Англицизмы в русском языке

XII Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Англицизмы в русском языке

Иванова Д.М. 1
1Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение "Средняя общеобразовательная школа № 11" (МБОУ СОШ № 11)
Бобровицкая О.Н. 1
1МБОУ СОШ № 11
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

INTRODUCTION

It is common knowledge that the Russian language is the treasure of our nation and can really be called one of the most expressive languages that ever existed. It perfectly reflects Russia’s customs and true beauty. However, as any language is a dynamic system, it can be changed due to particular factors. Borrowing of foreign words – is one of the most lively and socially significant processes occurring in the modern Russian language.

I think that my research is quite topical, because nowadays the use of English words in the Russian speech is rising, and the amounts of them are stupendous. Thus, a natural question arises whether it can make the Russian language thrive and prosper or it is just the road that will lead it to extinction.

The object of the research is lexical units of English origin in the Russian language.

The subject of the research is English loanwords in modern Russian speech of teenagers.

The aim is to create «The Dictionary of a Modern Teenager».

The main objectives are:

to get general information about borrowing English words and using them in modern Russian;

to divide the loanwords into groups based on the sphere of their usage;

to conduct a survey of our school’s pupils;

to specify the reasons of borrowing English words in the Russian language and in the speech of teenagers in particular;

to figure out the most popular English borrowings used by the teenagers of my school;

to find out the reasons of usage of Anglicisms in teenagers’ speech.

The hypothesis is:

the use of English borrowings in teenagers’ speech is taken frequently and it debases the Russian language.

Methods:

searching method;

a survey based on questionnaire;

analytical method, supposing the analysis and synthesis of information.

Practical significance: This work will be useful not only for our pupils, but for their parents and teachers. I hope it will attract pupils’ attention to the reasonable usage of English borrowings.

CHAPTER I. BORROWING OF ENGLISH WORDS IN RUSSIAN

The History of Borrowing in the Russian Language

Russian speaking people have been engaged in political, commercial, scientific and cultural relations with other nations since ancient times. Therefore, Russian language has been enriched with many words from other languages. The inflow of foreign words increased during the reign of Peter I. Furthermore, plenty of words came to our language in the early XIX century (especially many words in political sphere).

Nowadays our language is replenished by English words. Due to historical events, such as the U.S.A. dominance in the world economy, development of tourism, the emergence of the Internet, the English language has become international. Thus, there are so many words of English origin in all spheres of modern life. We use borrowings in business, physics, medicine, sport, computing, art. Technology-related English words like “internet” and “computer” are particularly common across the globe because there are no pre-existing words for them.

The Reasons for Borrowing Anglicisms

The appearance of new words from foreign languages is explained by impetuous changes in social and academic life. So we can figure out several reasons of borrowing words from other languages:

historical contacts between people of different nationalities;

the necessity to name new objects and facts (like robot, touchpad, laptop);

the language fashion( for example French in the XVIII century);

to replace the whole collocation (ходитьзапокупкамишопинг).

These are the main reasons of borrowing words from other languages, but as for English (or American English) language in XX-XXI centuries, we can add a few more reasons:

advent of the Internet;

flourishing of international tourism;

the desire to hide the real meaning using an incomprehensible word (second hand, stock);

the aspiration to show that you are “cool” using unfamiliar words (outsider, devise), providing stylistic, emphatic effect;

participation in competitions, international festivals, fashion shows.

flourishing of international social network.

In course of time some Anglicisms will penetrate into original Russian vocabulary and become our native words while the others will fade away.

The Methods of Forming Anglicisms

The process of borrowing new words is rather quick as a language reacts rapidly to the needs of the society. Borrowings are the result of constant interrelations of nations and countries.

According to the methods for forming Anglicisms it is possible to distinguish the next groups of borrowing :

Direct borrowing: words exist in the Russian language in their original forms. They are words like уикенд - the weekend, токшоу - talk-show.

Hybrids: these words are formed by adding a Russian suffix or a prefix to the English words, for example, коннектиться (to connect – связываться, соединяться), лайкать (to like – нравиться).

Loan-translation(phonetic borrowing): the native language uses an item-for-item native version of the original. In Russian language the word sounds the same as in English:supermarket, website, disk, browser, teenager, telephone, jeans.

