Analogies and differences between English and French

XII Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Analogies and differences between English and French

Наушерванова Э.Р. 1
1Школьник
Абзалетдинова Г.М. 1
1Учитель
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Introduction

Knowledge of foreign languages ​​has become one of the first necessities of modern life. In order to properly adapt to the modern situation, when Europe is becoming a single multinational, multicultural and multilingual whole, people must understand how important it is to know different languages, not only compulsory English, but also languages ​​such as French, German, Spanish, Chinese and others. After all, knowledge of foreign languages ​​is a way of mutual understanding between peoples, respect for an individual, regardless of his racial, national, religious and political affiliation. Intercultural communication at any age makes life more valuable and meaningful, supports the desire to feel like a full member of society. Also, knowledge of foreign languages ​​gives a person such practical opportunities as: correspondence with representatives from other countries, reading books, magazines, watching films, performances.

Studying English and French as a second foreign language, I noticed that they are very similar to each other, and if you know one foreign language, then the second language is much easier to learn. And so I decided to conduct a study on the topic "Analogies and differences between English and French" and find out if this statement is true.

The subject of the research: English and French

The object of the research:

1) V.K. Mueller. English-Russian dictionary;

2. K.A. Ganshina. French-Russian Dictionary;

3. R.V. Reznik, T.S. Sorokina Grammar of the English language;

4. N.B. Zhukova, K.N. Dow. French grammar reference

The aim of my research:

toidentify and to demonstrate the existence of similarities and differences in English and French.

The general objectives of our report are the following:

- to find the reasons for the existing relationship of languages;

- to analyze phonetics, reading rules, grammar, vocabulary in both languages;

- to find words that have similarities;

Methods of research:

1. Observational method;

2. Comparative method.

Practical implications: the subject of this project is of great interest to the students who learn English and French.

The hypothesis:analogies help to learn more quickly a second foreign language (in this case French). However, there are a number of differences between French and English.

1. Reasons for the existing "relationship" between English and French

According to rough estimates, there are over two and a half thousand languages ​​on the globe. There are international languages. These include English, as well as French, which, along with English, plays a huge role in the modern world and deserves no less study. After all, it is the language of the people with the richest culture, the language spoken by the aristocracy of the 19th century.

The existing "kinship" between these languages ​​can be explained by a number of reasons:

1) the contact caused by the geographical and territorial neighborhood of England and France, the contact of two civilizations, as well as the interaction of the cultures of these countries;

2) the primordial kinship of languages ​​(until the fifteenth century there was Anglo - French, which England had spoken for several centuries.

Now we know why these languages are so similar.

2.English and French alphabets

The French alphabet, like English, has 26 letters. The English and French use the Latin script[Appendix 3]. Many letters are read differently, depending on their position in the word. It means that the same letter can represent different sounds. To show how words are read, there is a transcription in both languages, that is, a sign system in which each sign represents only one sound. The sound composition of the English language is different from the sound composition of the French language. Phonetic differences between English and French are in the number of vowels and consonants of meaningful sounds (phonemes). There are 44 phonemes in English, of which 20 are vowels: [ʌ], [a:], [æ], [e], [ə], [ə:], [ɪ], [i:], [ʊ], [u], [ɒ], [ɔ], [eɪ], [aɪ], [ɔɪ], [εə], [ɪə], [ʊə], [əʊ], [aʊ];

24 consonants: [t], [d], [n], [l], [p], [b], [m], [s], [z], [f], [v], [k] , [g], [ʃ], [ʒ], [dʒ], [tʃ], [h], [θ], [ð], [r], [w], [j], [ŋ].

The phonetic system of the French language includes 15 vowels: [a], [ε], [e], [ɪ], [œ], [ə], [ø], [y], [ɛ̃], [œ̃], [ɔ ], [o], [ɔ̃], [ɑ̃], [u];

17 consonants: [p], [b], [t], [d], [f], [v], [m], [n], [r], [l], [s], [z] , [k], [g], [ʃ], [ʒ], [ɲ];[Appendix 4]

3. Phonetic similarities and differences

The consonants in English and French mostly coincide in their articulatory characteristics, but they do not have absolute phonetic similarity. So the pronunciation of the sounds [t], [d] in English differs from the pronunciation of the same sounds in French. In addition, in English there are specific consonants [θ], [ð], [ŋ], characterized by a special type of articulation that does not have a match in French. And in French there are sounds that are not in English. These are nasal vowels [ɑ̃], [õ], [œ̃] and others. Therefore, it is important to fix our attention on the peculiarities of the pronunciation of English and French sounds.

In English and French, words break down into syllables. For both languages, it is important to distinguish between open and closed syllables, since the pronunciation of many vowel sounds depends on the type of syllable in which it is located. Phonetically, an open syllable is a syllable that ends in a vowel sound.

