Сравнительный анализ образа дракона в китайских и английских идиомах

XXI Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Сравнительный анализ образа дракона в китайских и английских идиомах

Рехлова Э.Н. 1
1Муниципального бюджетного общеобразовательного учреждение "Основная общеобразовательная школа ст. Миннибаево" Альметьевского муниципального района РТ
Ахметзагирова Г.М. 1
1Муниципального бюджетного общеобразовательного учреждение "Основная общеобразовательная школа ст. Миннибаево" Альметьевского муниципального района РТ
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

INTRODUCTION

The brightness and attractiveness of such a turn of speech as an idiom contributed to the fact that there has been an extensive literature about it for a long time. It has long been noticed that the wisdom and spirit of the people are manifested in idioms, and knowledge of the idioms of a particular people contributes not only to a better knowledge of the language, but also to a better understanding of the way of thinking and character of the people. Comparing the idioms of different peoples indicates how much these peoples have in common, which, in turn, contributes to their better understanding and rapprochement. The idioms reflect the rich historical experience of the people, ideas related to work, life and culture of people. The correct and appropriate use of idioms gives speech a unique originality and special expressiveness.

The study aims to examine the most used idioms about the dragon available in English and Chinese sources, distribute them thematically and conduct a comparative analysis of the image of the dragon created by the English and Chinese people.

The object of research: dictionaries of idioms of English and Chinese.

The subject of research: idioms about the dragon in English and Chinese.

Research objectives:

  • To conduct a comparative analysis of the dragon image in English and Chinese idioms.

  • To identify the key thematic groups of idioms about the dragon in English and Chinese.

  • To draw an illustration of one of the idioms.

  • To create an interactive simulator for better memorization of idioms.

Research methods: semantic, stylistic, contextual and comparative analyses were used as the main research methods in the work. The effectiveness of an integrated approach to the study of the creativity of the two cultures made it possible to identify similarities and differences in their semantic and syntactic structures.

Research hypothesis: the history of the country's development, ethnographic realities from tools to clothing; landscapes, climate, flora and fauna, echoes of ancient religious beliefs create a difference in the image of a dragon and a tiger in English and Chinese.

The relevance of the work lies in the fact that the study of idioms leads to a more detailed and in-depth understanding of the interaction of different cultures. Idioms are part of the history of the development of the people and their lives. They help to better understand the national character of people, their interests and traditions. The possession of a large stock of idioms, as well as their understanding, has an undoubted benefit in the life of any person. This work will be useful because it will allow students to actively apply and use idioms in the classroom and in extracurricular activities, as well as in preparation for contests, quizzes and Olympiads in English and Chinese. In addition, the proposed material can be used by those wishing to expand and deepen their knowledge of the language.

CHAPTER I. The theory of the question.

1.1. Whatisanidiom?

There are many definitions of the concept of "idiom". We present you some of them, taken from different dictionaries.

Idiom — [gr. the idiom is a peculiar expression] linguistically stable turn of speech, the meaning of which is not determined by the meaning of the words included in it; an indecomposable phrase (e.g., "carelessly", "headlong") is a dictionary of foreign words of the Russian language.

An idiom is an indecomposable phrase peculiar only to a given language, the meaning of which does not coincide with the meaning of its constituent words taken separately - A new dictionary of foreign languages.

An idiom is a turn of speech, an expression peculiar to any language that cannot be translated literally into another language -A large dictionary of foreign words.

The Modern Chinese Language”, edited by Xing Fuyi and Wang Gosheng, presents the following definition: "idioms are fixed phrases passed down from generation to generation and widely used with apt meanings and concise form. [3, p. 74].

“The Dictionary of Modern Chinese” (2012, 6th edition) defines idioms as follows: "Widely and long-used stable phrases or phrases that have deep meanings" [4, p. 58].

