Экологически-сознательные потребители

XIII Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке. Летняя площадка 2021

Экологически-сознательные потребители

Федосеева А.Н. 1
1МБОУ Лесногородская средняя образовательная школа
Логвинова Л.А. 1
1МБОУ Лесногородская средняя образовательная школа
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Научно-исследовательская работа

Предмет

Английский язык

Темаработы

Ecologically conscious consumers

Выполнил(а):

Федосеева Анна Николаевна

учащий(ая)ся _10 А_ класса

MБОУ Лесногородской средней образовательной школы

Руководитель:

Логвинова Людмила Александровна

Учитель английского и немецкого языков

МБОУ Лесногородской средней образовательной школы

Contents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………….…..2

History of ecology..…………………………………..………….……………........…. 3

Ecology now. …………………………………………………………….….………....4

The most ecology countries …..………………………………………………………5-6

Ecology in Russia ………………………………………………………………………6

Why do we needecology?……………………………………………….……………7-8

What is our trash made of?..……………………...………..…………………....….. 9-10

Ecology and fashion…………………………………………………………….…. 10-11

Zero waste………………………………………………………………………….12-13

Ecology and music…………………………………………………………….……...14

Eco- friendly toys…………………….……………………………………………......15

Let’s go to the supermarket………………………………………………………....16-20

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..................21

Bibliography………………………………………………………………………….. 22

Appendix 1………………………………………………………………………….23-25

Appendix 2……………………………………………………………………..…...26-29

Introduction

Do you know what is an ecology? Well, as a very narrow concept, it is a part of our casual life.Ecology! What does this word mean? It isa sciencewhich learns relationship of people, animal and plants among oneself and environment. Without these words we will not be able to live in the future, because amount of people, cars, factories, rubbish is getting lower and lower, and if we do not start to think what can I do to make my life eco-friendly, our life will be awful. So, I decided to show people what they can do to save our world.

The Aim of the research:

to learn what is ecology itself and how it affects our live

The tasks of the research:

to learn the history of the ecology

to learn the kinds of ecology and its usage

to see what is ecology in our modern world

to analyze all thecollected materials and to sum everything up

The Hypothesis of the research:

ecology is the most important problem in the world

The object of the research:

ecologically conscious consumers

The subject of the research:

the factors which motivate people to improve ecology

History

Ecology is a field of science that began to develop rapidly in the second half of the 20th century. Despite this, ecology ideas began to form from a long time ago. Ecology as a science have been created gradually and the principles of ecology have been developed gradually too, closely intertwined with the development of other biological disciplines. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, great maritime powers, such as Great Britain and Spain, sent world research expeditions to develop maritime trade with other countries. These expeditions brought together many scientists, including botanists such as German researcher Alexander von Humboldt. Humboldt is often considered the father of ecology. He was the first who began to study the relationship between organisms and their environment.

Human ecology

Human ecology began in the 1920s through the study of changes in succession in the city of Chicago. It became a separate area of research conducted in the 1970s. In 1972 the United Nations hosted the first international conference on the human environment in Stockholm, prepared by Rene Dabos and other experts. This conference was held under the slogan “Think globally, act locally”.

The Russian zoologist V.M. Shimkevich.The German explorer Alexander Humboldt

Ecology now

WWF or World Wildlife Fund

The world's largest non-profit environmental organization with more than five million supporters WWF was founded by British biologist and businessman Julian Huxley. Over the decades of its existence, representatives of the World Fund have managed to make many projects. For example, WWF could save the Far Eastern leopard from the dangerous line of complete extinction: over the years of WWF's work, its number has grown from 30 to 50 individuals. Also,on the initiative of WWF, a state strategy for the conservation of the species was developed and approved, existing protected areas were supported and new ones created.

According to their site with the active support and participation of WWF, the International Forum about Tiger Conservation was held in St. Petersburg in 2010. The heads of government of 13 states adopted a species rescue program.

Greenpeace

Greenpeace includes 27 independent national and regional organizations with the representations in 55 countries. Annually the representations from all offices Greenpeace meet for making decisions about global questions.

For 25 years of work, with their active participation in Russia, 2 reserves and 4 national parks have been created, 8 territories have acquired the status of UNESCO World Natural Heritage sites.

Greenpeace also have a lot of diverse project. For example, RRREACTION is a Greenpeace project about the climate crisis. They are narrate with the simple word about changing of climate and its consequences.

The most ecology countries

Finland

The Environmental Performance Index is a combined indicator of the state of the environment and the efficiency of natural resource management.

