ВАЖНОСТЬ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В БАЛТИЙСКОМ РЕГИОНЕ

IX Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

ВАЖНОСТЬ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В БАЛТИЙСКОМ РЕГИОНЕ

Тарасова В.А. 1Имхасина Асия Хамудовна 1
1ГБОУ СОШ №291 Красносельского района г. Санкт-Петербурга Государственное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение средняя образовательная школа №291 Красносельского района г. Санкт-Петербурга
Савинова Л.М. 1
1ГБОУ СОШ №291 Красносельского района г. Санкт-Петербурга
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Introduction

We live in the one of the most beautiful cities of the world. City residents are proud of Saint Petersburg, one of the best known and amazing places on the Earth. Millions tourists come to our city to go sightseeing, admire the architecture, take a lot of photos of palaces and other wonderful landmarks, visit museums and theatres… But how many people are there, who live in Saint Petersburg or visit it for business or rest, have ever thought about ecological problems of our city, noticed rubbish on the beach or in the water of Gulf of Finland, taken part in environmental actions? We are not sure that there are a lot of people, who try to change the situation. But the pollution causes to destroy the world so the men should do the best to save the nature. First of all, they can educate the next generation in love to our planet.

Of course, people should learn kids and children to take care of ecology from the early childhood. Little children should be taught how to save the nature, to respect all the living things and natural objects in the kindergarten and primary school. Of course, there are science and biology lessons at school, where teachers tell students about the ecological problems in the world. However, teenagers prefer listening to music or watching videos to thinking of pollution or greenhouse effect. Do the students think about the ecological situation in our region? Most of them do not. It’s not fair!

The ecological education in our country should be developed. It’s very important for all people in our city. The government and businessmen must do all they can to make life in our city healthier, water and air cleaner, plants and factories more environmental friendly. We all live in the polluted area, breath dirty air; suffer from terrible diseases. People must change their behavior because the human activity causes the main problems of our Baltic Sea region. The solution of these problems depends on each resident of our city and we all should be interested in conservation of flora and fauna of our region.

We are students. We have a lot of different subjects at school. But we seldom talk about our nature and ecological problems of the Baltic Sea. We decided to analyze the quality of ecological education in our school and conducted a survey to find out, what students know about ecology of our Baltic Sea region. We decided to analyze the quality of ecological education in our school. That’s why we conducted a survey to find out, what students in our school know about ecology of our Baltic Sea region. (Appendix 1. Questionnaire).

What do you know about ecological of the Baltic Sea?

1 — I know that flora and fauna of Baltic Sea region are under threat.

2 — We have already discussed ecological problems on the lessons at school.

3 — I have taken part in environmental actions, such as cleaning the shore or planting trees.

4 — I know that in the Baltic Sea there are less than 200 Baltic seals left.

5 — I am not interested in ecological problems.

These are the results of the survey.

We are glad to discover that 67% of respondents know that flora and fauna of Baltic Sea region are under threat.

Besides, 43% of students have already discussed ecological problems on the lessons at school.

However, only 27% have taken part in environmental actions, such as cleaning the shore or planting trees. In our opinion, this is not enough.

We are upset, because only 17% of students know, that in the Baltic Sea there are less than 200 Baltic seals left.

And 23% of students, who took part in our survey, are not interested in ecological problems at all.

Topicality of our research lies in the fact that now the environmental problems of Baltic Sea region are recognized by the world community as relevant and requiring. They need to be solved by all the Baltic countries together. This is hard work for many years, so we, today’s students, should understand what is happening with the environment and also take part in the environmental conservation.

We decided to help our schoolmates learn more about ecological problems of the Baltic Sea and show them how people can change the hard situation telling about one of the ecological funds in St. Petersburg.

The project goal is to tell the students about the environmental protection making an educational site.