The beginning of the theoretical study of idioms in the Anglo-American tradition is from G. Sweet. He noted complex words in which the meaning of the whole is "isolated" from the meaning of the parts. Nevertheless, the scope of the concept of "idiom" in its interpretation is limited only by sentences. Later, for almost 60 years, the study of idioms is mainly associated with the creation of practical manuals, dictionaries and reference books for English language learners.

Idioms are considered in the works of L.Smith (1959), C.Friese, J.Bar-Hillel (1970), J.Katea and N.Postal, W.Weinreich (1969), B.Fraser, Y.Naida, M.Pei (1966), C.Hocket (1958; 1973), W.Cheif (1970, 1975), A.McKie (1972), C. Fernando (1978), F.Palmer (1982), K.Biggs (1982) and other linguists.

Thus, in the Anglo-American tradition, an idiom began to be understood as any figurative expression with a national identity (phrases, proverbs, sayings, exclamations, some cliches and even onomatopoeic words).

The broader picture of research on idiomatic can be traced in the European continental tradition associated with the teachings of S. Bally and the early works of Russian scientists. It is generally assumed that S.Bally for the first time in the history of linguistics, Bally theoretically comprehended stable combinations, laying the foundations of modern phraseology.

The Modern Chinese Language”, edited by Huang Boron and Liao Xudong, summarized the idioms as follows: "Idioms are fixed phrases with rich meanings in the style of book language, which have been widely and long used in society. [5, p.103].

Years of observation show that speaking causes the main difficulty in school and city Olympiads in English and Chinese. Difficulties arise when expressing one's thoughts, primarily due to a poor vocabulary, lack of knowledge of the semantics of the word, ignorance of the lexical meaning of the word, norms of use and pronunciation.

So, are idioms needed? It usually depends on where and how the language is used. It will not be possible to stock up on idioms for all occasions, and it is hardly possible to do without a strong knowledge of grammar: even native speakers cannot speak idioms alone. However, idioms are very beautiful and original, they reflect the thoughts and feelings of the people, idioms are often found in English textbooks. That's why we chose them as a topic for our work.

1.2. Diversity, functions and meaning of idioms.

English and Chinese are very rich in idiomatic expressions that are constantly found in literature, in newspapers, in films, in radio and television broadcasts, as well as in every daily communication. The English and Chinese idioms are very diverse and quite complex. There are no languages known to science that do not have idioms, phraseological phrases, proverbs and sayings at all.

Idioms, being an integral attribute of the culture of a given people, reflect the life of the nation to which they belong, this is the way of thinking and character of the people.

Idioms are diverse, they are, as it were, outside of time space. Indeed, no matter what time we live, idioms will always remain relevant, always in place. The idioms reflect the rich historical experience of the people, ideas related to work, life and culture of people. The correct and appropriate use of idioms gives speech a unique originality and special expressiveness.

Idioms have great social value. It consists in cognitive, ideological, educational and aesthetic significance, rich life content, deep ideological meaning, great artistic merits and national originality.

The cognitive value is determined, first, by the variety of information that is communicated in them. In general, a broad picture of life is being created. Idioms give an idea of the views and views of the people, about their understanding of the phenomena of reality.

The cognitive meaning of idioms also consists in the fact that they typify phenomena, i.e. they identify the most significant among them and note the most significant features in them. Typification manifests itself in the creation of images of a peasant, a craftsman, a worker, a priest, a gentleman, a judge. It is emphasized by the definition of a person's social status, which makes it possible to characterize him, accordingly, pointing out the main signs: poverty or wealth, power or disenfranchisement.

The cognitive meaning of idioms is connected in the generalization of the rich life experience of the masses.

The ideological and educational role of idioms is determined by the fact that they have a completely clear purpose. The cognitive meaning of idioms is also a manifestation of the educational function. The ideological and educational role of idioms also consists in the fact that they serve as a clear expression of certain judgments about reality, in which something is asserted or denied, the properties of objects and phenomena are revealed. Thus, students are taught characteristic views on these subjects and phenomena.