Based on this index, in 2016 the List of Countries by the Environmental Performance Index was provided by the World University of Economics in cooperation with the Joint Research Center of the European Commission is presented. The list covers 180 countries.19 indicators which were used, were distributed in nine “political categories”. The categories are grouped into two large groups: the viability of the ecosystem (assessment of the level of protection of ecosystems and the efficiency of natural resource management) and environmental health which evaluates the level of protection of human health from adverse environmental factors. Finland was located in the first place. This is not surprising.

After all, almost all Finnish supermarkets and shopping centers have collection points for aluminum cans, plastic and glass bottles. Used batteries and lamps can be returned to the stores where they are sold, and soon the same system will begin to work for all electronic devices. Households are actively involved in the process of waste processing, sorting and processing of metal, textiles, and plastics are constantly being improved. By the way, for common consumer, collecting plastic helps not only to preserve the environment, but also to save on waste disposal costs.

Sweden

This country takes the 3rd place.

The country recycles 99 percent of garbage and there are lessons about recycle of garbage the Kindergartens. There is an environmental movement called Plogging. Then you run and collect garbage.Nowadays a lot of people use solar panels to generate electricity and ground heat exchangers to provide the house with heat and hot water. The energy of wing is usedin many houses.To reduce dependence on oil and the pollution of city streets, the Swedish government has ordered to use the transfer of buses, trucks and taxis to environmentally friendly fuels.All vehicles which provide passenger transportation services in Swedish cities will have run on biogas obtained from sewage and food industry wasteby 2020.

Ecology in Russia

According to the situation in 2018, more than 70 million tons of solid municipal waste is generated annually in Russia. Most of it ar sent to landfills without any sorting and disposal. Only 3-5% of waste is recycled and returned to industrial use. 5-7% of garbage is recycled, the rest is buried. The disposal of over 30 billion tons of waste can be appeared in Russia. Toxic substances from landfills threaten the life and health of more than 17 million people. Only 40% of people use clean water. There were about 22 thousand unauthorized dumps at the beginning of 2018in Russia.

Now Russia has a difficult situation. A lot of zero waste are appeared. Stores with the principle of zero waste were added to the ecological online guide Kapoosta.ru. Points ofthe cities are there on the map, 70 of them are located in Moscow. You can buy bulk and bottled products in your container, as well as find an alternative to disposable items. The list will continue to grow.

Why do you need ecology now? Why people should care about the environment? How relevant is this problem?

A lot of people think that a problem of ecology is not important, everything is good, or at least not so bad. I do not want to do something or I cannot do anything. Well, I want to show you how relevant a problem of ecology is now.

Major environmental problems in the world and in Russia

Changing of the climate

The climate is changing over the past century and a half. There are significantly more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which retain heat at the Earth's surface (like a blanket) and warm the planet.

There are several main reasons why amount of greenhouse gases are getting lower:

combustion of fossil fuels (oil, coal and gas) in power plants and in an internal combustion engine

reduction in forest area (due to fires and deforestation)

decomposition of electrical waste in landfills

agriculture (especially livestock)

Climate change destroys the favorable conditions in which our civilization developed. Everything that our life depends on is under threat: weather, agriculture, biodiversity, infrastructure. Due to the rise in the level of the World Ocean, entire cities and countries may go under water, and other territories will become uninhabitable due to the heat. Problems with food and drinking water can increase the number of refugees and armed conflicts.

Fires

Fires are a global problem, as they have a huge impact on the planet's climate. Soot from fires reaches the Arctic and settles on the ice, intensifying their melting. Carbon dioxide is released during combustion into the atmosphere. It is one of the gases which is responsible for the greenhouse effect and climate change.

The results of opinion polls show that almost half of Russians believe that the forest ignites from the sun and heat. However, the real cause of wildfires lies in human actions: burning of dry grass, because the fires are not extinguished and thrown cigarette butts.

Rubbish

One of the main reasons for the growing volume of waste is the uncontrolled growth in the production and use of disposable goods, containers and packaging, especially plastic ones.

What is our trash made of?

The composition of SMW (Solid municipal waste): paper and cardboard - 35%, food waste - 41%, plastics - 3%, glass - 8%, metals - 4%, textiles and others - 9%.

Let's talk about paper and plastic, because paper makes up 35 percent of waste and plastic is only 3 percent, but at the same time it is a very common material that is very harmful to the environment.

Paper

It is generally accepted that the wood from which the paper is made is a suitable ecological raw material for the production of products. However, modern methods of papermaking involve the use of a large amount of chemistry for its processing, therefore the environmental aspects of production are disputed.According to WWF and Greenpeace,a large percentage of forests,where are the procurements, have a wide variety of flora and fauna that are ecologically valuable.