Exoticism: words used to characterize specific cultural phenomena of another country describing non-Russian reality. These words do not have synonyms in the Russian language. For example, чипсы (chips), хот-дог (hot-dog), чизбургер (cheeseburger).

Emotional expressions: a non-integrated word or a whole phrase from a foreign language: вау (Wow!), I`ll be back, happy end, hi, oops.

Jargonisms: words emerged as a result of any distortion of sounds, such as крезанутый (от crazy – сумасшедший), паренсы (parents – родители).

All Anglicisms can be divided into reasonable and unreasonable. Justified (or reasonable) borrowings are the words that replace the lack of corresponding concepts in the Russian language or when we need for a name of a new object or an item. Meanwhile, the appearance of many foreign words does not seem justified because the native language has its own lexemes with the same meaning. At first sight we can say that they only enlarge synonymic groups. But the comparison of the Russian lexeme убийца and the English killer shows that there is no identity and one-to-one correspondence in their semantic structures: киллер is a professional убийца who is paid for his/ her dirty job. In spite of the fact that Anglicisms denote something already existing in the language their intake seems to be necessary because they differentiate the vocabulary semantically and stylistically and reflect cultural peculiarities as well.

The Sphere of Anglicism Usage

It is obvious that English borrowings penetrate the different spheres of our life. A lot of English words has become commonplace and are used by people on a daily basis. Thus, we can pick out the spheres of life where borrowings are used the most often.

Information Technology

The growing popularity of social media and computer technology in Russia, especially among teenagers and young people, has a profound impact on the language structure. Terms having something to do with Information Technology have been entering our lives for years.

Юзер – user – a person who uses a computer service;

Онлайн – online – connected to a network;

Спам – spam – irrelevant messages sent over the Internet for the advertising purposes;

Логин – login – username;

Геймер – gamer – a computer player.

TV and media

It is a well – known fact that media can affect people significantly because every day we are surrounded by various TV shows, newspaper articles, celebrity gossip. Media is reforming our language. And it is also worth mentioning that journalism is a complex sphere where you cannot do without particular words that describe a specialty or other professional notions

Прайм-тайм – prime-time - the time at which a radio or television audience is expected to be at its highest;

Имиджмейкер – image-maker - a person who creates an appealing public image for something;

Ток-шоу – talk-show - a chat show in which listeners, viewers, or the studio audience participate in the discussion;

Плагиат – plagiarism - stealing and publishing another author's work.

Sports

Types of sport may have a literal meaning that is either challenging or completely impossible to translate into Russian.

Футбол– football – the game in which it is required to kick the ball with one’s foot;

Баскетбол – basketball - a game for two teams where points are scored by tossing the ball through the opponent's basket;

Волейбол – volleyball - a game for two teams, in which a large ball is hit by hand over a high net, the aim being to score points by making the ball reach the ground on the opponent's side of the court;

Фитнес – fitness – getting fit by exercising;

Бодибилдинг -bodybuilding - a sport involving physical exercise in order to strengthen and shape the body muscles.

Music

It is frequently claimed that today Russian teenagers listen mostly to music made by foreign artists. Nevertheless, even if a person likes Russian music he cannot escape from English loanwords, because the whole process of listening to music has already been modernized all over the world.

Плейлист – playlist – a list used for organizing a digital music collection;

Подкаст– podcast - a series of digital audio files;

Релиз– release - making a product available to the public;

Ремейк – remake - a piece of music recorded again.

Professions

The professional diversity is growing and the system of job terminology is getting more complicated as well. Nowadays it is sometimes necessary to look for a definition for a job’s name.

Брокер – broker - an agent who buys or sells for a principal on a commission basis without having title to the property;

Маркетинг – marketing - the action or business of promoting and selling products or services, including advertising and market research;

Менеджер – manager - person who has control or direction of an institution, business, etc.;

Промоутер – promoter - a person who helps finance and organize an event;

Фрилансер – freelancer – a person who works as a writer, performer, designer, selling work or services by the hour, day, job, etc., rather than working on a regular salary basis for one employer.

Food

With the increasing number of fast food chains all over the world, Russian food culture is always changing. This tendency dates back to the 1990-s when first fast service shops were introduced.