One of the important goals of idioms is the desire to instill in people an appreciation of the phenomena of reality. They give clear positive and negative features of life, affirming or criticizing, praising or ridiculing.

CHAPTER II. The methodology of the description of the study.

2.1. The difference in the image of the dragon in English and Chinese idioms.

The discrepancies between our ideas and associations are surprising. Bilingual dictionaries only partially capture these discrepancies. To know about associations with the word everything, or at least almost everything, you need to become related to the language: it is necessary that the way of "foreign language" life is accessible and close, there is a native "foreign language" culture. Only then can you know not a set of associations and meanings but feel the word.

To begin with, you can be curious and explore what is available: at least the metaphorical meanings of words, idioms. After all, we often notice something about ourselves only after comparing ourselves with others, this "something" ceases to be obvious and causes surprise.

Here, for example, is a dragon. What associations does it evoke in you? Which of them are your personal ones, and which are common to Russians? You can try to understand this. Imagine that you are mentally comparing someone to a dragon, and this someone, quite by accident, heard your thoughts. What will he think? He will probably think that you are hinting at his dexterity or resourcefulness, and you also mean malice and his stubbornness. If suddenly you meant caring (why shouldn't a dragon evoke such associations?), then you are unlikely to be understood correctly, and you also understand this: you have an approximate idea of what a Russian person who has been compared to a dragon might think.

But what will an Englishman or a Chinese think? If he blushes, is it from joy, from resentment, or from shame? Or maybe he won't know what to think?

Language stores our ideas with accuracy. Or we store with accuracy what the language represents.

Where can I see it? How do I find out about Chinese or English associations? Approximately this can be learned, for example, from idioms.

We found 10 idioms about the dragon in English and 27 idioms related to the dragon in Chinese.

And the first group in English are expressions that speak of a bad smell. Here is an example of an expression that most vividly reflects this meaning: "dragon mouth" How would you translate it (dropping the literal version of "dragon's mouth")? Of course, bad breath is meant here. (Appendix No. 1)

There are also expressions related to danger and risk. I think there is nothing unusual here. The dragon has always frightened Europeans and did not inspire confidence. Dragons terrified and terrified people. (Appendix No. 1)

“Here be dragons” is a phrase meaning dangerous, unexplored territories.

The third, mixed group. A group that does not lend itself to any kind of systematization. I found the expression "dragon lady" interesting. In direct translation, the dragon woman. But as it turned out, that's what they say about a domineering, cruel woman.

There were also expressions meaning bad habits, going to the toilet and buying products of Chinese origin.

And what about the Chinese language? The authors of the dictionaries inform us that in a figurative sense, the word "dragon" is a spiritual and cultural symbol, personifying prosperity and good luck, as well as the deity of rain, promoting harmony.

The factual material predetermined its division into 6 semantic groups: Wisdom and colossal mental abilities; Talent and giftedness; Nobility and nobility; Family relations; Power and bravery; A mixed group.

We have found 4 idioms that speak about the wisdom and colossal mind of man. 龙骧虎视 — [Lóngxiānghǔshì] — The jerk of the dragon, the look of the tiger." This idiom is used to emphasize the outstanding mind and talent of a person. (Appendix No. 2)

In China, when they talk about talent and giftedness, they also remember about the dragon. 卧虎藏龙 (wò hǔ cáng lóng) — спрятавшийся дракон и спящий тигр, обр. о скрытом таланте

龙骧虎步 — [lóngxiānghǔbù] — the dragon's throw and the tiger's step. This idiom is used when talking about a courageous, belligerent kind of person. It can be said that in this idiom, the dragon and the tiger are the embodiment of these two qualities, since they are the most powerful creatures from Chinese mythology, which are still revered by the people of China.