To reach the goal we are going

to study the ecological problems of the Baltic region;

to find out which species of mammals are endangered, their population, their future;

to review and explore work of different volunteer organizations in our region;

to study the work of the volunteer organization “The Foundation of friends of the Baltic ringed seals”;

to show how the activity of “The Foundation of friends of the Baltic ringed seals” has changed the mind of the citizens about the protection of mammals in the Baltic sea;

to tell the students of our school about the activities of “The Foundation of friends of the Baltic ringed seals”;

to tell the students how the can take part in the protection of mammals in the Baltic sea.

2. Environmental problems of the Baltic region

The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water areas in the world, with a surface area of 420,000 km2 (Appendix 2. Map 1. Baltic Sea region).

The drainage area of the Baltic Sea is about four times larger than its surface area.

More than one third of the Baltic Sea is shallower than 30 meters, giving it a small total water volume in comparison to its surface area. With an average depth of only 55 meters, the Baltic Sea is much shallower than oceans. (Appendix 2. Map 2. The average depth of the Baltic Sea).

The salinity of the Baltic Sea varies from levels similar to the ocean in Kattegat to sweetwater salinity levels in the Bay of Bothnia. (Appendix 2. Map 3. The salinity of the Baltic Sea).

Besides its unique biodiversity, the Baltic Sea is also extremely valuable to the 85 million inhabitants living in the catchment area. (Appendix 2. Main characteristics of the Baltic Seaand other seas of the planet.)

Baltic Sea is the most polluted sea in the world. The environment of the Baltic Sea is unique and fragile. Pollution, fishing, active shipping, and other human activities affect on a large variety of marine habitats and species.

The first cause of pollution is the geographical location of the Baltic Sea, its shallow water and difficult water exchange with the North Sea. The average time of complete replacement of water in it is about 30-50 years.

In our Baltic region there are nine countries — Russia, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, northeastern Germany and Denmark. About 80 million people live there. There are lots of big industrial cities lying on the Baltic coast in which people suffer from the waste pollution covering sea water, soil and air. Industrial-household waste products and waste products of agriculture, oil and oil products, artificial radionuclides from nuclear plant engineering causes the basic part of water pollution. (Appendix 2. Table Baltic countries; Map 4. Political Map of the Baltic Sea; Map 5. Population density in the Baltic Sea Area)

Another cause of pollution is the rapid proliferation of algae. The biggest problem of the Baltic Sea is eutrophication, when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients which induce excessive growth of algae. The main reasons for this are phosphorus - and nitrogen-components of agricultural and fish-breeding waste entering the Baltic Sea with sewage. Algae consume a lot of oxygen, which is why fish and other organisms do not have enough. As a result, biogenic organic substances are not completely processed and decompose with a lack of oxygen, releasing hydrogen sulfide, which is detrimental to marine life.

Also there is another cause of pollution. This is the effects of world wars. There are a lot of the old weapons on the sea bottom since the First and Second World Wars. There are a lot of sunken ships there. During the Wars, a lot of bombs were dropped into the sea, some of them were toxic. Poisons of hazardous substances from landfills and waste basins enter the Baltic Sea, but the sea itself can’t get clean.

In the 21st century a lot of cargo ships, tankers, numerous tourist routes, active fishing make the Baltic Sea one of the busiest seas in the world. It harms the sea and its inhabitants, of course. We must say that many vessels used for transshipment of petroleum products are outdated, do not meet the requirements of international environmental safety, are a threat to the sea. Human activity is very harmful to the sea, people pollute the water, disrupting the natural cycle of life of marine life.

One of the main ecological problems is connected with significant radioactive pollution of the sea as a result of Chernobyl accident in 1986.

The next, no less significant problem of the Baltic Sea: heavy metals are entered in the Baltic Sea waters with an atmospheric precipitation.

All of these factors make the Baltic Sea a particularly fragile ecosystem. It is extremely vulnerable to human induced pollution and disturbances. Tragically, this fragile sea is currently considered to be one of the most polluted sea areas in the world. The ecosystems of the Baltic Sea are severely threatened. (Appendix. 2 Map 6. Baltic Sea Issues)

It takes several years for water, thus also contaminated water, to travel through the ground with the ground water. This means that even if all pollution stopped today, it would take several years before the Sea would start to recuperate. Different metals, pollutants and other foreign substances take varying times to dissolve and to get transported out to Sea.

