English proverbs and sayings and their Russian equivalents.

XV Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

English proverbs and sayings and their Russian equivalents.

Янович Е.М. 1
1МБОУ "СОШ №16
Сафонова Н.М. 1
1МБОУ "СОШ №16
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

Актуальность: заключается не только в улучшении речи и обогащении своего языка при помощи пословиц и поговорок, но и знакомства с многовековой мудростью народа, а также с национальным характером жителей Великобритании. Пословицы и поговорки являются одним их наиболее труднопонимаемых разновидностей каждого иностранного языка, но знание пословиц и поговорок того или иного народа способствует не только лучшему знанию языка, но и лучшему взаимопониманию и сближению двух народов.

Проблема проекта: трудность в общении с носителями языка которые используют пословицы и поговорки в своей речи не задумываясь.

Гипотеза: в английском языке много пословиц и поговорок, они похожи на русские пословицы, но изучающие английский язык недостаточно знакомы с ними.

Цели проекта: ознакомиться и сравнить поговорки и пословицы в английском и русском языках.

Задачи проекта:

познакомиться с английскими пословицами и поговорками;

узнать, происхождение английских пословиц и поговорок;

сравнить английские и русские пословицы и поговорки;

найти эквиваленты английских пословиц в русском языке;

провести анкетирование;

Объект исследования: английский и русские пословицы и поговорки.

Предмет исследования: сходства и различия между английскими и русскими поговорками.

Content

Introduction ..............................................................................................................3

Definitions proverbs and sayings and the history of their appearance .….……......4

The difficulties of translation of English Proverbs and sayings in Russian language.....................................................................................................................5

Classification of English Proverbs and sayings in relation to their Russian equivalents.................................................................................................................7

Results of the survey...............................................................................................11

Conclusion..............................................................................................................12

Bibliography .....……………………………………………….…...………..……13

Application ………...........…………………………………….……….………...14

Introduction

This work is devoted to Russian and English proverbs, sayings, their similarities and differences.

Speaking English correctly is very important. But it is equally important to learn to talk figuratively, vividly, emotionally. After all, the emotional poverty of our statements prevents us from getting close to those for whom English is the mother tongue. Proverbs help us achieve this. The proverbs and sayings of any nation contain the wisdom, spirit and experience of the people. Therefore, knowledge of proverbs and sayings will help not only in learning languages, but also a better understanding of the way of thinking, habits, traditions, worldview and character of the people.

From a scientific point of view, the relevance of this work lies in the fact that English and Russian have a lot in common and this brings people closer together.

Picture 1 – Proverbs1.

From a social point of view, the work is relevant, because when a person comprehends the language of proverbs, he comprehends the culture of the people and on this basis the spirituality of a person is formed. The general characteristics of proverbs and sayings indicate the presence of common traditions in English and Russian cultures.

By exploring the language of proverbs and sayings, you improve your language literacy and learn about the culture of the people.

Definition of a proverb and a saying

A proverb is a genre of folklore, an aphoristically concise, figurative, grammatically and logically complete saying with an instructive meaning in a rhythmically organized form.

A proverb is a figurative expression, a turn of speech that aptly defines a phenomenon of life; unlike proverbs, they lack a generalizing instructive meaning.

Proverbs and sayings are a widespread genre of oral folk art. The time of the emergence of proverbs and sayings is unknown, but we know for sure that proverbs and sayings originated long ago in antiquity, since that time it helps people to show and pass on their history, share the experience and wisdom gained over centuries to the younger generation by word of mouth. The proverb has the ability to express in a very brief form a huge value - the result of the accumulated experience of the people.

The proverbs and sayings reflect the rich historical experience of the people, ideas related to work, life and culture of people. The correct and appropriate use of proverbs and sayings in speech gives a unique originality and expressiveness. No matter how magnificent all these short proverbial speeches were, their power was ahead – it appeared in the midst of a conversation, when it was necessary to back up the speech with an apt remark, observation, and conclusion, to reveal the very essence of what was said.

In our modern time, the meaning of proverbs and sayings has remained the same: consolation in trouble, a hint for life, a reminder of what should not be forgotten, observance of tradition, beautiful speech. Proverbs and sayings are especially valuable material of oral folk art, the study of which allows you to improve your knowledge of this language, as well as to comprehend the norms and rules of behavior in society; the features of proverbs and sayings are their nationality, brevity, imagery. English proverbs and sayings are a very good way to plunge into the real living English language, to better understand the traditions, history and culture of people for whom English is their native language.

