HEROES OF OLD TIMES…

XII Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

HEROES OF OLD TIMES…

Мастерков А.А. 1
1 МАОУ Одинцовский лицей №6 им А. С. Пушкина
Богучарская Л.П. 1
1МАОУ Одинцовский лицей №6 им А. С. Пушкина
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

LS, UNITS AND TERMS

LS, UNITS AND TERMS

Electronic resources [E.R-1]

References [R.1] Supplements - (S. - 1)

HEROES OF OLD TIMES….

INTRODUCTION

To begin with I’d like to explain the theme choice: every nation has its honored names that are never forgotten: the further the historical life of people develops, the brighter become moral images of those figures who have given all their strength to serve their people and played significant services for them. Such figures become popular folk heroes, make up its national glory. Nowadays you can’t imagine a young man or an adult who is indifferent to it. In Russia, Alexander Nevsky became such a hero. That's why I wanted to learn as much as possible about the person, whose name isone of the brightest and the most beloved by the Russian people.

The actuality of the chosen topic is explained by the fact that the name of Alexander Nevsky has forever entered the memory of our people. Russia appreciated the hard-working life of Alexander, his selfless exploits, the height and purity of the holy soul. Alexander Nevsky is still a hero for many Russian people, and it is unlikely that this image of a national hero can fade over time. Actuality is added by the fact of great interest of social researchers to it [R.1-9].

The object of my research:Kievan Rus-pages of the XIII century.

The subject of the research: Alexander Nevsky as a Prince, military leader and a diplomat.

The problem of work: the reign of Alexander Nevsky, his role in history of Russia. I tried to find out what kind of person he was, what feats he performed and what kind of mark he left in history.

The goal of the work is to study the life and work of Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich; to study his personality of a Holy Grand Duke, a Russian commander, a politician and a diplomat; to consider and describe his way of life and his behavior and actions, to characterize the historical image of a talented person.

The tasks set to achieve this goal are:

1) To collect and analyze the necessary materialson the topic.

2) Тo find out the process of the personality formation of Alexander Nevsky,defender of Russia and the Orthodox faith.

3) To study the battles in which he won.

4). To analyze thespecial place and role of Alexander Nevsky in Russian history.

The hypothesis: if in the most difficult, critical moment of his reign Alexander Nevsky had not fought for the independence of Russia, had not protected Russia from the enemy threat from the West, from the ruinous conquests of Mongol Asia, and thus if he hadn’t not predetermined the course of Russian history for future centuries, then Russia would not have been able to preserve its statehood, ethnic independence and might have disappeared from geographical map.

The methods I used:

1.Studying, analysis and classification of the collected materials of the published literature about the life and work of AlexanderNevsky;

2. Abstraction and generalization of the researched results.

Theoretical and practical significance of the research results are at increasing interest in studying the history of Russia. I think my research will help develop a sense of respect for the past of our country, its heroic pages, preserving the memory about the exploits of the defenders of the Fatherland and the Orthodox faith;

I ‘m firmly convinced, the collected materials will promote forming a positive image of our country; the research sheds light on the era in which AlexanderNevsky lived and describes the historical image of this talented person.

CHAPTER1

CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH OF ALEXANDER.

On May30 (June 13), 1221 (according to Russian historians), the inhabitants of Pereyaslavl-Zalessky learned the good news: in the family of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, the third son of Prince Vsevolod, (nicknamed the Big Nest for a large family), a second son was born. He was given the name of Alexander at baptism. His patron Saint was the Holy Martyr Alexander.

Alexander's great-grandfather was Grand Duke Yuri Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow, and his great - great - grandfather was the famous winner of the Polovetsian steppe, Prince Vladimir Monomakh.

When Alexander was four years old, there took place a solemn ceremony (rite) of initiation of the Prince into the military men. After performing the ceremony, the father led his son out of the temple, and for the first time put him on a war horse. The four-year-old Alexander was given a light bow and arrows, which indicated the duty of a warrior to protect his native land from external enemies. From that time on, the Prince had every right to lead the princely Pereyaslav squad, of course, with the help of a close and experienced boyar-voivode.