3. Endangered animals of the Baltic region

According to the history, every species, living in the Baltic Sea, are the descendants of various evolution periods: Ice Lake and Arctic Sea relics, North Atlantic immigrants. Scientists say that Biologic variety in the Baltic Sea is small, because the water is too fresh for many marine species and to saline for freshwater species.

Nowadays you can find about 6 thousand known species in the Baltic Sea. Among them 4,7% are marine birds and mammals. Their life is supported by comparatively small organisms freely floating in the water column, called Plankton or plants and animals living on the bottom of the sea, called Benthos. It’s interesting, that Plankton comprise 44% of the known species and Benthos - 51% of known species.

There are a limited number of species that can live in brackish water. Although both saltwater and freshwater species have adapted to the brackish waters the diversity of species is less compared to oceans where the salinity is 3.5%.

With less salinity there are fewer species, usually also smaller in size. For example a Bothnian Sea Blue Mussel is ¼ the size of the same species living in the ocean.

Some fish, for example Salmon, Eel and Garfish, that travel between low salinity waters to the ocean, need estuaries to adapt to the changing conditions.

Another particularity of this Sea is the heavy ice in the winter. The ice layers in the northern part can expand to depths of 25 meters. This makes it difficult for perennial vegetation to survive, which is the reason why in these areas annual plants prevail. The ice is a necessity for the Seal who needs it for reproduction. If for example the ice should no longer form in the winter, the Seal could no longer survive and the marine plant life would significantly change. This would in turn bring about a number of changes that are unforeseeable today.

It takes about 35 years for all of the water mass in the Baltic Sea to be exchanged due to the extremely narrow and shallow outlet to the North Sea. This is another reason why the ecosystems are so sensitive. In addition, the low temperatures (3-4°C on the sea floor) trap contaminates and pollution that accumulates for a long time in the sediment as well as in animals and vegetation.

The marine fauna can be divided in to four groups: freshwater, salt water, brackish water and ice age relics. In the Baltic Sea proper, there are about 70 species of fish of which not all can stay and reproduce in the area. For the flora it can be concluded that the further north the fewer species. The Baltic Sea has few kinds of mammals but many different kinds of birds, both migratory and stationary.

There are not many species of birds in the Baltic region. There are regularly found up to 30 different bird species. There you can meet an abundant, a long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis) and a Velvet scoter.

The fauna of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of marine and freshwater species. Among marine fishes are Atlantic cod, Atlantic herring, European hake, European plaice, European flounder, shorthorn sculpin and turbot, and examples of freshwater species include European perch, northern pike, whitefish and common roach. Freshwater species may occur at outflows of rivers or streams in all coastal sections of the Baltic Sea. Otherwise marine species dominate in most sections of the Baltic. (Appendix 3. Map 1. Inhabitants of the Baltic Sea; Map 2. Fishing in the Baltic Sea)

Freshwater species may occur at outflows of rivers or streams in all coastal sections of the Baltic Sea. Otherwise marine species dominate in most sections of the Baltic, at least as far north as Gävle.

In the Bothnian Bay, roughly two-thirds of the species are freshwater. In the far north of this bay, saltwater species are almost entirely absent.For example, the common starfish and shore crab, two species that are very widespread along European coast.

Some marine species, like the Atlantic cod and European flounder, can survive at relatively low salinities, but need higher salinities to breed, which therefore occurs in deeper parts of the Baltic Sea.

Since the Baltic Sea is so young there are only two or three known endemic species: the brown alga Fucus radicans and the flounder Platichthys solemdali.

The life on the bottom is amazing. There are more than 50 bottom invertebrate species found on the coast, almost half of which are crustaceans. They freely swim on the bottom water layer. The most common species are Mussel (Mytilus elidus), Baltic macoma (Macoma Balthica) and Barnacle crustaceans (Balanus improvisus).