Difficulties in translating English proverbs and sayings into Russian

English has its own word order, and Russian has a different one.

There can never be two negatives in an English phrase, and in Russian we have just used two of them: “never”, “not”. An English phrase would literally sound like this: “There can never be two negatives in an English phrase.” The Russian language is flexible, and it allows you to keep the English word order in a phrase, but not always.

The English phrase “He was not ready” literally translates as “онбылнеготов.” This is the order of words that hurts the ear, and we change it to “Оннебылготов.” Difficulties in translating English proverbs and sayings arise and have always arisen. And, taking into account all the features of a particular language, it is very difficult to translate what is considered part of the culture of one people into another language. For example, the English proverb “The pot calls the kettle black” literally translates as: «Горшокобзываетэтотчайникчёрным».

Picture 2 – Illustration of the proverb “The pot calls the kettle black”2.

If the meaning of the proverb is clear to the English, then for a Russian person this proverb seems to be something new, so the meaning is not always fully revealed. So, in order for us to understand what the English wanted to say with a proverb, we need to look for the Russian equivalent: «Чьябыкоровамычала, атвояпомолчала»3.

This option is more understandable and closer to the Russian person. But if you translate it into English, you get the following: “Anyone's cow may moo, but yours should keep quiet”.

As you can see, the initial version is far from the final one.

Picture 3 – The proverb translation process 4.

Classification of English proverbs and sayings in relation to Russian equivalents

Many proverbs and sayings are easily translated into Russian. The literal translation coincides with the Russian proverb.

Others need an explanation, because on the contrary, they have nothing to do with our Russian expressions, although you can sometimes guess what the British want to say.

Thus, proverbs and sayings can be divided into the following categories:

1. English proverbs and sayings that are completely translated the same way into Russian, as a result, the English version fully corresponds to our:

Strike while the iron is hot.

Translation: Куй железо пока горячо.

The forbidden fruit is always the sweetest.

Translation: Запретный плод всегда сладок 5.

Picture 4 – Illustration of the proverb “The forbidden fruit is always the sweetest.”6

My hands are tied.

Translation: Мои руки связаны.

2. English proverbs and sayings that are partially translated the same way into Russian; as a result, the English version is slightly different from Russian:

Money doesn’t grow on trees.

Translation: Деньги не растут на деревьях.

Equivalent: Деньги на дороге не валяются7.

Picture 5 – Illustration of the proverb

Money doesn’t grow on trees”! 8

He, who laughs last, laughs longest.

Translation: Тот, кто смеется последним, смеется дольше всех.

Equivalent: Хорошо смеется тот, кто смеется последним.

Don’t judge a book by its cover.

Translation: Не суди книгу по ее обложке.

Equivalent: Не все то золото, что блестит 9.

3. English proverbs and sayings that are completely different in translation into Russian, as a result, the English version does not correspond to Russian:

It's better to be safe than sorry.

Translation: Лучше поберечься, чем потом сожалеть.

Equivalent: Семь раз отмерь – один отрежь.

It takes two to tango.

Translation: Танго танцуют вдвоем.

Equivalent: В ссоре всегда виноваты оба.

Picture 6 – Illustration of the proverbIt takes two to tango”10.

The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence.

Translation: Трава всегда зеленее по другую сторону забора.

Equivalent: Хорошо там, где нас нет.

4. English proverbs and sayings that do not have a correspondence in the Russian language, not even having analogues, they are translated only in a descriptive way:

Charity begins at home.

Translation: Благотворительность начинается дома.

Description: Прежде чем заботиться о других, нужно позаботиться о себе и своей семье.

Better to light a candle than to curse the darkness.

Translation: Лучше зажечь свечу, чем проклинать темноту.

Description: Вместо того чтобы винить обстоятельства, нужно что-то сделать, чтобы их изменить.

Picture 7 – Illustration of the proverb “Better to light a candle than to curse the darkness”11.

Great minds think alike.

Translation:Великиеумымыслятодинаково.

Description: Люди с одинаковыми умственными способностями могут одновременно додуматься до одного и того же.

Myfavoriteproverb:

Без труда не вынешь и рыбку из пруда.

English equivalent: He who would catch fish must not mind getting wet.

Translation: Кто хочет поймать рыбку, тот не должен бояться и вымокнуть.

Picture 7 – Illustration my favorite proverb12.

Results of the survey

In order to find out how familiar the students of School №16 are with English proverbs and sayings, I conducted a questionnaire. It was attended by 24 students. They were asked to correlate parts of 5 English proverbs (Application 1).