Plastics

Accumulations of plastic waste form special garbage spots in the oceans under the influence of currents. These waste cycles are mainly made up of plastic waste from discharges from the densely populated coastal areas of the continents. Plastic debris is dangerous because marine animals often cannot see transparent things floating on the surfaceand toxic waste gets into their stomach, often causing death.The spread of plastic pollution correlates with the low price and durability of plastics, as well as the indispensability of this material at the moment in some areas, which determines the high level of their use by humans. For 2018, about 380 million tons of plastic are produced worldwide every year. In total, from 1950 to 2018, about 6.3 billion tons of plastic were produced, of which about 9% wеre recycled and 12% were burned. The world leaders in the pollution of the planet are Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and Nestlé.

The average decomposition time for plastic products, which were created using different technologies, ranges from 400 to 700 years. Plastic bags, which are used by people on a daily basis, decompose in nature from 100 to 200 years. This is the flip side of the strength and durability of plastic products. Then, plastics falling into the ground,are broken down into small particles and can be released into the environment chemicals added to them during production. It can be chlorine, various chemicals, such as toxic or carcinogenic anti-flames. These chemicals can beseeped into groundwater or other nearby water sources, which can cause serious harm to those who drink this water.

Ecology and fashion

In 2012 the journal Natural Science published a report that dyeing and finishing fabrics (fabrics in general, not just textiles for clothing) are the second source of freshwater pollution after agriculture.

So, in 2015 this industry sector emitted 1.2 billion tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It is more than all aircraft and ships in the world produced at the same period. Also, the fashion industry accounts the fifth part of the world's freshwater pollution.

Reformation, a clothing company, has ranked sustainable fabrics. It consists of 5 categories. We only need the best and worst fabrics:

A - All stars: Recycled Cotton, Organic Linen, Organic Hemp, Regenerative Organic Certified Cotton, Recycled Used Leather

E - Fu, never use: Silk, Cotton, Wool & Cashmere, Acrylic, Recycled Acrylic, Viscose, Nylon, Recycled Nylon, Polyester, Recycled Polyester, Spandex, PVC, Fur, Angora and Mohair.

But, why is ordinary cotton listed as one of the first most dangerous materials? Cotton is harmless itself. But, in what way is it grown? How many chemicals are fertilized and how much water does it take to grow.As a result, dangerous material is obtained. I focused on cotton because many people think that it is safe and harmless.

But, you should understand what not only cotton is dangerous.

The level decrease of the Aral Sea is an ecological collapse.

Before drying up, the Aral Sea was the fourth largest lake in the world. The degradation of the Aral Sea began in the 1960s, when a big amount of water from rivers the SyrDarya and AmuDarya were used for irrigation of the giant cotton fields in Uzbekistan. As a result, the sea receded significantly from its coast. The bottom was exposed, covered with sea salt and mixed with pesticides and other chemicals that get into the water during the cotton growing.

As a result, a large number of people were affected, pulmonary diseases, heart attacks were escalated, living standards were decreased. Many fishermen lost their jobs. The climate was changed. It became much hotter in summer and colder in winter. Every year 75 million tons of salt are risen from the bottom of the Aral Sea by winds. Poisonous salt of the Aral region was found in the blood of the penguins of Antarctica, on the glaciers of Greenland, as well as in the forests of Norway, in the fields of Belarus.

What can I do? Zero waste.

Zero Waste is a set of principles aimed at minimizing waste through reusable items and belongings. Zero Waste's goal is to stop sending any garbage to landfills, incinerators or the ocean.There are 5 basic principles of zero waste rule 5 p Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Rot.

Refuse

First of all if you don’t want to make garbage you should refuse from plastic containing product, like ear sticks the base not only contains plastic, but they are also harmful to our ears .

Reduce

It does not mean what you must throw away all things which seams not eco- friendly, you just should not buy any plastic stuff , like bottels, bags and try to find replacement for them which will be eco friendly.

Reuse

For example, If you cannot reduce from disposable cotton wool pads, you should replace them for reusable cotton pads.

Recycle

Once you've given up on items, reduced your consumption, and started reusing reusable items, you have very little junk left. However, be sure to sort your trash so that these resources can be reused rather than sent to landfill.

Rot

For example you can buy a dispenser for the sink or compost worms that will eat up all organic waste and you do not need care for them.

Join the modern movement, because it will benefit not only nature, but also your wallet and mood!

What is an ecologymusic?

Music noise that disturbs others.

We want to find out what the researchers of the new direction try to inform people.

For example, the neighbors turned on the music very loudly. How do they violate the personal space of other people or people who does the same in the car and they are not interested in the fact that passers may not like this song.

Area music and a noise two different things?

Yes, they are different. Noise differs from musical sound in its variability, chaotic nature. In addition, it is not always harmonious. But they are intertwined with each other. After all, music is subjective: someone thinks, for example, pop music is just noise. In addition, composers can use sounds and noises as elements in their works.