Чизбургер – cheeseburger – a beefburger with a slice of cheese on it, served in a bread roll;

Чикенбургер –chicken burger - A hot sandwich made of a patty of chicken in a bun, often with other ingredients;

Фаст-фуд – fast food – easily prepared processed food served in snack bars and restaurants as a quick meal or to be taken away;

Хот-дог - hot-dog – a frankfurter, especially one served hot in a long, soft roll and topped with various condiments;

Милкшейк – milkshake - a cold drink made of milk, a sweet flavouring such as fruit or chocolate, and typically ice cream, whisked until it is frothy;

Imitating the American lifestyle

Some Russian young people tend to follow the American fashion and that is the reason why they might use more loanwords in their speech. Some of these words are fairly normal and we do not view them as something special anymore. This group of borrowings is actually the most manifold. This variety can be explained by the fact that these words mainly mean subjects, notions, events, etc. that we come across in our daily lives.

Окей– okay – all right;

Лузер – loser - a person that loses especially consistently;

Бойфренд – boyfriend – a male friend;

Пати - party - a social gathering of invited guests, typically involving eating, drinking, and entertainment.

It is quite clear that different age groups have different aptitude for using Anglicism. In fact they are more popular among young people who tend to be more interested in new trends connected to European culture.

Social network

Modern teenagers, including the pupils of our school, use social network, such as TikTok, Instagram, widely. As a result, some penefrating in their borrowings are constant their speech.

Лайкнуть-express your opinion about what you liked by clicking the "like" button.

Фолловер-user who subscribed to account updates.

Хейтер-people for whom the main feeling of life is dislike.

CHAPTER 2. THE STUDY OF ANGLICISMSM USED BY OUR SCHOOL’S PUPILS

To figure out if the students of our school know what anglicisms are, the most popular spheres of using anglicisms and how often students use anglicisms I interviewed 33 pupils of the 8th, 9th and 11th forms. The questionnaire contains 5 questions. (Appx.1)

The results of my research are presented in the diagrams.

Diagram 1 shows that only 6% of pupils don’t know what anglicisms are.

Diagram1

Diagram 2 shows that 53% of pupils use anglicisms, because English words have no analogues in Russian. 31% of pupils use anglicisms, because English words are much shorter than Russian ones. Other pupils wanted to be on the same wavelength with their peers.

Diagram2

а. Many English words have no analogues in Russian

b. English words are much shorter than Russian ones

с. I want to be on the same wavelength with my peers

d. Another answer

Diagram 3 shows that 37% of pupils often use anglicisms, 42% of pupils don’t often use anglicisms and 21% of pupils use anglicisms seldom.

Diagram3

Diagram 4 shows that 82% of pupils use Anglicisms in everyday communication and social network, 18% of pupils use Anglicisms in music.

Diagram4

а. Everyday communication, social network

b. Music

с. Technologies, sport

CONCLUSION

In conclusion I would like to say that practically all pupils know what Anglicisms are (31 of 33). Half of the pupils use Anglicisms, because English words have no analogues in Russian. 31% of pupils use Anglicisms, because English words are much shorter than Russian ones.

More than 63% of pupils answer that they use English borrowings not often or seldom, and only 37% use them quite often. I think it can be explained by the fact that some borrowings have penetrated into Russian so deeply that pupils do not expect these words to be of an English origin. 27 pupils use Anglicisms in everyday communication while the rest 6 use them in the sphere connected with music.

I made “The Dictionary of a Modern Teenager” from the examples given by the pupils and can say that practically all of the words have the Russian analogues. Thus, the amount of borrowings in the Russian language is constantly increasing, and modern teenagers more and more use them in everyday communication and social network that obviously debases the Russian language.

Bibliography

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglicism

https://www.englishdom.com/blog/anglijskie-zaimstvovannye-slova-v-russkom-yazyke/

https://vk.com/doc179875788_534957703?hash=77824579036fcbe225&dl=d31b8779cb6309c5d2

https://vk.com/doc179875788_534957664?hash=7485131386cdc3598e&dl=9424ba2e817f114dbd

APPENDIXES

APPENDIX 1. The questionnaire

1. What do you think Anglicisms are?

2. Why do you use anglicisms?

3. How often do you use anglicisms in everyday speech?

4. What areas do you use аnglicisms most often?

5. What anglicisms do you know?

APPENDIX 2. «The Dictionary of a Modern Teenager»