Analysis of the survey results shows that 7 students (29%) could not cope with the task at all. 5 people (21%) were able to correctly select only one match. 3 students (12%) coped with two proverbs. 5 people (21%) correctly correlated three proverbs. 4 people (17%) did everything correctly.

Diagram 1 – Results of the survey.

Thus, we can conclude that the students of the 6th grades of our school know English proverbs and sayings very poorly. They find it difficult to correlate parts of proverbs, and some performed this task at random.

Conclusion

It has long been noticed that the wisdom and spirit of the people are manifested in its proverbs and sayings, and the knowledge of proverbs and sayings of a particular people contributes not only to a better knowledge of the language, but also to a better understanding of the way of thinking and character of the people.

Comparison of proverbs and sayings of different peoples shows how much these peoples have in common, which, in turn, contributes to their better understanding and rapprochement. The proverbs and sayings reflect the rich historical experience of the people, ideas related to work, life and culture of people.

The relevance of this topic is due to the need not only to learn English, but also to get acquainted with the national character of the inhabitants of the country of the language being studied. The correct and appropriate use of proverbs and sayings gives speech a unique originality and special expressiveness. Working with proverbs, with their translation, I learned a lot of useful things for myself, learned new words in a foreign language, and enriched my speech with proverbs, both in English and in Russian.

So, I have completed all the tasks. During the research, my hypothesis was partially confirmed – there are indeed many proverbs and sayings in the English language, but not all of them are similar to Russian proverbs. My peers who study English are not familiar enough with them. Thus, the work can be used by English teachers in the classroom and in extracurricular activities.

Bibliography

Митина И.Е. Английские пословицы и поговорки и их русские аналоги. – СПб.: Каро, 2006.

https://latterdaysaintmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Proverbs.jpg

https://twstatic.net/attachments/img_6832-jpg.1389458/

http://900igr.net/up/datas/226865/009.jpg

https://langformula.ru/pogovorki-i-poslovicy-na-anglijskom-yazyke/

https://media-1.creema.net/user/1519029/exhibits/3452264/0_05aa66d3d9d7cb6a75fa22f119029b4e_250x200.jpg

https://englishapple.ru/index.php/blog/901-английские-пословицы-и-их-русские-аналоги

https://static.vecteezy.com/system/resources/previews/000/474/736/original/vector-idiom-poster-with-money-doesn-t-grow-on-trees.jpg

https://blog.esl-languages.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/it-takes-two-to-tango.jpg

https://i.pinimg.com/originals/f5/9b/cf/f59bcf9375ca0fe259a0405f6aefd516.png

https://ds04.infourok.ru/uploads/ex/00b7/001891c6-64aed079/img4.jpg

Application

Application 1

Анкетирование

Соедини части английских пословиц:

Don’t bite the hand perfect.

Practice makes  that feeds you.

He who laughs last, found again.

Lost time is never an island.

No man is laughs longest.

Correct answers.

Анкетирование

Соедини части английских пословиц:

Don’t bite the hand perfect.

Practice makes  that feeds you.

He who laughs last, found again.

Lost time is never an island.

No man is laughs longest.

1 https://latterdaysaintmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Proverbs.jpg

2 https://twstatic.net/attachments/img_6832-jpg.1389458/

3 Митина И.Е. Английские пословицы и поговорки и их русские аналоги. – СПб.: Каро, 2006

4 http://900igr.net/up/datas/226865/009.jpg

5 https://langformula.ru/pogovorki-i-poslovicy-na-anglijskom-yazyke/

6https://media-1.creema.net/user/1519029/exhibits/3452264/0_05aa66d3d9d7cb6a75fa22f1 19029b4e_250x200.jpg

7 https://media-1.creema.net/user/1519029/exhibits/3452264/0_05aa66d3d9d7cb6a75fa22f 119 029b4e_250x200.jpg

8 https://static.vecteezy.com/system/resources/previews/000/474/736/original/vector-idiom-poster -with-money-doesn-t-grow-on-trees.jpg

9https://englishapple.ru/index.php/blog/901-английские-пословицы-и-их-русские-аналоги

10 https://static.vecteezy.com/system/resources/previews/000/474/736/original/vector-idiom-poster-with-money-doesn-t-grow-on-trees.jpg

11https://i.pinimg.com/originals/f5/9b/cf/f59bcf9375ca0fe259a0405f6aefd516.png

12 https://ds04.infourok.ru/uploads/ex/00b7/001891c6-64aed079/img4.jpg

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