There are a number of glacial relict species, isolated populations of arctic species. They have remained in the Baltic Sea since the last glaciation, such as the large isopod Saduria entomon, the Baltic subspecies of ringed seal, and the fourhorn sculpin. Some of these relicts are derived from glacial lakes, such as Monoporeia affinis, which is a main element in the benthic fauna of the low-salinity Bothnian Bay.

Most of the species of the Baltic sea are in danger. For example, critically endangered populations of Atlantic white-sided dolphins and harbor porpoises. Also, occasionally oceanic and out-of-range species such as minke whales, bottlenose dolphins,beluga whales,orcas,and beaked whalesvisit the waters.

In recent years, fin whales and humpback whales migrate into Baltic Sea including mother and calf pair. Other notable megafauna include the basking sharks.

(Appendix 2. Species of endangered fish and animals of the Baltic Sea)

As you know, the Baltic Sea is the youngest on the planet. That’s why the fauna contains a number of glacial relict species, isolated populations of arctic species, which have remained in the Sea since the last glaciation, such as the large isopod Saduria entomon, the Baltic subspecies of ringed seal, and the fourhorn sculpin. Some of these relicts are derived from glacial lakes, such as Monoporeia affinis, which is a main element in the benthic fauna of the low-salinity Bothnian Bay. (Appendix 3. Table 1. Endangered animals of the Baltic Sea).

Marine pollution is a big problem. A lot of chemicals have a negative impact on animals’ health.

Eutrophication is an ecosystem change what happens because of excess mixed phosphorus and azote. Probably all of the Baltic Sea region country affected by eutrophication and this is a really bad for animals and plants that live under the sea.

One of the representatives of the fauna of the Baltic Sea are seals.

All the negative changes, that happen with inhabitants of the Baltic Sea, you can see on the example of Baltic ringed seal.

Baltic ringed seal is one of the species of ringed seal. It lives in cold waters of the Baltic Sea, reaches a length of 1.5 meters and weighs up to 100 kg. At the beginning of the last century there were more than 100 000 inhabitants of this species, in the 80s - no more than 8 000. Now in the Baltic Sea there are less than 200 ringed seals.

There are a lot of problems in their lives. Female seals become childless because of toxic fumes and water pollution. People destroy seals’ natural habitats and animals are afraid because of this. Poaching is also a cause of seals’ dying.

There is less and less food for these animals, because in their habitats there is an active fishing. The Baltic ringed seal eats two groups of animals — fish and crustaceans, prey on polar cod, the cod, capelin and herring. These species of fish are commercial, their number is constantly decreasing.

The biggest problem to seals is unusual warm winters. They should raise their children in snowy caves but snow melts and children get lost and die.

Noise has a bad impact on seals. It happens because of the Baltic Sea is one of the busiest seas in the world.

4.Protection of animals of the Baltic region: state and volunteer organizations

People have been talking about Baltic’s problems for long time. During this time, a lot of organization have appeared in the world which actively fight for preservation and recovery the environment. In all of the Baltic Sea region country you can find such organizations: in Finland, Sweden, Norway and in our country.

Oceana”, founded in 2001, is the largest international advocacy organization focused solely on ocean conservation. Their offices around the world work together to win strategic, directed campaigns that achieve measurable outcomes that will help make our oceans more bio diverse and abundant.

The mail goal of the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) is to protect the marine environment of the Baltic Sea from different kinds of environmental pollution. There are ten countries in it: Germany, Denmark, the European Union, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Finland, Sweden and Estonia.

For three decades now, HELCOM has been protecting the marine environment of the Baltic Sea and, although it has led to improvements in various areas, much remains to be done.

We should mention International maritime organization (IMO), which is international intergovernmental organization of United Nations. The main goal of this organization is improved maritime safely and pollution prevention from ships.

In many Baltic countries there are state organizations, which work in the field of environmental protection. For example, The Information Office for the Baltic Proper. County Administrative Board of Stockholm, Sweden. In this country the Bill on the Environment has been implemented in this way. The main goal of this project is providing information about large-scale marine events in Baltic region. Prevent the critical situation in the Baltic Sea is important to this organization. They try to fight bacteria and detect environmental damage.

