Learning English is not just banal cramming foreign words and the study of basic grammar. This process is almost impossible to imagine without diving into the history and culture of a particular country. Throughout the time that we are learning English, anyway, we discovered something interesting about the UK. Moreover, even those who do not have relationship to the study of English, in your everyday life with something "British". We listen, or at least a couple of times I heard British music (long live, the Beatles), we go to the movies and watch films made by English Directors, we heard something about Shakespeare, some on the walls hung posters of David Beckham. The minimum possible cliches and stereotypes that paint us a picture of Albion. But after a small poll, we found very important gap in our perception of this country - namely, we don't know anything about painting in the UK. That's about history (from inception to current status) of this art and its brightest representatives, their innovative ideas and impact of painting on life of English society we will discuss in our research. And there really to talk about.
Due to the peculiarity of geographical position, political and economic development of England occupied a somewhat isolated position among European countries, although we were in constant interaction with them. At the time of the formation of capitalist relations Britain is ahead of many countries in the European continent's political maturity.
In the 18th century, the heyday of the national English art associated with the overall rise of English culture, features of which were determined by the bourgeois revolution of 1640 – 1660 gg.
In prior periods, the English art is not experienced such a long and powerful heydays as an Italian in the Renaissance or the national advanced school of Europe of the 17th century. But the English culture gave the world such genius as Shakespeare, philosophers such as Thomas more or Francis bacon. In the fine arts of England the leading role for a long time belonged to foreigners: in the 16th century – Hans Holbein the Younger, and in the 17th century – van Dyck. In the 18th century English school of painting puts a galaxy of talented artists and is one of the first places in Europe.
Problem: I believe that most people are not familiar with the works of English artists.
We really like English art, and we began to wonder whether the pupils of Zarechenskaya school on the art of England. We conducted a survey among grades 5-11 and found that
Know English musicians -52%
I know English writers-11%
Know English artists-5%
You know sportsmen-32%
According to the survey results, we found that most students in our school are aware of few works of English artists. Mostly guys are interested in the music of England, than in painting. Thus, we examined the characteristics of painting of English artists in order to attract the attention of the young generation is really fascinating art.
The purpose of my essay is to describe the characteristics of English painting in different periods starting from the XIII century to see the greatest masters of British art.
Relevance: the relevance of the study lies in the phenomenon of British painting and its contemporary condition. London galleries are not inferior to Italian, British street art and contemporary art - world tastemakers, and their British representatives sell their paintings or installations for the fabulous price. Now England and art in all its forms are synonyms, friends walking hand in hand. But it was not always. So how the English artists living in a certain isolation from continental Europe and began to Express themselves much later Italian, Dutch and many other painters that have managed to occupy such a significant place in history, to be widely accepted in the world, and, more importantly, to reflect all the important internal social processes happening at Albion ?
In our opinion classical painting is inseparable from the evolution of art and human civilization, and the masterpieces of English painters of the XVII-XIX centuries are recognized classics and to this day are very popular. Contemporary painting has its origins in the distant past, and its development is based on the works of the great masters – experts in their field, including the British, which became a point of reference for many generations of modern artists.. In my opinion, the topic of English painting is relevant and can be used on English lessons, world art culture, visual arts, history, as it broadens the mind, provides us with knowledge about the art of great Britain and introduces us to English culture, it helps to understand the British character and the language in which they speak.
Object: English painting. Features of English painting
Subject: the works of English artists.
Hypothesis: British painting as an indicator of socio-political processes in the country and the horn of expression and reflection
Goal: Popularization of English painting .
Find out how many people are familiar with the work of English artists
To consider the characteristics of English painting
What is the significance in the global culture is English painting
Consider the work of English artists
Portrait of Anna-Thomas Gainsborough
Chapter 1. A study of English painting.
Features of English painting. Fine English school was formed later than the other arts, and this process was difficult. Feudal wars and the reformation hindered the formation of his own artistic tradition. The Puritan movement of the seventeenth century with his iconoclastic ideas, of course, did not contribute to the development of the national school of painting. In Protestant England there was almost no religious art. In the XVII century, slowly begins to develop portraits, mainly miniatures. But in the next century, as if trying to catch up, English artists are so intense and peculiar that at the end of the century have an impact on the continent.
English painting is not as famous as the painting of other countries, although English artists have made a great contribution to world culture. The British are distinguished by the fact that they are on the paintings depict realism. That is, the English artists created modern subjects. They were very relevant, regardless of era. English painting you can select it with the sociality and topicality. Here the great role played by the "Golden age". Exactly the XVIII century is considered the Golden age. Was the economic growth of the state. London became the most important cultural center of art. Began to develop certain genres - namely, portrait with scenery, and home painting.