When I started learning French, I was strongly influenced by the phonetics of the English language, because the pronunciation skills were already formed, and the new language required other articulation actions.

4. Analogies and differences in grammar

Grammar is often the boring part of learning a language – we have to learn rules that are so different from the ones in our native language.

A more developed article system in French: the presence of forms of gender and number, continuous articles.

Une, la – f

Un, le – m

Des, les – plural

Conjointarticles:
des, du, de la.

Both languages, for example, have auxiliaries, participles, active/passive voice, past/present/future tenses. However, there are some differences that can cause interference in the production of English.A typical problem is the wrong choice of tense. Despite the external similarities of verb grammar, there are frequent occasions when French uses a different tense to convey a particular meaning than English.

Because French does not use the auxiliary do, learners may have problems in asking questions. For example, they may simply make a statement and use question intonation: He is rich?, or they may invert subject and verb: How often see you her?

Although English and French share the same basic Subject-Verb-Object syntax, there are numerous variations in the word order of sentences more complicated than the I bought a new car type.

Article used in French is similar but not identical to that in English. French pronouns are based on the gender of the noun they are associated with; and the possessive adjectives agree with the nouns they qualify.

 

 

 
     

The absence of gender in nouns in English and the presence of feminine and masculine in French.

une carte- f

un crayon- m

We see that the French grammar is very different from English,that’s why we should be very attentive.

5. Analogies in vocabulary

As vocabulary, there is also a certain "relationship" of languages. For well-known historical reasons, 57% of the total number of words in the English language are words of Latin and French origin. Therefore, both languages ​​have a lot of similar words. An example of this is the application “Words - equivalents in English and French”. To compile this application, the English-Russian dictionary was used, edited by V.K. Müller (English - Russian Dictionary) and the French-Russian dictionary edited by K.A. Ganshina (Dictionnaire Français - Russе)[1][3]. For the study, lexical units with the letter Aa were considered[Appendix 5 ].

Тhe American philosopher and poet Ralph Walds Emerson said: "Language is a city, to the construction of which everyone who lived on Earth brought his stone." [5]. Therefore, it is impossible to imagine a language that would not contain foreign language borrowings. As mentioned above, until the fifteenth century, English used French. It was a mixture of Norman and other dialects. Therefore, there are a lot of French loanwords in English. It can be seen by leafing through the same English-Russian dictionary by V.K. Müller. Researching the English - Russian dictionary by V.K. Müller, it is easy to see that there are much more French words than words that come from other languages[1][3].

Тhus, the more vocabulary in English, the more support you can get when learning French [Appendix 5]. In the process of learning English and French, you need to take into account their specific features.Frequent mistakes are possible, in word stress (on the first syllable in English and on the last in French).

captain- capitaine

justice – justice

prison – prison

village-village

hour-heure

lesson – leçon

garden – jardin

to receive- recevoir
However, there are also many “faux amis”, or “false cognates”, which look similar in French and English but in fact they are very different.

Conclusion

Although English and French belong to different groups (Germanic and Romance), they have a common Indo-European basis and therefore have a lot in common at all linguistic levels (in phonetics, grammar, vocabulary): some general rules of reading, general morphological categories, analogies in vocabulary, in syntax. Finding analogies help to learn more quickly a second foreign language (in this case French). Those who know English well will need much less time and effort to learn French, using a comparative approach, which, when learning a second foreign language, creates conditions for the intensification of the learning process in order to achieve its effectiveness. Conscious work on the French language can, in turn, help in the work on the English language, because the interaction of the experience of learning languages, of course, has a mutually enriching influence. To find out the problems in learning English and French, we conducted a survey among the students of 8 form in my school No.2, Kandry. In the 7th grade, when we learned about a second foreign language, we were overcome with excitement. Parents, too, by the way. In our research work, we decided to find out whether students have difficulties in learning two foreign languages. After all, as the analysis of languages shows, there are also significant similarities. What does the picture really look like?

The questions the respondents were asked are the following (Appendix 1):

Do you like French?

Have you got any problems learning French?

Have you noticed any similarities between English and French?

Which difficulties have you got studying the French language?

The first question showed that the majority of students (95%) gave positive answers, and only 5% - negative.

The second question “Have you got any problems learning French? had the following results:

48 % do not have any problems, 40 % - have some, 12 % - experience difficulties ,

Have you noticed any similarities between English and French? 65 % said that there is a similarity, 35 % - a little or did not notice.

Which difficulties have you got studying the French language? 15 % - difficulties in pronunciation, 26 % - in making sentences, 28 % - confuse the tense forms of the verb, 31 % - in reading [Appendix 2].

More and more schoolchildren are learning a second foreign language, and the collected examples can be useful in practical use:

- we have learned to notice the similarities in linguistic phenomena in two languages;

- while studying foreign languages, we become familiar with other cultures, and also begin to compare them;

- we have made the first steps in comparing lexical units in foreign languages.

