1.The passport of project
The actuality of the project:
During the existence of photography, it has become thing that plays the important role of various parts in our lives. It is inseparable part of our life, that have an influence on forming habits of a person's visual worldview. This determines the importance of studying photography, the history of its development in modern society.
To tell the history of the development of photography
Is it true that accidental observation can affect global development in any area? Looking at the stages of photography development, we are convinced that the contribution of inventors of different countries is very large and a lot of discoveries can be done in future.
The goals and problems of the project:
to learn about the contribution made by inventors of different countries to the development of photography;
to learn about how the process of photography has been changing
Subject of research:
The evolution of photography and camera
The progress of project:
-to explore available sources on the subject;
- to gather information about the development of photography;
- to prepare the project as a presentation;
- to show pictures, that was made by me
- Searching for information through the Internet and books;
- The theoretical analysis of literature on the studied problem
Project uniqueness: 93.5%
Photography is a language that speaks at the emotions’ level. Moreover, this language is quite strong one. The photo shows us the world as it was at the moment the picture was taken. And this captured world stays with us forever.
And today photography has become technically accessible, and that fact gives us a great opportunity for our own self-expression.
For the last two years I have being interested in photography at a professional level.
With taking the camera in your hands, you begin to notice how cute and clean the faces of children, how wise the eyes of old people, how beautiful the expanses of nature around us ... A wish to start the creation of beautiful photographic pictures appears immediately. At such moments you start to feel like a creator and an artist.
I’m working with a professional camera and modern technical tools, using a special program for processing photos.
But I have been always wondering about the start of such an art as photography: what were the first cameras and persons who invented them.
That's what I'd like to dedicate my work to.
The first discovery in the history of photography was the camera obscura. Aristotle noticed that the light that passed through the narrow hole could project an inverted image on the opposite wall. Around the 10th century, the Arab scientist Alkhazen created the camera obscura in the form of the darkened room and noticed a connection between the clarity of the image on the wall and the diameter of the hole.
3.1Scientists and photographers that play the great part in the evolution of photography
3.1.1 Johann Schulze
Physicist Johann Schulze was able to create fickle photographic prints on a solution of silvered chalk in the 1725. But when the bottle was upswing, the image disappeared. It was more like a photo’s ghost.
3.1.2 Joseph Nieps
Joseph Nieps was the first who managed to make a permanent image in the 1822. But the picture has not survived to this day. Therefore, the first photography in history is considered to be the picture called "View from the window" of the same authorship. Nieps used an obscura camera to capture this image for eight hours on a tin plate covered with asphalt in the 1826. But the result of that was not just a picture, but a relief surface which gave an opportunity to make copies.
3.1.3 Louis Daguerre
The activity of Louis Daguerre can be rightly considered as the greatest contribution to the development of photography.
He did not only create an algorithm to pin the image on a copper plate covered with silver.
Daguerre reduced the time, necessary to capture the image up to the thirty minutes.
And the positive was gotten, the only photo that was called daguerreotype.
The drawing on a copper plate was difficult to see because of the mirrored brilliance of the image. In addition, the image was very fragile, easily erased at the slightest touch.
It was impossible to make some copies of it, but Dager's method allowed to avoid the work of both the artist and the engraver.
So, the photography’s date of birth is considered to be the year of publication of an article about the method of Louis Daguerre, which was written in the 1839.
3.1.4Frederick Scott Archer
And in the 1851, daguerreotype was the most common way to obtain photographic images until an Englishman, Frederick Scott Archer, came up with a new way – a wet collodion process.
Despite of the all advantages of this process, there was one significant drawback – it was impossible to dry the photo plate, made that way.
Therefore, this method of photography was used only in non-mobile studios.
Another two hundred years later, Richard Maddox suggested to shoot on the dry bromogelatin plates.
This improvement made those photos more related to the modern ones.
3.1.6The Lumiere Brothers
The first “color” photos were obtained in the 1840 with the help of ordinary watercolor paints, that were used to paint black-and-white pictures.
Before the invention of the cinematography, the Lumiere Brothers were involved in the production of photo plates.
Also, they patented the autochrome process of taking pictures, which was the only way to get color photos until the 1935.
3.2The first cameras
3.2.1The first mirror camera
After the Second World War, the photo world was enriched with mirror cameras, that are the most popular among photographers even today.
3.2.2The first digital camera
With the appearence of the digital technology, photography has not just stepped into the future.
In just thirty years, the "figure" has almost completely supplanted its film ancestor and captured the world.
Digital photos allow you to see the results of the shooting immediately.
Photographers are not limited to the number of frames of the film and they also do not depend so much on environmental conditions and can easily correct errors and mistakes.
For a thousand years, photography has moved from a large room to a tiny matrix, which can do a real wonder.
To sum up I would like to say that at present, there are no areas of human activity where photography can’t be used. This is natural, because with photography in one form or another it is constantly necessary to deal with millions of people of different professions.
Photography plays a big role in the development of astronomy, biology, chemistry, geography, geology and medicine (so in 1896 the first X-ray image appeared, exactly 70 years after the first photo). Photography can be used everywhere: from the world of molecules and atoms to the world of ultra-distant stars. At the same time, it is not only observes and records, but also explores, helping scientists to explore the mysteries of the invisible and inaccessible things.
5.Resourses and materials:
1. Bajak K. History of photography. The appearance of the image, 2003
2. Chibisov K.V. Essays on the History of Photography, 2003
3. Nikitin V.A. Stories about photographers and photographs, 1991
4. Boldyrev I. Inventions and upgrades made in photography, 1886
5. Burinsky V. Daguerre and Nieps, their lives and discoveries in the development of photography, 1893.
6.Applications: The Gallery of My Works
“The 8th of March” “The New Year”
“Kuzma The Cat”
“The duck’s flight in the sky” “The seagull and the fish”
“Kolomenskiy Park in summer”
“Just like a scene from some old horror movie”“SpaceRobot”
“Meeting The T-Rex”“Walking in the park”