool between two 10-storey houses.

For the health of Novokuznetsk residents, the first swimming pool was built in the open air-on the river Kondome in the park of culture and recreation "Water Station", where the paths were stretched and the first competitions were held in 1946. At the same time, the first observation tower was built.

Later, in 1971, the Sports Palace "Rodnik" was opened with a 25-meter swimming pool, then the same pools were opened in the sports complexes "Vityaz "(1972)," Olymp "(1973) , and in October 1979, the 50-meter swimming pool"Zapsibovets" was officially opened. Thus, hundreds of residents of Novokuznetsk got the opportunity to learn to swim and improve their health.

1.2 What is swimming and swimming styles

Swimming is the ability to move on the surface of water (dictionary of Ozhegov S. I.). This is a sport that strengthens all the muscles of the human body, as well as the most harmonious, balanced and eco-friendly physical activity.

Modern sports swimming includes four types (styles):

1. Freestyle (crawl)–(English. Crawl – crawling) is a type of swimming on the stomach, in which the left and right parts of the body make strokes alternately, the legs-alternately continuously rise and fall on the principle of scissors. This is one of the fastest swimming styles.

2. Swimming on the back (crawl on the back) is an inverted crawl on the chest. The athlete's face is always above the water (except for the start and turn). This is the third fastest method of sports swimming.

3. Breaststroke – (French. Brasse or Brasser – knead, stir) is a style of swimming on the chest, in which the arms are simultaneously moved forward, and the legs make a simultaneous push in the horizontal plane (similar to the movement of a frog). This is the slowest style of swimming.

4. Butterfly – (English Butterfly - butterfly) is a high-speed version of breaststroke (since 1953 – an independent discipline at the Olympic Games). This is swimming on the chest, a distinctive feature of which is the simultaneous fungus of the hands with their subsequent removal from the water, while the legs move as well as during breaststroke. Butterfly requires some preliminary training and hand strength.

Dolphin-a high-speed version of the butterfly style, the swimming technique differs in the movement of the legs: they move in a vertical plane up and down (like the movement of a dolphin's tail). The dolphin is considered the second fastest.

1.3. What is useful for swimming?

My coach told me about the benefits of swimming.

1. Weight loss.

The most obvious beneficial effect of swimming is weight loss. First, many muscle groups are involved in the work at once. Secondly, cold water helps to spend additional energy. The most energy - intensive type of swimming is butterfly or dolphin.

2. Improve your posture.

Swimming improves the condition of the muscles of the back, chest and lower back. From slouching is best helped by swimming with a crawl on your back.

3. Healthy lungs and heart.

Many professional swimmers started their careers to get rid of asthma attacks. The correct setting of breathing necessary during swimming, as well as moist air, have a beneficial effect on the work of the lungs.

4. Benefits for the joints.

Water will make your joints more flexible. But swimming works well not only as a prevention of joint diseases. You can also swim during exacerbations: cooling will relieve pain, and smooth movements will have the effect of massage.

5. Relaxation after a hard day.

The sound of water helps to relieve tension and distract from problems. The reduced water temperature also has a beneficial effect on the nervous system. If you can't relax after a day at work, and you can't sleep for a long time at night, go to the pool in the evenings. For relaxation, you need to swim in simple styles — crawl or on your back.

6. Tempering.

The positive effect of water treatments on disease resistance is well known. But it is not so easy to decide on pouring ice water or even on a contrast shower. But in the pool, cold water is perceived quite naturally, having the same tempering effect.

1.4. Famous English-speaking swimmers

1.4.1. Swimmer Michael Phelps was diagnosed as a child with a very common diagnosis in the United States and in Russia— "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". He could not sit still at his desk, looked into other people's notebooks, took away pens and pencils from the children, forgot what was required of him. The teacher moved him to a separate desk. But the parents decided to try to solve his problems by enrolling his son in the sports section for swimming. At first, Michael was even afraid to dip his head in the water and swam only on his back. But then, in place of the fears, came incredible efficiency and perseverance. The pool became his new world, inside which he became himself, like an amphibian. So Michael Phelps earned 23 Olympic "gold" and many other awards. Thus, engaged in swimming Muckle Phelps, not only got rid of problems in his health, but also achieved unprecedented sporting success.