We have noted a significant similarity in the system of verb tenses (related constructions), the identity of vocabulary (58-60% coincidences in vocabulary). While working on this topic, we compiled an English-French dictionary of similar words. We believe that this dictionary can help you in learning foreign languages.

This material can be used as a teaching aid in French lessons. You can avoid the difficulties of learning a second foreign language based on English.In conclusion, I would like to say the following: Knowledge of foreign languages ​​is great!I like both English and French!

References

К. А. Ганшина. Французско – русский словарь.- Москва :Издательство «Русский язык», 1979. – 992 с.

Н.Б. Жукова, К.Н. Дауэ. Справочник по грамматике французского языка. -Москва:Государственное учебно – педагогическое издательство Министерства просвещения РСФСР,1963. – 86 с.

В.К. Мюллер. Англо- русский словарь.- Москва:Издательство «Русский язык», 1989. – 1000 с.

Р.В. Резник, Т.С. Сорокина, Т.А. Казарицкая, И.В. Резник. Грамматика английского языка с упражнениями для средней школы. - Смоленск – Москва: Редакционно – издательский центр «ТОК», 1994 .-72 с.

Журнал «Иностранные языки в школе» №2,2004 г. В.В. Ворожейкин «Французские заимствования в английском языке».

Журнал «Иностранные языки в школе» №2, 2000г. Щепилова А.В. «Реализация сопоставительного подхода при обучении французскому языку как второму иностранному (на базе английского).

[ Электронный ресурс]. - Режим доступа:www.homeenglish.ru (дата обращения:10.09.20).

[Электронный ресурс]. - Режим доступа: Shkola/inostrannyeyazyki/library2015/09/28/realizatsia-sopostavitelnogo- podhoda(дата обращения:02.11.20).

Appendix

Appendix 1

The questionnaire

Do you like French?

Have you got any problems learning French?

Have you noticed any similarities between English and French?

Which difficulties have you got studying the French language?

Survey results of students Appendix 2

Do you like French?

Have you got any problems learning French?

Have you noticed any similarities between English and French?

Which difficulties have you got studying the French language?

Английский алфавит

Французский алфавит

Буква

 

Название

Произношение названия буквы (МФА)

Латинская буква

Французское название буквы (МФА)

Русское соответствие

1

A

a

a

[eɪ]

A a

ɑ

а

2

B

b

bee

[biː]

B b

be

бэ

3

C

c

cee

[siː]

C c

se

сэ

4

D

d

dee

[diː]

D d

de

дэ

5

E

e

e

[iː]

E e

œ

ё

6

F

f

ef

[ef]

F f

ɛf

эф

7

G

g

gee

[dʒiː]

G g

ʒe

же

8

H

h

aitch

[eɪtʃ]

H h

аш

9

I

i

i

[aɪ]

I i

i

и

10

J

j

jay

[dʒeɪ]

J j

ʒi

жи

11

K

k

kay

[keɪ]

K k

ка

12

L

l

el

[el]

L l

ɛl

эль

13

M

m

em

[em]

M m

ɛm

эм

14

N

n

en

[ɛn]

N n

ɛn

эн

15

O

o

o

[əʊ]

O o

o

о

16

P

p

pee

[piː]

P p

pe

пэ

17

Q

q

cue

[kjuː]

Q q

ky

кю

18

R

r

ar

[ɑː, ar]

R r

ɛR

эр

19

S

s

ess

[es]

S s

ɛs

эс

20

T

t

tee

[tiː]

T t

te

тэ

21

U

u

u

[juː]

U u

y

ю

22

V

v

vee

[viː]

V v

ve

вэ

23

W

w

double-u

['dʌbljuː]

W w

dubləve

дубль-вэ

24

X

x

ex

[eks]

X x

iks

икс

25

Y

y

wy

[waɪ]

Y y

igRɛk

игрэк

26

Z

z

zed, zee

[zɛd, ziː]

Z z

zɛd

зэд

Appendix 4

Reading rules

1. The letter "e" at the end of a word is not pronounced: la table [la-tabl], la vie [la-vi].

2. Letters d, t, p, s, x, z at the end of a word are not pronounced: tard [tar], lit [li], dos [do], nez [ne], coup [ku], paix [pe].

3. The letter “h” is not pronounced: habiter [a-bi-te], bibliotheque [bi-bli-o-tek].

4. The letter “q” is pronounced like [k]. In writing, it always occurs with the unpronounceable letter “u” following it: qui [ki], quel [kel].

5.The letter “s” between two vowels is pronounced as [z]: rose [ro: z], visite [vi-zit].

In other cases, the letter "s" is read as [s]: soupe [sup], classe [klas].