Trends in English painting
The development of English art differs from the standard phased change of styles of the European tradition. In a somewhat belated, but still rapidly changing the painting's history of England there is no clear boundary and framework that marks the beginning or end of a period, exactly the same here did not find the style in its purest form.
The emergence of a national school of painting in the 17th and 18th century due to the industrial revolution in the country, but the landscape painters together with the development of realistic art has largely contributed to the cultural growth of English society in the 19th century. The second half of this same century gave the world the creativity of the era "pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood". Members of this organization were ardent opponents of bourgeois culture and committed to the art of the early Renaissance. The fellowship has had a powerful influence on subsequent artists, relegating to second plan the academic and conservative, which was approved by the Royal Academy of arts. It gave a chance to many young artists of England to go beyond the usual and start creating modern subjects as close to the reality in which they lived. Thanks to the "pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood" in England began to develop symbolism and modernism – as a protest against the conservative approach of the Royal Academy.
A striking and original figure of the eighteenth century was William Hogarth. His realism allowed him to open a new path in front of the whole of European painting. Acute situations Hogarth endured in his paintings. From Hogarth originates household painting and English caricature. He wrote a series "Fashion marriage", which depicts the absurdity of marriages are not for love, but of convenience. From such marriages suffer most families of that time (and not only then, but now). A young couple, correcting each other, destroying the family's honor, and more falls ill with a fatal disease. After all, leading a dissolute life, both partners eventually die. The last picture of the series shows the collapse of the family. It is the realism of Hogarth crush people in mind.
The paintings of William Hogarth enjoyed great success during his lifetime, and king George II even appointed him court painter. Today, many known for his many series paintings "Fashionable marriage", "parliamentary Elections" and "the Four stages of cruelty."
Next to the development of English painting are two young disciples of Hogarth, Reynolds and Lawrence. They became the founders of portraiture in England, and even Reynolds was appointed the first President of the Royal Academy of arts.
A little later, in the mid-18th century, becoming popular canvases with landscapes. The most skillful master in this genre was Thomas Gainsborough. After him in this genre is also known a Fork of Lender, Murray and others. One of the favorite materials was watercolor, which gave the opportunity to create light and transparent images. Also there have been special developments and battle scenes because of the involvement of England in many wars. Among the founders of historical painting, it is worth mentioning V. Castlike and George.
Among the British artists to highlight those who have had the maximum impact on the development of world art. The philosophers of art, depicting the essence of its era.
William Turner (1775-1851) is a true national treasure, his works dedicated an entire wing of the London Museum Tate Britain. Even before the Salon Les Miserables in Paris in 1863, from which is counted the birth of modernism and modern art, the Royal academician William Turner offered a completely revolutionary approach to painting bordering on abstraction, earning him the reputation as a crazy fellow in conservative Victorian England.
In later years, he anticipated the achievements of painting of the late XIX – early XX centuries, Turner was an idol of young artists, including some of the French Impressionists who lived in London during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71 years.
Perhaps his most famous work, "Rain, steam and speed – Great Western railway" (1844) is on permanent display in the National gallery. The picture reflects the artist's admiration for the achievements of scientific and technical progress, after a trip to the Western railroad, and depicts a speeding train. We can clearly distinguish his Smoking pipe, and all the rest, as it dissolves in a Golden haze. In the picture you can fairly accurately determine a railway bridge designed by Brunel in the years 1837-39, across the Thames between the towns of Taplow (Taplow) and Maidenhead (Maidenhead).
William Turner (1775-1851)
Sir John Millais (1829-1896) was one of the founders of the brotherhood of pre-Raphaelites. The brotherhood was exclusively British form of protest against the conventions traditionists society, academicism and blind imitation of classical models. It is difficult to identify the main artist in this direction, mill was perhaps the most successful, and later he headed the Royal Academy of art. For example, in the painting "Ophelia" (1852), the artist depicted famous model Elizabeth Siddal. This canvas is currently the most popular work in the Museum's permanent collection Tate Britain. The painting depicts the heroine of Shakespeare's tragedy "hamlet" in the moment when she learned about the murder of her beloved father, went mad and drowned herself in the river. Elizabeth Siddal appeared in many works of the artists of the pre-Raphaelites and later became a beloved friend and colleague Millais, another pre-Raphaelite painter Dante Rossetti. John Millais.