1.4.2. Liam Tancock (Exeter, England) – English swimmer, specializes in the 50 and 100 meters backstroke. He also competes in complex swimming and crawl swimming. Two-time world champion in the "long water" (pool 50 meters) at a distance of 50 meters and world champion in the "short water" (pool 25 meters) at a distance of 100 meters. On April 02, 2008, Tancock set the world record for backstroke swimming, swimming 50 meters in 24.47 seconds.On August 01, 2009, he broke his own record by swimming the same distance in 24.08 seconds in the semifinals of the World Aquatics Championships. The next day, Liam set the world record for the third time and won the gold medal with a time of 24.04 seconds.

1.4.3. Gemma Mary Spofforth Shoreham-By-Sea, West Sussex) is an English swimmer who represented Great Britain at the Olympic Games, World Championships and European Championships, as well as England at the Matrimonial Games. Spoffot is a former world record holder and world champion in the 100-meter backstroke (2009). She has won a total of 8 medals at major international championships. At the World Aquatics Championships in Rome, she won the gold medal in the 100-meter backstroke, setting a world record (58.12 seconds). In 2012, Spofforth was a member of the British national team and competed in the 100-meter backstroke, where she placed 5th with a time of 59.20 seconds. In the same year, she announced the end of her competitive career.

2. Practical part

2.1 Research of my colds and viral diseases

In order to find out how swimming affected my health, I took my medical card from the children's clinic and together with my mother examined it for colds and viral diseases and for the weight of my body by the years of my life. We chose how many times I had SARS (ARI) in the first year of my life, in the second, and so on until today, and entered the data in the Experimental study Sheet (Appendix # 3). We have the following graph: horizontally – age by year (1 year, 2 years....), and vertically – the number of colds per year.

1 year - 1 disease

2 years - 4 diseases

3 years - 3 diseases

4 years - 3 diseases

5 years - 2 diseases

6 years - 2 diseases

7 years - 1 disease

8-11 years – did not get sick

Dynamics of colds

2.2 Research on my weight

We did a similar job by examining my personal weight by year and comparing the results of my weight with the table of weight standards for boys from 1 to 10 years old, compiled by the World Health Organization (WHO) (Appendix No. 4). In the experimental study sheet, we entered the data of my weight and the data of the average normal weight of a boy of a certain age from the table. On the graph, the lower line is the average normal weight of the child according to the WHO table, and the upper line is my weight.

It is also clear from the chart that my excess weight decreased from year to year and returned to normal by the age of 7, as I believe, thanks to constant swimming training. They helped me to lose weight painlessly.

Also, according to my doctor, thanks to swimming training, I was completely removed from the diagnosis of "Hip Dysplasia", that is, my bones and joints have returned to normal and are developing according to age.

Dynamics of weight loss

I would like to add that swimming is not only my personal occupation, but also a favorite activity of our whole family! My older brother and I studied at the Olympic Reserve School at SibGIU. My mother joins us at every opportunity – in sanatoriums, on the river, at the sea…We all love to swim!

Conclusion

Summing up the results of my research work, I want to note that I have achieved my goal. I learned from my own research that swimming has a beneficial effect on human health.

My hypothesis was confirmed: swimming is good for human health and with the help of swimming you can get rid of some diseases and even bring your body weight back to normal.

I also made the following conclusions:

1. Swimming can be practiced all year round-from indoor pools to various bodies of water: lake, river, sea.

2. Swimming does not require bulky sports equipment and equipment.

3. Everyone can do swimming without exception: infants, the elderly, and people with disabilities (disabled people).

4. Thanks to swimming, a person gets the opportunity to relax psychologically and improve their health physically after a long working or school day.

5. Swimming helps to improve performance, activity, helps to overcome fatigue.

I recommend to all my friends and acquaintances – go swimming!

And then many health problems can be avoided.