We need to mark, that there are a lot of volunteer associations in the world, whose activities closely related with environmental protection. Everyone knows World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Greenpeace, but expect them, there are a lot of small volunteer alliances, which contribute to ecological problems.

For example, in Holland, the city of Groningen, there is a shelter for orphaned little seals and fur seals, washed ashore by the storm. Volunteers take care of small babies, who lost their homes. As soon as they grow up and will be ready for “adulthood”, shelter workers will let the pets out.

It’s not surprising that there are some good people in our city, who are not indifferent to nature. One of the most famous volunteer organization in Russia is “Baltic’s friends”.

Environmental organization “Baltic’s friends” has been working for more than 20 years. Its members and supporters participate in many local, state and international projects that have the aim to improve the methods of ecological education, to support the citizens who take part in local development, to promote the environmentally friendly solutions in energy, to protect water bodies and to popularize "green" habits in everyday life.

You can see there are a lot of different state organizations in the countries of the Baltic region. They explore the environmental problems, discuss them in seminars and conferences, and make environmental friendly laws.

How about people? Can they do anything to help the nature?

We must say – yes, it’s possible! A lot of active people all around the Earth gather to do actions of different kinds trying to change the ecological disaster on the planet. They collect rubbish on the beaches, save wild animals, treat them; plant trees and so on. You can easily find out the information about hundreds of the conservation programs in different part of the earth.

How about St. Petersburg?

We all know that today our environment is endangered but not everyone knows how to deal with this situation. One of the most urgent problems of today’s society is littering, which causes water, soil and air pollution. To collect separate glass, paper and plastic in order to recycle the rubbish. By this we already do a great job and help our planet a lot. We know that there are some ecological organizations in our city that arrange rubbish collection. They are also here to teach people how to deal with wastes and make them aware how harmful it is for the environment.

Another problem is stray animals in the streets of the city. A lot of them die in the streets before they become mature. Some of them get seriously sick and their diseases can be transferred to humans or they can just get aggressive. We’re glad that there are people who try to help the stray animals in our city. They take care of them in the shelters, treat them and find them new homes. Other people give money for shelters to help them survive.

You can find people in St. Petersburg who think of the nature and try to do the best. They work out the environmental programs, find the sponsors, engage the government and citizens in the activities, take part in the international events. We’d like to explore the activity of one of these organizations.

5. The environmental center for children, The Museum of water, St-Petersburg (Детскийэкологическийцентр, Музейводы)

Ecological education of the youth and children is one of the priority guidelines of SUE “Vodokanal of St.Petersburg” work. For proper implementation of this guideline the Youth Environmental Centre (YEC) was created within the structure of the Informational and Training Centre of Vodokanal in 2002. The Сenter regularly holds events and activities for pre-school children and students.

Among the museums of our city the Museum of water is one of the newest. It’s also one of the most interesting and modern. There you can find out the history of the Baltic Sea, watch beautiful documentaries about the see, its flora and fauna etc.

The museum is popular among the students. They can take part in different educational programs there. For example, the kids can learn about the nature of the Baltic region with a cartoon character called Capelca. The teenagers can study the history and environment of the Baltic sea, make experiments and take part in quiz.

All these programs help the children and teens understand the nature and take care of it.

Also, the museum works as a scientific center. Since 2013, “Vodokanal of Saint Petersburg” together with the not-for-profit partnership Marine Mammal Rehabilitation Centre of the Leningrad Region and the Public Relations Agency “2PR” has been helping the endangered pinnipeds in the region.

6. “The Foundation of friends of the Baltic ringed seals”

We should notice that a few people think about the environmental problem of our region. But the citizens of St Petersburg, who understand that wildlife needs help, gather and make special shelters and charity in order to collect money and help the endangered flora and fauna of the Baltic sea.