The short childhood ended with the knightly rite of vows of Prince Alexander Yaroslavich. It marked the start of adolescence. From that day on, he was placed in the care of his uncle, boyar Fyodor Danilovich whom Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich appointed as his son's tutor.

From his young age, Alexander was also taught to read and write. He studied the Greek language. He was very eager to get acquainted with the events of Russian antiquity, and enjoyed reading Chronicles. He spent a lot of time in the library of his uncle Konstantin Vsevolodovich, who had a rich collection of Greek and Russian books. He was surprised by the Byzantine books translated by the monks into Russian. Especially striking was for him extraordinary "Alexandria" - a story about the exploits of Alexander the Great. The great warrior, the builder of a huge Empire, shook the imagination of Prince Alexander.

Orthodox lessons were given to the boy by Bishop Simon, the monac of the Christmas monastery in Vladimir, one of the most educated people in Russia at that time. In princely families, the Church was an integral part of their daily life and worldview. The Prince learned to read and write from the Bible and Psalms. Soon he began to read the lives of the saints himself.

The book of the historian Klepinin N. A. "The Holy and Pious Grand Duke Alexander Nevsky" tells that "…. even as a boy, he was serious, did not like games and preferred the Holy Scriptures to them." 1 [R.5] (S-1a)

A special place in the training and education of the Prince was given to military affairs. He was taught to ride on horseback, to own defensive and offensive weapons, to be a tournament knight and to know the system of foot and horse moving, the tactics of field battle and the siege of a fortress.

Years passed. Alexander had accumulated military knowledge. He passed in Novgorod under his father's training in internal and external diplomacy, learned the art of relationships with the boyars and commanding the crowd. He learned this by attending the Veche, sometimes at the Council, listening to his father's conversations. A significant role in shaping the future of a major statesman and a great military leader was played by the historical and cultural environment in which he was brought up until his majority, as well as the influence and examples of people around him, the example of his ancestors.(S -1)

CHAPTER 2. ALEXANDER NEVSKY AS A SYMBOL OF THE NATIONAL GLORY OF RUSSIA,THE KEY FIGURE OF RUSSIAN HISTORY

2.1. Kievan Rus: historical reality of the XIII century.

Crusaders in the Baltic States. At the end of the XII century, the Crusaders invaded the territory of the Baltic States, for the new lands, and against the Livs, Estes, and other tribes who lived here.

In 1202, the Order of the Sword was formed, and in 1237 it was united with the Teutonic Order, which by that time had conquered the Lithuanian tribe of Prussians and was called the Livonian Order. Russia helped the population of the Baltic States.

The XIII century is one of the blackest pages in the history of Kievan Rus.At the beginning of the new century, a constant struggle between multiple principalities continued in Russia. Constant wars led to the ruin and decline of cities, to a reduction in the population and to the weakening of the whole of Russia as a whole. Even in the face of the universal threat that the Golden Horde had become, the Russian principalities did not unite into a single state, and therefore could not give a worthy resistance. In 1237, Batu Khan, the grandson of Chenghis Khan, entered with his army in the beginning of the conquest of Russia. In general, Russia in the XIII century came to a decline. Most of it was under the rule of foreign invaders, who slowed down its development for several centuries. Only a few centuries later, the Moscow principality managed to defeat other Russian principalities in the struggle, get rich, seize almost the entire territory of the former Kievan Rus, and throw off the yoke of the Golden Horde.

2.2. Alexander’s glorious battle and victory on the Neva

The year 1240 was particularly dark for the Russian people. The Mongol-Tatars were advancing from the East. In the summer of the same year, Swedish ships entered the mouth of the Neva river.

Their chief commander Birger ordered to set up a camp on the Bank of the Neva river, at the place where the Izhora flows into it. As it is written in the ancient chronicle, he sent a letter to the Novgorod Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich: "Come out against me, if you can resist! I am already here and will capture your land..." Birger was confident of his victory. But that didn’t scare the brave Prince.

In difficult moments, Alexander got strength in prayer. He went to the Church of St. Sophia and began to pray to God for help. Prince Alexander came out of the Church, read the Swedish letter to the people, and asked:

- What are we going to do?" Will we submit or will we fight?