The pre-Raphaelites turned to the Gothic artistic tradition to Raphael, that is, until the Renaissance, with the subsequent dominance of academies and rules, but actually they are called to the arts, contributing to the revival of spirituality in man, moral purity and religiosity, unhampered by ritual. They argued that both nature and man must write from life, were often chosen as models to create historical or religious characters of their friends or relatives.
Francis bacon (1909-1992) – the main British postwar painter who expressed in his work the age of anxiety for the fate of the world after world war II: awareness of the extent of the destruction of European cities, systematic destruction of people in the death camps, the threat of nuclear war.
Existentialism was perceived by the London Bohemia as an expression of these challenges. He talked about the freedom and responsibility of man in the world of the absurd. And lonely pieces of bacon, terrified and steadfastly carrying it seemed to be expressed in condensed form all that is said about the human predicament of existential philosophy.
Francis Bacon. "Three figures at the base of a crucifixion", 1944
The human body in the paintings of bacon more than the body, it conveys the pain of life, which man wrings, and mangles turns into pouzivate pushes into the cage and makes hopelessly alone. What is so attractive in the works, which are impossible in conventional interior design? Currently, bacon is the most expensive British artist. Triptych, dedicated to his friend, the painter Lucien Freud, was sold in 2013, at auction "Christie" for $148,2 million In the permanent exhibition of Tate Britain is the work of bacon, which was the first triumph of the artist. "Three figures at the base of a crucifixion" (1944) reflects the horrors of war and its disasters. "Orange, scalding-hot background with stone monsters of dirty-grey color" was for the audience nervous stress, and shock.
Lucian Freud (1922-2011), grandson of the founder of psychoanalysis, unlike his friend bacon was the most realistic and even naturalistic. He created a new genre, which combines a still life, portrait and the Nude. His work antierotichny: he learns how it feels man to be in my own body, this imperfect and corruptible.
Many considered him a provocateur, stepped beyond the limits. However, these paintings are deeply humanistic, they reconcile man to his body, showing his sometimes flabby, droopy and sick, asking for compassion and mercy.
Romney Banksy is probably the most influential and the most mysterious of living British artists. No one knows his name, how old he is, where he lives and looks like. It is only known that he grew up in the underground scene of Bristol and is a street artist, political activist and more recently a Director. His graffiti is made in a special technique of screen printing, that allows you to put them very quickly on the walls of houses, which is paramount to street artists. Stories are a satire on the contemporary political structure of the world with elements of black humor. Despite the unusual format works, prices at auction reached half a million dollars.
Banksy. "Girl with balloon", 2002
In 2017, "Girl with balloon" (2002) were the most favorite piece of art in the UK. The work depicts a little girl who releases a red balloon in the shape of a heart. Banksy used one of the variants of this image in his 2014 campaign in support of Syrian refugees.
In today's art world there is hardly anyone who has not heard of Banksy. This street artist turned the art world upside the head. All his works reflect topical political and social problems of the modern world. Its special mystique plays a important role in his style. Banksy's unique style, as it forced people to look at the pictures and not the one who painted these pictures. His success is that his work explores important social issues: military conflicts, intolerance, environmental protection, poverty, violence.
One day, Banksy has the idea to use the stencils — it saves time in creating work, as graffiti became more widespread, and consequently, increased the risk of getting caught. Screen image and became a signature feature of his style. Fame, however, it was only in the mid-2000s, but the global: its ironic works on topical social or political issues gradually became recognizable far beyond England. Besides, the artist was confined to his native country in his work — he created images appear in different parts of the world.
In his art, Banksy mocked the politicians, protested against war and poverty, ridiculed capitalism. And his images got precisely in the purpose: in contrast to highbrow contemporary art, in need of review curators and tablets-explanatory, Banksy graffiti immediately clear. Protester with a bouquet of flowers instead of a Molotov cocktail, military helicopters with pink girly bows, boy, weeping bitterly under the icon Instagram "0 likes 0 reposts", Steve jobs in the way of Syrian refugee... Images scattered across the Internet, becoming a meme, organically "grow into" modern mass culture.
Sometimes it happened that another graffiti appeared on some obscure wall in a provincial town, not immediately recognized as the work of Banksy and painted. Soon, however, this became known and a scandal only fueled the interest to the mysterious artist. And his image as a kind of Robin hood of the XXI century was intensified by defiant disregard Banksy to commercial arrangements: it is fundamentally not cooperating with the auctions and does not work to order.