We’d like to introduce you one of these organization – “Fund of Friends of the Baltic seal”. It is located in our city, St. Petersburg, and for several years has been saving ringed seals.

The Fund of Friends of the Baltic seal” has been working since 2007. The founders of this fund are professional biologists Elena Andrievskaya and Vyacheslav Alexeev.

For a long time the couple had been working at the Leningrad Zoo before Vyacheslav and Elena realized that they didn’t like this job. They got involved in scientific activities and research the fauna of the Baltic region. The scientists were interested in the animals of the Baltic Sea. They came to the conclusion that the fauna of our region is on the verge of extinction. A large number of animals are listed in the Red book.

Especially the were worried about the ringed seal population, which is on the verge of extinction, but the government of the country and St. Petersburg administration did not do any work aimed at preserving them. So Vyacheslav and Elena decided to establish their foundation to take action to save the pinnipeds.

We have told with Elena to know more about their work. We have found out some interesting information.

During these 12 years they managed to save and return to the wildlife about 100 seals, and the most famous of them is Kroshik. His story is interesting because the volunteers tried to let him back to the wildlife for several times, but he always came back to his rescuers.

In the conversation with Elena Andrievskaya we have found out, how exactly the process of restoration of pinnipeds takes place. On average for all animals this process takes about 2 months. First volunteers try to feed the baby seal with a special mixture. Then it comes the forced feeding of fish. When the small seal begins to eat fish itself, the animal puts on enough weight and gains good physical shape. It’s the time to release the baby seal into its natural habitat.

Keeping animals in the shelter is very expensive. On average, as the founder of the fund Elena told us, the day for the maintenance of one individual leaves 80-90 thousand rubles. The main assistant in the sphere of financial support of the Fund is the Vodokanal of St. Petersburg and the city government. Also many townspeople do not stay aside, transferring money to the fund, bring the necessary things and products.

Elena says, that the number of gray seals usually are found and counted from board of the yachts or other vessels during the moult in June and the number of ringed seals count during the moult in April. When animals molt, 70% of them get out on land and ice. Usually the plane flies and counts, how many animals are on ice. There is a special formula to count the number of seals.

Talking about volunteers, few people help “Fund of friends of the Baltic seal” in their work, because Elena and Vyacheslav try to save animals wild. About 10-15 people help in the fields and about 1000-1500 people give money to charity.

Among the people, who help “Fund of friends of the Baltic seals”, there are famous people, like ex-governor of Saint-Petersburg Georgy Sergeevich Poltavchenko. Now, the government gives a hand to the fund. The best “friend” of the seals and honorary citizen of Saint Petersburg was ex-head of Vodokanal Felix Karmazinov.

The scientists believe that their ecological fund has changed the citizens’ opinion about the problem of endangered animals. A lot of people do not know, that there are ecological organizations in Saint Petersburg. Many people still don’t know what to do when they see injured seal babies. Most of the citizens thought, that Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga are dead and lifeless reservoirs. Thanks to “Fund of Friends of the Baltic seal”, people can find out, that there is life.

Every spring the townspeople discover weakened seals. Many people want to help them. Not knowing how to act in this situation, they can harm animals. In our interview Elena and Vyacheslav paid special attention to how to act, to whom to address. They explained to us that, having found a cub, it is necessary to call immediately to fund (699-23-99), and also not to approach and not to drive seal in water as if the cub is wounded, exhausted, the presence in water for it is unsafe. The cases when seals perish from the wrong actions of the person, unfortunately, there are.

Elena hopes that the prospects of the "Baltic Seal Friends Fund" are the best. In addition to the Rehabilitation Fund manages to engage and develop scientific activities, there are new and new projects to implement the safety of seals, accounting for their numbers, which the founders wanted to do for a long time.