龙生龙 [lóngshēnglóng] — a dragon is born to a dragon. When analyzing this idiom, it is necessary to note the specifics of its use. Using the phraseology in question, the speaker pursues the goal of showing off children, correlating them with parental significance. That is, what kind of son, such are the parents.

Thus, although "dragon" is associated by native English speakers with someone "strong", "mighty", but this "someone" is clearly less strong and "noble" than the "Chinese dragon". Apparently, the English dragon is not a friend to the Chinese dragon, although they are both "big", but the English dragon is "rude", and the Chinese in the image of "wayward", "beautiful". Idioms differ in that they reflect the mind, the originality of character, the specific characteristics of the people who created them. And since the mindset and character of the soul of the British and Chinese are different, this was manifested in idioms. English pedantry, prudery, neatness are not akin to Chinese breadth of soul, lack of affectation, brisk mind. English and Chinese idioms differ not only in the characteristics of the character and abilities of the soul of the people who created them, but also in how thoughts are reflected in the word. The history of the country's development, ethnographic realities from tools to clothing; landscapes, climate, flora and fauna, echoes of ancient religious beliefs, a detailed picture of modern social organization – all this was comprehended by the British and Chinese and left an imprint on the idioms of each nation. It makes a difference in English and Chinese idioms and the fact that they reflect the traditions, customs, and moral principles of the creator people. They carry a national flavor, and therefore some of them have no analogues in another language. Also, in English idioms there is no scope in describing the subject from different points of view. This is evidenced by the number of idioms in the English language: the English people, judging by available sources, have created fewer such sayings.

2.2. Analysis of the full and partial semantic similarity of some idioms.

Despite all the individual national characteristics, the English and Chinese peoples have idioms with similar meanings. This can be explained by universal values: after all, there are concepts, views, beliefs common to all peoples. Therefore, some pearls of folk wisdom are international.

Некоторыеизнихпочтиполностьюсовпадают.

tickle the dragon's tail-To do something risky or dangerous.

龙潭虎穴 (lóng tán hǔ xué) — the dragon's abyss and the tiger's lair, mod. A dangerous place

It should be noted that many English and Chinese idioms are ambiguous, which makes them difficult to interpret and compare. When selecting for their compliance, it will be mandatory to match one of the values (as a rule, the main one).

These idioms partially coincide:

sow dragon's teeth-To do something that leads to trouble.

[löng tan hü xue] - "The swamp of the dragon, the cave of the tiger" (about a deadly place, the very inferno).

Thus, as in Europe, there are dragons in China with the opposite interpretation of the image. They are also depicted as dangerous to humans and other animals, which continues the idea of "evil" dragons.

2.3. Work on the image of an idiom and an interactive simulator to improve knowledge.

So why do you need to memorize idioms? You become an artist. Well, you can share your thoughts with the whole world in this language as a writer, poet or musician. Idioms make up a significant part of these art forms, so learning them allows you to refine them and become much better at them. Since 2024 is the year of the Green Wooden Dragon according to the Eastern calendar and I am thoroughly studying the Chinese language, the image of a dragon almost immediately came to my mind. The most liked idiom is an idiom from the Chinese language - 龙争虎斗 (lóng zhēng hǔ dòu) — the fight of dragons and tigers, mod. a fierce fight. Since both creatures are formidable animals, this chengyu describes their fight as a clash of two opponents of equal strength. I decided to draw it and I think that pictures are a great way of presentation, since visual material is remembered better. (Appendix No. 3). With the help of pictures, you can organize the working out of idioms after studying. Here are some exercise options:

  1. Illustrations are inserted instead of individual words, and it is necessary to enter the appropriate words or sentence.

  2. Students pull out a card with idioms, and their task is to show the meaning with gestures so that others can guess the expression. You can work in pairs or in a group if it is small.

We live in a digital world and there is no way without interactive right now. We have created a simulator for teachers that will help them to vary tasks and make them more exciting for their students. The simulator is designed to actively practice idioms learned on a particular topic. There are many idioms in English textbooks and Olympiads. The tasks are aimed at grades 5-11. The teacher chooses the level himself.