Russian

English

Translate

Абьюз

Abuse

Насилие

Альт

Alternative

Иной, другой

Апгрейд

Upgrade

Улучшение в плане чего-либо

Бан

Bun

Блокировать, накладывать запрет

Бекап

Backup

Копирование

Блог

Blog

Сайт

Бойфренд

Boyfriend

Парень

Булет

Bullet

Пуля

Буллинг

Bulling

Травля, издевательства

Вау

WOW

Удивление

Гамбургер

Hamburger

Булочка с мясной начинкой

Геймер

Gamer

Специалист по компьютерным играм

Гёлфренд

Girlfriend

ДевушкаДевушка

Гуглить

To google

Искать в поисковике

Гуд

Good

Хорошо, отлично

Данс

Dance

Танцы

Дедлайн

Deadline

Крайний срок

Диджей

DJ

Человек, отвечающий за музыку

Донат

Donate

Пожертвование

Драг

Drug

Наркотик

Зачикиниться

Check in

Отметить своё геоположение

Изи

Easy

Легко, проще простого

Имиджмейкер

Image-maker

Стилист

Инсайд

Inside

Внутри

Камхиа

Come here

Подойди

Кил

Kill

Убийство (комп. игры)

Кликать

Click

Нажимать (монитор)

Контент

Content

Информационное содержание

Краш

Crush

Человек, который вам нравится

Крейзи

Crazy

Сумасшедший

Кринж

Cringe

Чувство стыда

Крипово

Сreepy

Страшно, пугающе

Кул

Cool

Круто, классно

Кэш

Cash

Наличные

Лайкать

Like

Оценить что-либо

Лайфхак

Life hack

Совет, облегчающий рутину

Лузер

Loser

Неудачник

Мани

Money

Деньги

Мэджик

Magic

Магия

Найс

Nice

Хорошо, отлично

Не айс

Not nice

Не очень хорошо, плохо

Нетворкинг

Networking

Общение с людьми, помогающее в карьерном росте

Никнейм

Nickname

Прозвище

Ньюсмейкер

Newsmaker

Журналист

ОК

OK

Хорошо, понятно

Панкейк

Pun cake

Кексы

Пати

Party

Вечеринка, праздник

Пиар

PR

Информирование с целью привлечения внимания

Плэй-лист

Playlist

Подборка песен

Пост

Post

Текст, фото или видео в соцсети

Прайс-лист

Price-list

Ценник, перечень цен

Пранк

Prank

Шутка

Пруф

Proof

Доказательства

Релиз

Release

Выпуск, демонстрация

Ресейл

Resale

Перепродажа чего-либо

Свайп

Swipe

Смахнуть

Секьюрити

Security

Охрана

Селфи

Selfie

Фото самого себя

Сервис

Service

Обслуживание

Скилл

Skill

Навык

Скример

Screamer

Существо, которое может вас напугать

Смайлик

Smile

Улыбка

Сори

Sorry

Извини, прости

Спикер

Speaker

Рассказывающий что-то человек

Спойлер

Spoiler

Преждевременное раскрытие важной информации (фильм, книга)

Сторис

Stories

История (соц. сети)

Стрейт

Straight

Идеология, связанная с субкультурой неопанков

Суперстар

Superstar

Звезда

Трек

Track

Песня, звуковая дорожка

Тренд

Trend

Основная тенденция изменения

Троллинг

Trolling

Провокации или издевательства

Фаршутинг

Farshooting

Дальняя стрельба (комп. игры)

Фейк

Fake

Подделка, ложь

Фейл

Fail

Позор, неудача

Фейс

Face

Лицо

Фитбэк

Feedback

Отзыв, отклик

Флексить

Flex

Хвастаться и выпендриваться

Флешбек

Flashback

Воспоминание

Фолловер

Follower

Подписчик в соц. сети

Френдзона

Friend zone

Дружеские отношения

Фэйвор

Favorite

Любимый

Хайп

Hype

Агрессивная и навязчивая реклама

Хейтер

Hater

Ненавистник

Хелп

Help

Помощь

Хэнд-мейд

Hand-made

Ручная работа

Чекать

Check

Проверять

Чиллить

Chill

Отдыхать, бездельничать

Шейминг

Shaming

Унижение, пристыжение

Шоппинг

Shopping

Поход по магазинам

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