Life in the shelter is always in full swing: every day requires solving problems. If there is a statement that someone saw dying animal, the team immediately goes to that place, find out in what position the seal is, what measures should be taken to save seal’s life, takes care of transportation, survey and treatment. Besides hard working in the shelter, they have a lot of work inside. It is necessary to cooperate with other organizations, which work in the field of environmental protection. Also, it is necessary to take part in different conferences, where people discuss the problems of the Baltic region. (Appendix 5. Latest shelter’s news)

7. Conclusion

We strongly believe that the most important thing in our school today is the ecological education. Kids and children, teenagers and young people should be taught environmental friendly behavior.

The kindergarten teachers should have enough knowledge and skills to explain the kids how beautiful and important the nature is. Teenagers should be involved in environmental friendly activities such as planting trees, cleaning beaches, making ecological projects. We think that we can fill the gaps in the students’ ecological education by different ways.

Also, interactive games about ecology, wild animals should help children to find out more about the environment. We think, that every TV channel should broadcast cartoons and films about nature for all ages.

School teachers and club’s teachers should go camping with their students to show them the environment where they lived.

For example, hold regular events, which dedicated to the problems of environmental pollution, hold the environmental activities, clean beaches. Unfortunately, government isn’t interested in solution of the environmental problems. We should talk about ecological state: make reports on TV, make films and cartoons for children.

What can help change the mind of students about our ecological problems?

Place

What can be done?

Expected result

At kindergarten

Interactive games, cartoons, plays about ringed and grey seals and their hard life, ecological problems.

Children will love these animals, worry about seals’ life, tell their parents about them. The whole families will take part in environmental campaigns and help ecological organizations.

At school

Also interactive games and cartoons, public lessons and lectures about endangered pieces of animals and environmental problems, textbooks about ecology.

Children will find out more about ecological problems in Baltic region and discuss solutions to them. They will take part in ecological events, tell about it to other younger people.

At clubs

Create a section in school to be based on ecology education, where students can discuss and try to find the solutions of the environmental problems.

Students will involve friends, a lot of people will find out more about the Baltic Sea and try to save the environment.

At home

Parents should tell their children about the nature, read books together and explore the surrounding area to get more knowledge about the wild life.

Children will know, understand and respect the wild life.

In the country

Government should be interested in solution of the environmental problems and take steps to save the environment. We should make reports on TV, write about Baltic’s ecology in magazines and newspapers, tell about it in social media.

More and more people will be involved in environmental activities. They will try to find out more about ecology in their region, donate money to charity and ecological funds, clean beaches, hold regular events.

We have been making the web-site where students can learn more about the Baltic Sea’s ecology. There is an encyclopedia about endangered fish, birds and animals of The Baltic Sea, the education films about the Baltic region and much more! There is also a quiz for children. We hope, this site will be useful and people find out more about the Baltic Sea region.

8. Информационные ресурсы

Причины загрязнения: https://science-start.ru/ru/article/view?id=719 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 23.11.19

Вымирающие виды: https://science-start.ru/ru/article/view?id=719 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 23.11.19

Map1 https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-_kqBAkCcXgo/V08zzFWGVNI/AAAAAAAA0gk/E7m20u3npe0EsyuMkJKbfDtbQRIGTPLcQCLcB/s1600/Baltic.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 23.11.19

Map 2 https://www.nationsonline.org/maps/Baltic-Sea-map.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 23.11.19

Map 3 https://touristam.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/baltiyskoe-more-7.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 23.11.19

Fishing map https://geographyofrussia.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/248_4.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 23.11.19

Map 4 http://www.evgengusev.narod.ru/antropogen/rudenko-1.jpg

Флора и фауна Балтийского моря https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltic_Sea#Fauna_and_flora Электронный документ. Дата обращения 23.11.19

Информационно-аналитическая система «Особо охраняемые природные территории России» (ИАС «ООПТ РФ»). http://oopt.aari.ru/rbdata/45/bio/28058 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 23.11.19

http://www.livinginthebalticsea.com/baltic_sea/ Электронный документ. Дата обращения 02.12.19

Организация “Друзья Балтики”: http://www.baltfriends.ru Электронный документ. Дата обращения 02.12.19