"We ‘ll fight, Prince," the Novgorodians replied. All of us will go against the enemy!” The Prince bowed to the people saying” Thank you, kind people. Not in power is the truth, but in the truth is power”.Alexander Yaroslavovich gathered a small squad and a detachment of Novgorodians and marched to the Swedish camp. The Prince knew that Birger's army was larger and well-armed. Borisov N. S., a Soviet and Russian historian Honored Professor of Moscow State University: «Alexander built his plan of war with the Crusaders on the suddenness, the rapidity of the blows».2 [R.2] Therefore, he suggested the voivodes attack suddenly while the Swedish army was resting.

On the morning of July 15, the fog cleared as the sun rose. It was a bright, hot day. The enemy suspected nothing. Their ships rocked lazily on the waves, tents were bright white all along the coast, among which the Golden-domed tent of Birger himself rose high. The Swedes did not have time to recover, as the Novgorod cavalry crushed the outpost and rushed to the camp. There was a panic. The Swedes seized their weapons. The battle began. Novgorod and Izhora fishermen fought bravely against the enemy. Prince Alexander fought in the front ranks and engaged in a duel with Birger. (S.-2)

  The Russian soldiers fought bravely with the enemy, especially distinguished six brave men. (Gavrilo Olexich, The Prince's hunter Yakov of Polotsk, Zbyslaw Japonica with an ax in hand, Savva's retinue, Misha of Novgorod, Prince's servant Ratmir). Fear and panic gripped the enemy. The Swedes ran to the ships.

On the dark night of July 15, the Swedish army was defeated and went back along the Neva river to Sweden. The Swedes, having suffered heavy losses, were forced to flee on the remaining ships.

The Swedes were forced to flee on the remaining ships. In the battle, Alexander lost only a few dozen people with his brilliant victory.

They say after defeating the Swedes, Alexander said: "he who comes to us with a sword will perish by the sword",

This glorious victory, won at the very time when our poor ancestors suffered so much misery and humiliation at the hands of the Tartars, filled peoples ‘hearts with joy. The news of the victory spread throughout the defeated Russian land. The victory prevented further aggressive actions of the Swedes.

For the battle on the NevaAlexander was nicknamed Nevsky.

On the site of the battle, according to the custom, a monument was erected - a wooden chapel. And three centuries later, in 1547, the Prince AlexanderNevsky was canonized, and on the site of the victory over the Swedes in the XVI century there was a wooden Church,a Church that may have already been consecrated in the name of the Holy Prince Alexander.

2.3. The Battle on the Ice. (The Battle on the ice of lake Peipus)

Whoever comes to us with a sword will perish by the sword.

Alexander Nevsky

The Ice Battle is one of the most famous battles in the history of Russia. The battle took place in early April 1242 on Lake Peipus.On the one hand, it was attended by the troops of the Novgorod Republic, led by Alexander Nevsky, on the other hand, he was opposed by the troops of the German Crusaders, mainly representatives of the Livonian Order. Novgorodians sent to Prince Alexander’s father a request to return his son Prince Alexander to Novgorod for reigning. Returning to Novgorod, Prince Alexander did not hesitate. He suddenly attacked and captured German knights and ordered to hang traitors who helped the Germans. Before going on a campaign, Alexander began to gather a large army.

The ancient Russian city Pskov was liberated from the power of the German conquerors. The Russian army moved on and liberated Izborsk. Beyond Izborsk, Russian soldiers entered German territory.

The German army decided to go to Pskov on the straightest and smoothest road - on the ice of lake Peipus. When Alexander learned of this, he turned his regiments toward lake Peipus and stopped at a rock called the crow's Stone. At dawn on April 12, 1242, the two armies met. The Germans, according to their custom, lined up in the form of "pigs": heavily armed horsemen and sat heavily on huge horses, also protected by heavy armor. The Germans looked like a wild boar ready to kill the hunter.

Ready for the battle stood the regiments of Alexander Nevsky. Russian horsemen wore iron armor and helmets, carried spears and shields, and carried heavy swords at their sides. The foot soldiers were less heavily armed, and many carried only sabers and bows. the Russian soldiers were more mobile during the battle than the German knights.