You need to approach music consciously

Music affects the health, upbringing, and development of a person. Therefore, it, like other types of art, must be approached consciously: to separate high-quality and low-quality music, to understand what music causes aggression and inappropriate behavior.

The development of technology has led to the fact that the concert halls of the philharmonic and opera houses are empty. People prefer to listen to music with headphones, and they do not need society.

Eco-friendly toys

Environmental habits are gradually becoming part of our way of life: our food, our clothing, the transport It is true. But, what about the children?The most of the games and toys that our children receive are made of plastic. Dolls, parts of buildings, cars, trucks, buckets and shovels, kitchens and lots of plastic accessories, not to mention fancy gadgets.

Why should we choose eco-friendly materials for toys?

Ecological toys bring kids closer to nature, creating a special, intuitive sensitivity to it. As a rule, these are toys which can be passed down from generation to generation (we all remember wooden trains and rag dolls, right?).They improve the physical and mental health of the child, unlike electronic devices, which on the contrary contribute to a sedentary lifestyle.On the contrary, toys made from natural materials are not more expensive, but more economical, because they are stronger and more durable, do not go out of fashion.

And finally, toys made of natural materials are easy to dispose or recycle.

All this together gives us a more thoughtful approach, both to our lives and the health of our children, and to nature in general. Take care of them and yourself!

Environmentally conscious consumer

Let go to the supermarket!

If you want to be an environmentally conscious consumer, it is important to know how to go to the store correctly, because it is a part of our daily life. I had a specific list of products that I needed to buy and I decided to go to the store to show that you can buy products with a minimum of waste.

First of all, I want to show which things I take.

There are two cotton bags, plastic bag (it was superfluous in my room and I found a use for him) and backpack. I am ready to go. Let’s go!

My list:

Apples

Pomegranate

Pears

Bananas

Tea

Milk

Pickled cucumbers

Buckwheat

Pasta

I am in the fruit department. Everything is so easy. I just would not take plastic bags

Simple choice, I take the right ones.

When I came to the store, there were no bananas at all, I poured such but if you find a lone banana, be sure to take it. There is a special movement dedicated to saving bananas. Unfortunately, in my store there was no tea by weight and I had to take that one.

But, it is much better and tastier than that one.

I am in the dairy department. How do you think which of these bottles are the most eco-friendly?

If you choose the third one you are totally right, a glass is the most environmental material, because it is endlessly recyclable. The second place is a plastic bottle and the third place is a cardboard packaging. But, this bottle consists ofpolyethylene, aluminum foil and finely cardboard.

 

I need Buckwheat. I want to take it on left, it is also packed in plastic but there is much smaller than on right.

As a result, it is easy to go to the supermarket and you needn’t buy plastic.

Conclusion

To sum up, the ecology has a great print in history and in our life today. It was interesting to get to know something new about it, because I want to be an ecologist. I am very happy to know that in the world there are many organizationrelated to it. And people start to realize that ecology is very important. I was so surprised when I knew how irresponsible people influence nature.

People begin to think how they can make their lives more eco-friendly. Honestly, it’s hard to imagine our world without ecology. If you want to change the world, start with yourself.

Bibliography

https://wwf.ru/ 10.02

https://greenpeace.ru/11.02

https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D1%8D%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%B8 12.02

https://www.education-medelle.com/articles/samye-ekologicheski-chistye-strany-mira-v-2016.html?lang=ru 13.02

https://e-finland.ru/travel/general/ekologiya-po-finski.html 15.02

https://ru.visiticeland.com/pure-iceland 15.02

https://nat-geo.ru/travel/energiya-zhizni/ 16.02

https://recyclemag.ru/ 17.02

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D1%83%D1%81%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B8%D1%81_%D0%B2_%D0%A0%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%B8 18.02

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D1%83%D1%81%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B8%D1%81_%D0%B2_%D0%A0%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%B819.02

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%81%D1%8B#%D0%A2%D0%B8%D0%BF%D1%8B_%D0%BF%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%8126.02

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B5_%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%B3%D1%80%D1%8F%D0%B7%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B528.02

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%B3%D0%B0#%D0%9A%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%81%D0%B8%D1%84%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D0%BA%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%B2_%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B8 28.02

Appendix 1

Firstly, I have made with sheets questions. Then I give them to the students.

Then I counted the answers.

Everybody is considered that glass is the most environmental material.

About 9% of them said that fires happen because of natural causes and 91% because of people.

Then 50% of them said that they buy clothes once a month and 50 % once a week.

That'sall I learned

Appendix 2

The museum of my school and eco-friendly toys in it.

This museum was founded by Grigoriev Vladimir Mikhailovich and his wife Lidia Ivanovna Grigorieva in 1968.

 

Just look at these interesting toys!

Ritual dolls, dolls amulets.

Russian folk toys.

Kubar, folk game.

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