Literature

1. S. I. Ozhegov "Dictionary"

2. S. P. Alekseev, A. G. Aleksin " What is it? Who is this?", Moscow - "Pedagogy-Press" - 1994

3. A. D. Vikulov "Swimming", Moscow-Vlados-press-2003

4. N. Zh. Bulgakova "Swimming", Moscow – "Physical culture and sport" - 1999

5. Newspaper "Bolshevik Steel" No. 135 of 11.07.1947

6. The newspaper "Bolshevik steel" No. 134 of 07.1946.

Appendix No. 1

Dictionary

1. Hip dysplasia is a congenital inferiority of the joint due to its improper development, which can lead (or has led) to subluxation or dislocation of the femoral head, to "congenital hip dislocation" - when the cartilage of the hip joint does not grow, i.e. the hip does not hold in the hip bone.

2. Natural feeding – feeding the baby with the mother's breast milk when he wants, without 4-6 hour intervals, without teats and bottles.

3. Muscles – or muscles (from Lat. musculus-mouse, small mouse) — the organs of the body of animals and humans, consisting of elastic, elastic muscle tissue that can contract under the influence of nerve impulses. They are designed to perform various actions: body movements, contractions of the vocal cords, breathing. Muscles consist of 86.3 % water.

4. Asthma-Bronchial asthma (from other-Greek. ἆσθμα — "heavy breathing, shortness of breath") — a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract.

5. The lungs are the respiratory organs in which the gas exchange between the air and the circulatory system of living organisms takes place. This is a paired organ – a person's right and left lung. The unusual name of these organs occurred as follows. When people cut up the carcasses of animals and put the entrails removed from them in a basin of water, all the organs were heavier than water and sank to the bottom. Only the respiratory organs located in the chest were lighter than water and floated on the surface. So the name "lungs"was fixed for them.

6. The heart is a cone-shaped hollow muscular organ that receives blood from the venous trunks that flow into it and pumps it into the arteries that are adjacent to the heart.

Appendix No. 2

Dynamics of colds

Dynamics of weight loss

Appendix 3

Experimental study sheet

The number of colds and viral diseases in 1 year of life -1

The amount of excess weight (kg) in 1 year of life - 2

The number of colds and viral diseases in the second year of life -4

The amount of excess weight (kg) in 2 years of life – 2.8

The number of colds and viral diseases in the 3rd year of life -3

The amount of excess weight (kg) in 3 years of life – 3.2

The number of colds and viral diseases in the 4th year of life -3

The amount of excess weight (kg) in 4 years of life – 3.2

The number of colds and viral diseases in the 5th year of life -2

The amount of excess weight (kg) in 5 years of life – 2.7

The number of colds and viral diseases in the 6th year of life -2

The amount of excess weight (kg) in 6 years of life – 2.5

The number of colds and viral diseases in the 7th year of life -1

The amount of excess weight (kg) in 7 years of life – 0.4

The number of colds and viral diseases in the 8th year of life -0

The amount of excess weight (kg) in 8-11 years of life - within the average norm

Appendix 4

WHO table — Weight of boys from one year to 10 years

Age Low (in kg) Below average (in kg) Average

(in kg) Above average

(in kg) Tall

(in kg) Too high

(in kg)

1 year 7.7 8.6 9.6 10.8 12.0 13.3

2 years 9.7 10.8 12.2 13.6 15.3 17.1

3 years 11,3 12,7 14,3 16,2 18,3 20,7

4 years 12,7 14,4 16,3 18,6 21,2 24,2

5 years of 14.1 16.0 18,3 21,0 24,2 27,9

6 years of 15.9 18.0 20,5 31,5 23,5 27,1

7 years of 17.7 20.0 30,7 22,9 26,4 36,1

8 years 22,1 25,4 19,5 29,5 34,7 41,5

9 years 21,3 24,3 28,1 33,0 39,4 48,2

10 years 23,2 26,7 31,2 37,0 45,0 56,4

Appendix 5

Classes have started!!! (I am 1.5 months old)

The first award (I'm on the right, I'm 2.5 years old)

City competitions among kids (WellFitnes) – I am 3 years old (May 2012)

1st place among kindergartens of the Kuibyshev district – I am 6 years old

City swimming tournament in memory of Maxim Kartsev

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