Finally, the sun rose above the white surface of the lake, and both troops rushed into battle. The Russians broke into the center of the German "pig" and upset its ranks. The clumsy knights fell from their horses under the blows of Russian fighters. The frightened horses threw off their riders, and they lay helpless as logs on the ice, not even having the strength to turn around in their heavy armor. At the end of the rout, The Germans were completely defeated, 500 German knights and many foot soldiers were killed; 50 noble knights were captured. So ended the battle on April 12, 1242, which was called the Battle of the Ice.

The glory of the great Russian victory and of Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich spread widely across foreign lands. Soon after their defeat at lake Peipus, the German knights sent envoys to Novgorod and made peace with the Novgorodians,giving back all the conquered lands. (S.- 3), (S. 3A)

3. Alexander Nevsky and the Horde.

Prince Alexander Yaroslavich clearly understood that to keep free the North-Western borders of Russia, as well as to keep open access to the Baltic sea, can only be on condition of peaceful relations with the Golden Horde. Russia had no strength then to fight against two powerful enemies. The second half of the famous commander’s life will be famous not for military victories, but for diplomatic ones.

To many of Alexander's countrymen, however, his policy of peace with the Horde seemed a mistake. Even the closest people-brother Andrey and son Vasily joined the ranks of supporters of the war against the Mongol-Tatars.

Alexander tried to please the Khan by all means to save the Russian land from new troubles. Only in 1252 did the Khan recognize Alexander as a Grand Duke. Now he had to humiliate himself before the Khan, to save his native land from new troubles; he had to persuade his people not to resist the Tatars, to pay the required tribute. Even sometimes he himself had to force his people to comply with the demands of the Tatars in case of resistance. Many at that time thought that Alexander acted together with the Tatars, and were angry with him. Few people understood then that the heavy necessity forced Alexander to act in such a way. If he did otherwise, a new terrible Tatar mass murder and violence would happen.

Unfortunate Russia wasn’t yet ready to resist and throw off the Mongol-Tatar yoke.

In 1256, Khan Berke ordered a second census in Russia. The new Khan wanted the census to be made in Novgorod as well. The Novgorodians did not want to pay a shameful tribute. Alexander arrived here with Tatar ambassadors who demanded tribute. The Novgorodians refused to pay the tribute. The Khan was very angry. The Tatars were preparing to punish the rebels terribly. Alexander went to the Horde. Apparently, it was not easy for him to please the Khan and he had to spend the winter and summer in the Horde. But he managed to save his native country not only from a new attack, but also to beg for an important benefit: The Khan allowed the Russians not to supply the Tatars with auxiliary troops. (S.-4)

Pashuto V. T., Doctor of Historical Sciences, assessed the policy of Prince Alexander: «With his cautious and prudent policy, he saved Russia from the final ruin of the nomad armies. By armed struggle, trade policy, and electoral diplomacy, he avoided new wars in the North and West …He bought time, allowing Russia to get stronger and recover from the terrible devastation».3 [R-4]

So, in the most difficult international situation, Alexander Nevsky pursued a policy of strengthening the Grand Ducal power within the country. He held in subjection the princes of North-Eastern Russia, the cities of Novgorod and Pskov.

4. Death of the Grand Duke

Grand Duke endured a lot for the sake of his people. But his physical strength was at an end. Alexander returned from the Horde ill. He continued his journey with great difficulty, but in Gorodets he finally fell ill. Feeling the approach of death, he got a particularly strict monastic rite, he became a monk.

Prince Alexander Nevsky completed his journey on earth with dignity. In the service of Orthodoxy there was his last and greatest wish. And on the night of November 14, 1263, he died. Metropolitan Kirill, learning of the death of the Grand Duke, sadly exclaimed: "the Sun of the Fatherland has set! Alexander is gone!"