6.The letter “c” before “e”, “i”, “y” is read like [s]: cinema [si-ne-ma], cesser

[se-se], cybernetique [si-ber-ne-tik].

Otherwise it reads as [k]: crimee [kri-me], camarade [ka-ma-rad].

7.The letter combination "ch" reads like [] - a little softer than the Russian "sh":

marche [mar], chat [a].

8.The letter “g” before “e”, “i”, “y” reads like []: rebe [erb], gilet [i-le],

gymnastique [im-nas-tik]. In other cases, “g” reads like [g]: garage [ga-ra:], glace [glas]. The combination of letters gu is read as [g].

9.The combination of letters “gn” is pronounced like a soft [n], almost like a Russian: “нь”: vigne [vi].

10. Double consonant reads as one: elle [el], j'arrive [a-ri: v].

11. The letter combination “ph” is pronounced as [f]: physique [fi-zik].

12. The letter combination “th” is pronounced as [t]: the [te], theater [te- a: tr].

Spelling marks

1. Accent aiqu [aksategy] - (/) is placed over the letter “e” to indicate [e] closed: dictee.

2. Accent grave (\) is placed above the letter to indicate open: Above the letters is placed to distinguish some homonymous words: pere, leve.

3. Accent circonflexe (^) can mean: [a] -back- pale, [o] closed -pole.

4. Trema (..) - means separate reading of vowels i, e, with preceding vowels. Noel, naif.

5. Apostrof - used when the vowels a / e are missing in the service words before words beginning with a vowel or h mute. L'ami, l'homme, l'hirondelle.

6. Cedille.- is placed under the letter c which in this case reads as [s] -ca, recu.

Appendix 5

Examples of analog words in English and French
Аа
English French

altitude (n)

altitude (n)

высота

amber (n)

ambre (n)

янтарь

ambition (n)

ambition (n)

честолюбие

ambulance (n)

ambulance (n)

скорая помощь

amenity (n)

aménité (n)

приятность

amplification (n)

amplification (n)

увеличение

ancient (a)

ancien (a)

древний

angel (n)

ange (n)

ангел

angle (n)

angle (n)

угол

animal (n)

animal (n)

животное

animation (n)

animation (n)

живость

animosity (n)

animosité (n)

злоба

anniversary (n)

anniversaire (n)

юбилей

announce (v)

annoncer (v)

объявлять

annuel (a)

annuel (a)

ежегодный

anticipation (n)

anticipation (n)

ожидание

anxiety (n)

anxiété (n)

тревога

apparition (n)

apparition (n)

появление

applaud (v)

applaudir (v)

аплодировать

applicable (a)

applicable (a)

применимый

application (n)

application (n)

заявление

appreciable (a)

apréciable

заметный

appreciation (n)

appréciation (n)

оценка

apprehension (n)

appréhension (n)

опасение

apprentice (n)

apprenti (n)

ученик

approbation (n)

approbation (n)

одобрение

approve (v)

approuver (v)

одобрять

approximation (n)

approximation (n)

приближение

aptitude (n)

aptitude (n)

пригодность

arch (n)

arc (n)

арка

ardent (a)

ardent (a)

горячий

argent (a)

argenté (a)

серебристый

army (n)

armée (n)

армия

arrange (v)

arranger (v)

располагать

arrive (v)

arriver (v)

прибывать

article (n)

article (n)

статья

artifice (n)

artifice (n)

изобретение

artisan (n)

artisan (n)

мастеровой

ascension (n)

ascension (n)

восхождение

asperity (n)

aspérité

неровность

aspiration (n)

aspiration (n)

стремление

assassin (n)

assassin (n)

убийца

assiduity (n)

assiduité (n)

усердие

assist (v)

assister (v)

присутствовать

assistant (n)

assistant (n)

помощник

assume (v)

assumer(v)

брать на себя

assurance (v)

assurance (v)

уверение

assure (v)

assurer (v)

уверять

atrocity (n)

atrocité (n)

жестокость

attach (v)

attacher (v)

прикреплять

аttaché (фр.)

аttaché (n)

атташе

attachement (n)

attachement (n)

привязанность

attention (n)

attention (n)

внимание

attitude (n)

attitude (n)

позиция

attraction (n)

attraction (n)

притяжение

attribution (n)

attribution (n)

приписывание

аubergine (фр.)

aubergine (n)

баклажан

audacity (n)

audace (n)

смелость

audible (a)

audible (a)

слышный

augment (v)

augmenter (v)

увеличивать

augmentation (n)

augmentation (n)

увеличение

austerity (n)

austérité (n)

строгость

author (n)

auteur (n)

автор

authority (n)

autorité (n)

власть

autumn (n)

automne (n)

осень

avid (a)

avid (a)

жадный

avidity (n)

avidité (n)

жадность

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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