Garbage for a million
In addition to creating graffiti Banksy periodically arranged provocations, demonstrating the depravity of the modern art environment. For example, one day he began to sell on the street personally signed prints for a nominal price (hundreds of times cheaper than auctions) and was able to sell only a few copies. Passers-by did not know that these sheets are worth hundreds of times more expensive. The message of the campaign clear: people are buying the name, not the art itself. And low price deters rather than attracts. Another stock Banksy became a secret unauthorized placing its works in the expositions of the classical museums, the caretakers have discovered the fraud a few days later.
However, all these jokes are overshadowed by the latest case. 6 October, London hosted the auction, which among the lots featured the painting "Girl with ball" version of the famous Banksy graffiti done on canvas and signed by the author. In the course of trading the price reached £1 million, but immediately after the announcement of "Sold!" half of the canvas was — to the horror and amazement of those present — are cut with a portable shredder, hidden in the frame.
The artist posted photos of the incident in his Instagram with a mocking inscription: Going, going, gone... ("Sold, sold, sold!"). And then there are explanatory videos where Banksy said that a few years ago I built a frame of the shredder — if the work will ever be put up for auction. The video was supplemented by a quotation: "the Desire to destroy is also a creative urge". Banksy is a phrase attributed to Pablo Picasso, but the real author — the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, Picasso just repeated it.
The story did not end there. All, of course, wondered how to react to the new owner of the painting who spent a million and received garbage instead of canvas. In any other case, obviously he would have refused to pay, upon presentation of claims to the auction. But anonymous (symbolically) collector behaved much smarter. Sotheby's released statement: "last week When the auctioneer's hammer fell and work were cut, I was shocked, but gradually I began to realize that they receive their own piece of art history".
In the new embodiment of the work called "Love in the dumpster" and was dated 2018. But its potential value has not only fallen in comparison with the original version, but, apparently, has increased significantly. So the investor did not remain vnaklade. In turn, Sotheby's learned from the incident, the public relations benefit: "It can be marked as the first case of the sale at auction of object of live performance".
Indeed, his "sabotage" Banksy has filled the piece with new meaning. The context has become more important than the object itself. Strictly speaking, such examples already were. You may recall Marcel Duchamp who placed in the Museum space urinal, Robert Rauschenberg, spoil the figure by Willem de Kooning, and other shenanigans of the artists who have become iconic nevertheless. In the case of "Love in a basket" concept and the commercial value is enhanced by several factors.
First, Banksy's art is by its nature replicable. Using a stencil, you can make any number of images on almost any surface — whether the wall of the house as it was originally "Girl with ball", or canvas. Strictly speaking, no one bothers Banksy re-implement any of your story in the format of the picture, and the new version will differ from the previous one. Other business — publicly damaged work (and the hands of the artist): this is a unique object.
Self-destruct at auction Sotheby\'s a picture of Banksy "Girl with balloon" sold under the new name "Love in a basket"
Second, Banksy has not only generated original image on canvas, but also the unique frame, the video documentation of the process and can say, "script" action. All of this, he has provided conceptual explanations — though not on the Museum plaques, and a private Instagram. Therefore, it was not just an artist but an ideologue and Director of the multicast event.
And most importantly: the whole story becomes the key to understanding the phenomenon of Banksy and perfectly illustrates the phenomenon, in fact, far more interesting than screen pictures — witty and memorable, but not brilliant.
Batman from the world of art
Whenever work of any contemporary artist auction records beat and go beyond the millions, the General public asks the question: "For what to pay such money?" Sometimes adding: "Yes, my child will draw better!" "Do not draw", — wearily I repeat the critics and try to explain the value of a work.
In different cases, the explanation is different. But with Banksy it's simple: collectors and investors buy, of course, not the image as such, but part of the myth. The myth about the mysterious provocateur, who, like king Midas, turns to gold everything it touches (even if in fact it's rubbish). And this myth, and not pictures on the walls (canvases, prints, etc.) — a work of art.
In our work we analyzed the history of British art, described the works of the most prominent representatives gave a General idea of the current situation. Over the last few centuries, Britain has done a truly gigantic way from the country with locally known artists to present the world's art capital. English painting has evolved rapidly, never push yourself into a genre or stylistic framework and has developed its own unique way in art. Modern painting in England now - not just part of art, but part of the educational process, allowing everyone to feel the history of the predecessors to feel like a part of the wonderful world and to touch the eternity.
"Art is collaboration between God and the artist, and the less the artist does the better", which translated to English means "art is a collaboration of God and the artist, and the less the artist the better."