1. First you will need to register

2. In the «My idioms" section, add the idioms learned in the lesson

3. Create a test and give tasks to students

Link to our simulator http://idiom-trainer.ru/

CONCLUSION

Thus, the history of the country's development, ethnographic realities from tools to clothing; landscapes, climate, flora and fauna, echoes of ancient religious beliefs, a detailed picture of modern social organization – all this was comprehended by the British and Chinese and left an imprint on the idioms of each nation.

It makes a difference in English and Chinese idioms and the fact that they reflect the traditions, customs, and moral principles of the creator people. They carry a national flavor, and therefore some of them have no analogues in another language.

First, while working with various sources of the English language, 10 idioms were studied, which allowed them to be divided into the following groups: "these are expressions that speak of a bad smell.", "expressions associated with danger, risk", "mixed group". The analysis of these idioms was carried out from the side of the thematic content.

27 idioms related to the dragon were selected from the idioms of the Chinese language. The main thematic groups of Chinese idioms about the dragon are highlighted. The first of them is called "Wisdom and colossal mental abilities." The second group is "Talent and giftedness", the third group is "Nobility and nobility", the fourth group is "family relations", the fifth group is "Might and courage", the sixth group is "mixed group". During the comparative analysis of the image of the dragon in English and Chinese idioms, the following differences were revealed: Western dragons are mainly depicted as evil, predatory destroyers, while eastern dragons are diverse. There are good, evil, noble and wise among them. This division is most likely due to different religions. In Christianity, the serpent is chaos, and therefore a dragon like it is a symbol of evil power.As for the common features of the dragon image, both cultures are characterized by the image of a dragon - a dangerous creature.

Even though English and Chinese belong to different groups, that our peoples did not have close contacts, and each went their own way of historical development, many folk sayings fully or partially correspond, and some coincide in meaning.

The research materials can be used in special courses on English and Chinese culture, folklore of these peoples. The practical value of the conducted research lies in its high cognitive saturation and informative significance.

LIST OF USED SOURCES AND LITERATURE

  1. Vinokurov A.M. English – Russian dictionary of idioms. – M.: "Martin", 2009.-352 p

  2. Lapteva E.V. 1000 English aphorisms, proverbs, sayings, catch phrases and tongue twisters. - M.: Astrel, 2012, 192 p.

  3. Nikiforov, V. P. The image of the dragon in the linguistic picture of the Chinese world (based on the material of phraseological units) / V. P. Nikiforov, U. V. Khorechko. — Text : direct // Young scientist. — 2015. — № 11 (91). — Pp. 1827-1830. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/91/20089

  4. "Modern Chinese Language" edited by Xing Fuyi and Wang Gosheng,2019.-760 s.

  5. "Dictionary of the modern Chinese language", 2019. – 550 pages

  6. "Modern Chinese Language" edited by Huang Boron and Liao Xudong,2018.-615 p.

  7. Electronic encyclopedia "Wikipedia" // www.wikipediya.ru Hazlitt W. C. English Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases. – London, 1882.

  8. Johnson A. Common English Sayings. – London, 1965.

  9. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. New edition – Pearson Education Limited, 2009.

APPENDIX No. 1

The Dragon in English proverbs

The main thematic groups of idioms about dragons

    1. Expressions that speak of a bad smell

dragon breath-particularly foul-smelling breath.

dragon mouth- particularly foul-smelling breath.

got the dragon- having foul-smelling breath. The phrase alludes to how dragons breathe fire.

    1. Expressions related to danger, risk.

Here be dragons - said of any situation in which hidden dangers or difficulties may lie.

Sow dragon's teeth - to do something that inadvertently leads to trouble.

Tickle the dragon's tail - to do something risky or dangerous.