The people bitterly mourned their Prince. Weeping was all over Russia, when they carried the body of the Prince from Godets to Vladimir. The crowd met him in Bogolyubovo, and the groan was such that the earth shook. When they put the Prince's body in the coffin, and Metropolitan Kirill was about to open his fingers to put a farewell prayer in the Prince's right hand, according to Orthodox custom, Alexander himself stretched out his hand as if alive. And all were terrified. Still, how not to marvel! The Prince was dead for several weeks, and the body was carried from afar, in the cold... And they all realized that Alexander Nevsky, having completed his earthly life, was pleasing to God, and now he would never leave his people, but would always come to their aid. All right. In many battles, according to legend, the Prince was seen at the head of the Russian army, and our ancestors beat the enemies. Prince Alexander Nevsky was buried on November 23, 1263 in the Monastery of the Nativity of the Mother of God in Vladimir. The Archimandrite saw the candle at Alexander's coffin light up by itself from the heavenly fire. After the incident, the church authorities dug up the incorruptible relics of Alexander in 1380 and placed them in the shrine (the ark with the relics of the holy saint). They wrote then that the sick, touching it with faith, were healed. (S.-7)

Graves of Russian Orthodox Church recognized Alexander Nevsky as a Saint after collecting all the evidence of miracles that took place on his grave in many places.

5.’’The Life of Alexander Nevsky’’

Presumably, no later than the 80s of the XIII century, shortly after the death of the Prince, the very first significant work in Russian literature was written, in which the image of Alexander Nevsky is revealed, "The Life of Alexander Nevsky". It is believed that "The Story of the Life of Alexander Nevsky" was written by his contemporary, who claimed to have known him personally. It is assumed that Metropolitan Kirill was directly involved in the compilation of the biography of Alexander. In 1250 he moved from the south, from Daniel, to Alexander Nevsky. "Life" talks about the exploits and bravery of Alexander Nevsky. (S-5)

The author selects only the most significant events: the battle with the Swedes on the Neva River, the liberation of Pskov, the Ice Battle, the campaign in the Lithuanian lands, diplomatic relations with the Horde and the Pope, which recreate the heroic image of a warrior prince, a valiant commander and a wise politician.

In his activities, Prince Alexander followed the idea "God is not in power, but in truth." His statements were passed on among people.

The description of the relations with the Horde convinces us that there are princes in Russia whose courage and wisdom could resist the enemies of the Russian land.

Thus, the Patriotism of Alexander for several centuries determined the principles of the organization of Russia. The traditions laid down by the prince, based on national and religious tolerance, until our time attracted to Russia the peoples who lived in neighboring territories. (S.- 5)

6.Nevsky and the Orthodox Faith

The honors of Nevsky began almost immediately after his death. Created by the end of the XIII century, “The Life” clearly shows a well-established confidence in the holiness of the Grand Duke. The Pope tried to use the difficult situation of Russia for his own purposes: to destroy Orthodoxy in Russia. He offered military assistance in the fight against the Tatar-Mongols in exchange for apostasy (conversion of the Russian people to Catholicism).

In response Alexander said these words: "From Adam to the Flood, from the Flood to the division of peoples, from the separation of the Nations to Abraham, from Abraham to the passage of Israel through the Red sea, from the Exodus of the Israelites from the death of David the king, from the beginning of the reign of Solomon before August-king, from the power of August and until Christmas, from the birth of Christ to the Suffering and Resurrection of the Lord, from His Resurrection and before his Ascension, from his Ascension to heaven to reign Konstantinov, from the beginning of the reign to the first Cathedral, the first Cathedral to the seventh – we are well aware of all this, but we will not accept any teaching from you (Catholics)."4[E.R-3]

In 1547, Alexander Nevsky was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Churchas a holy prince of the Russian Orthodox Church. (S.-6)

So, Saint Alexander Nevsky is certainly a true defender of the Russian land and the Orthodox faith.

7.Alexander Nevsky in the Historical Memory of the Russian People

The Russian people have never forgotten Alexander Nevsky. People'smemory preserves the image of Alexander- a patriot, a defender of Russia, and an outstanding diplomat.

In 1724, on August 30, Peter I personally transported the relics of Alexander Nevsky from Vladimir to St. Petersburg to the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, founded by the Russian Emperor in memory of Alexander Nevsky. (S.- 6)

The Order of the Holy Great Prince Alexander Nevsky (this is the full name) – one of the highest awards in the Russian Empire, was conceived by Peter I. established the Soviet Military Order of Alexander Nevsky. The Order was awarded to military, civilian and senior hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church.