    1. Mixed group

Сhase the dragon- to smoke acontrolled substance, often heroin.

Dragon lady- f derogatory term for a woman who is or is seen to be ruthlessly powerful, domineering, or manipulative.

Feed the dragon- to outsource business or jobs to China.

APPENDIX No. 2

The Dragon in Chinese idioms.

2.1. Wisdom and tremendous mental abilities.

龙骧虎视 — [Lóngxiānghǔshì] — "The jerk of the dragon, the look of the tiger."

龙章凤姿 — [lóngzhāng-fèngzī] — "Regal appearance, phoenix pose."

龙驹风雏 — [Lóngjūfēngchú] — «Baby dragon, baby phoenix" — young talent龙驹凤雏 — The foal of the Dragon and the Phoenix is about a smart and talented young man

2.2 Talent and giftedness

卧虎藏龙 (wò hǔ cáng lóng) — A hidden dragon and a sleeping tiger, about a hidden talent

龙蟠凤逸 — [lóngpánfèngyì] — Like a dragon curled up, like a phoenix out of sight

龙驹风雏 — [Lóngjūfēngchú] — "Baby dragon, baby phoenix" — young talent

2.3 Nobility and nobility

龙行虎步 (lóng xíng hǔ bù) — the flight of the dragon, the gait of the tiger, about the majestic view

龙生龙,凤生凤,老鼠生来会打洞 [Lóngshēnglóng, fèngshēngfèng, lǎoshǔshēngláihuìdǎdòng] — Dragons give birth to dragons, phoenixes to phoenixes, and those born of rats are masters of burrowing

龙生凤养 — [lóngshēngfèngyǎng] — Born of a dragon and nurtured by a phoenix

[löng xiäng hü shi] "To become a dragon, the look of a tiger" (about an ambitious man with broad aspirations, far-sighted).

2.4. Family relations

[löng sheng jiü zi] - "The dragon gives birth to nine children" (about the fact that siblings are different).

龙生龙 [lóngshēnglóng]- A dragon is born to a dragon (mod. in meaning: a good father and a good son)

2.5. Power and bravery

龙骧虎步 [lóngxiānghǔbù]- The throw of the dragon and the step of the tiger (mod. in meaning: courageous, warlike appearance; formidable)

龙争虎斗 (lóng zhēng hǔ dòu) — the fight of dragons and tigers, mod. A fierce fight

龙潭虎穴 (lóng tán hǔ xué) — The dragon's abyss and the tiger's lair, mod. A dangerous place

[long pan hü jü] - "The dragon wrapped itself around the tiger in a fight" (about an inaccessible area, a hard-to-reach landscape).

[löng tan hü xue] - "The swamp of the dragon, the cave of the tiger" (about a deadly place, the very inferno).

[löng xiäng hü bu] - "Becoming a dragon, the gait of a tiger" (about an impressive, formidable, belligerent man).

[löng zheng hü döu] - "The Battle of the dragon and the Tiger" (about a heated battle between two equal rivals).

2.6. Mixed group

[löng köu duö liäng] - "To pull the grain out of the dragon's mouth" (about the struggle for the harvest on rainy days).

[löng fei föng wü] - "The dragon flies, the phoenix dances" (about fluent, sweeping, illegible handwriting).

龙吟虎啸 — [lóngyínhǔxiào] — the whistle of the dragon and the roar of the tiger

龙跳虎卧 [lóngtiàohǔwò]- A galloping dragon and a hidden tiger; (about a strong and confident style in calligraphy).

白龙鱼服 (bái lóng yú fú) — a white dragon in the guise of a fish, pretending to be someone, be ready to take responsibility

龙头蛇尾 (lóng tóu shé wěi) — the head of a dragon, and the tail of a snake, a loud beginning and an inglorious end

龙腾虎跃 (lóng téng hǔ yuè) — The dragon takes off, the tiger jumps, full of strength and energy

APPENDIX No. 3

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