After completing my research, I made a report and conducted a Poll among my classmates on the biography of A. Nevsky. My (30 respondents, 9 grade). Here are some results:the average percentage of knowledge A. Nevsky's facts of biography is 79,3%. 13.05.2021 is the 800th anniversary of A. Nevsky’s birth!(S.-14)

Conclusion

The Goal of the work is achieved. The problem is solved. I studied the life and work of Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich, the personality of Alexander Nevsky as a Holy Grand Duke, Russian commander, politician, and diplomat. The collected materials prove that Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky was given an exceptional role in the history of Russia.

This prince of Novgorod did not lose a single battle. He earned the title of a truly Christian ruler, the guardian of the Orthodox faith, and is recognized as a saint, canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church.

A selection of interesting facts about Alexander Nevsky‘s life, and how the prince saved Russia from the Horde invasion is given in Electronic resources.5

The tasks set to achieve the goal are fulfilled.

According to G. V. Vernadsky, "The two feats of Alexander Nevsky - the feat of battle in the West and the feat of humility in the East-had one goal: to preserve Orthodoxy as the moral and political force of the Russian people.”6 [R.-2]

On May 30 (June 13), 2021 (according to Russian historians) is the 800th anniversary of A. Nevsky’s birth! (S.-14) Alexander Nevsky is a Russian national hero. I am proud that in the history of my Homeland there was a person whose life is a model of service to the Fatherland; I am proud to be a descendant of Alexander Nevsky, a symbol of the national glory of Russia, the key figure of Russian history.

REFERENCES

1.Borisov N. S. The sun of the land of Suzdal [text] / N. S. Borisov / / Russian generals of the XIII-XVI centuries. - Moscow, 1993. - p. 6-51

2.Vernadsky G. V. The Mongolian yoke in Russian history // Our contemporary. 1992. No. 3. p. 160. This article was first published in the "Eurasian Time Book".

3.Danilov A. A. History of Russia from ancient times to the present day in questions and answers. Moscow: Prospekt, 2008.

4. V. T. Pashuto, Vladimir Terentyevich Alexander Nevsky and the Struggle of the Russian people for independence in the XIII century. - Moscow: Uchpedgiz, 1951.

5.Klepinin N. A. "The Holy and Pious Grand Duke Alexander NevskyМ., 1993.

6. Pashkov B. G. Rus - Russia –Russian Empire. Chronicle of the reign and events of 862-1917, Moscow, Center Com, 1997.

7. Pechen N. A. Symbols of military glory, Moscow, LLC "Humanitarian publishing center VLADOS", 2004. 

8. Sokolov Alexander, Holy Knight of the Russian Land. The Sanctity of the Life of the Blessed Grand Prince Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky / A. Sokolov. - N. N. Novgorod, 2008.

9.Tikhomirov, O. N. (1934). Battle of the Neva [Text]: for school age / O. N. Tikhomirov. - Moscow: Publishing center of children's books, 1993. - 28 p.: ill.

Electronic resources:

1.http://www.anevsky.ru/library/aleksandrnevskiyissledovaniyaiissledovateli7.html

2.https://obrazovanie.guru/istoriya/kratkaya-biografiya-aleksandra-nevskogo.html obrazovanie.guru © The main

3.The story of the life and courage of the Blessed and Great Prince Alexander access mode: http://old-ru.ru/04-10.html (accessed 25.02.2015)

11.Klepinin N. A. "The Holy and Pious Grand Duke Alexander NevskyМ., 1993. P. 7in Paris in 1927 in the publishing house "YMCA-Press".

2Borisov N. S. The sun of the land of Suzdal text] / N. S. Borisov / / Russian generals of the XIII-XVI centuries. - Moscow, 1993. - p. 6-51

3 V. T. Pashuto, Vladimir Terentyevich (1918-1983).

Alexander Nevsky and the Struggle of the Russian people for independence in the XIII century. - Moscow: Uchpedgiz, 1951. - 129, [3] p.: ill.; 22 cm.- (Teacher's library).

4The story of the life and courage of the Blessed and Great Prince Alexander [Electronic resource], access mode: http://old-ru.ru/04-10.html (accessed 25.02.2015)

5https://obrazovaka.ru/alpha/n/nevskij-aleksandr-yaroslavich-nevsky-aleksandr-yaroslavich

6Vernadsky G. V. The Mongolian yoke in Russian history // Our contemporary. 1992. No. 3. p. 160. first published in the "Eurasian Time Book".

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