ХЕЛКОМ: http://www.helcom.ru Электронный документ. Дата обращения 02.12.19

https://helcom.fi/media/publications/BSEP122-1.pdf Электронный документ. Дата обращения 02.12.19

International organization https://oceana.org/ Электронныйдокумент. Дата обращения 02.12.19

Отчёт организации “Oceana” https://oceana.org/sites/default/files/reports/OCEANA_Baltic_report_2011.pdf Электронный документ. Дата обращения 14.12.19

проблемы вымирающих животных: https://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/10359/ Электронный документ. Дата обращения 14.12.19

https://kgd.ru/news/society/item/64254-litovskij-jekspert-baltijskomu-moryu-ugrozhaet-vymiranie-iz-za-nehvatki-kisloro Электронный документ. Дата обращения 14.12.19

Map 1. Population density in the Baltic Sea Area Электронныйдокумент. Дата обращения14.12.19https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Population-density-in-the-micro-regions-of-the-Baltic-Sea-countries-and-the-Baltic_fig1_31913217

Экологические проблемы и международное сотрудничество в регионе Балтийского моря Ю.А. КАБЕЛКАЙТЕ , аспирантка кафедры физической географии материков и геоэкологии географического факультета Московского государственного университета им. М.В. Ломоносова https://geo.1sept.ru/article.php?id=200303202 дата обращения 11.11.2019

Млекопитающие Балтийского моря. МЛЕКОПИТАЮЩИЕ БАЛТИЙСКОГО МОРЯ. ПРОБЛЕМА ИХ СОХРАНЕНИЯ. Руденко Г.Е.МАОУ лицей №49 им. В. Бусловского, г. Калининград https://school-science.ru/1/1/27353 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

http://www.idafishing.ee/publ/okhrana_baltijskogo_morja/1-1-0-44 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

http://www.bruo.ru/pages/112.html Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

http://dobro39.ru/volontery_kaliningradskoj_oblasti/nashi_novosti/nachalas_podgotovka_volontyorov_baltijskogo_arteka/ Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

http://greenbag.ru/blog/priyut-dlya-tyulenei Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

http://kaliningrad.bezformata.com/listnews/baltijskoj-nerpi-rasskazali-pochemu/72402768/ Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

http://oxotskoe.arktikfish.com/index.php/novosti-okhotskogo-morya/50-na-sakhaline-otkroyut-priyut-dlya-tyulenej Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

https://www.1tv.ru/news/2013-04-12/72983-v_peterburge_otkrylsya_priyut_dlya_detenyshey_tyuleney Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

http://ecoportal.su/news.php?id=79131 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Birds https://helcom.fi/media/publications/HELCOM-guidelines-for-coordinated-monitoring-of-wintering-birds.pdf Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Кулик сорока https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/-qLTfv5RCztc/UCrXfA7AsqI/AAAAAAAAIRs/vkW6UfyCJl4/s730/IMG_8231.jpgЭлектронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

pictures of fish

Gobiidae https://megaribolov.ru/images/siteimage/krasnaya_kniga/krasnaya_kniga_Ukraini/bichok_paganel/bichok_paganel_krasnaya_kniga_ukraini.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

seal https://im0-tub-ru.yandex.net/i?id=6e9e75f3b854d52603cb9f437a3c10e0&n=13 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

European bullhead http://fishbiosystem.ru/SCORPAENIFORMES/Cottidae/Foto/(Cottus%20gobio)%201p.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Brown trout https://www.anglersjournal.com/.image/t_share/MTQ4MTcwNDM2ODcyNTEzMzQy/x1-browntrout-aj_sj.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Atlantic sturgeon http://dev.upese.lt/images/zuvys/astriasnipis_ersketas.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Sea lamprey https://im0-tub-ru.yandex.net/i?id=e0c6cb541d101ba02272ece5ef9474f3&n=13 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Атлантические белобокие дельфины https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Atlantic_white-sided_dolphin.jpg/220px-Atlantic_white-sided_dolphin.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

pictures of mammals Flounder https://www.papiermachefish.co.uk/art_fish_pictures/flounder.jpg

Harbour seal https://im0-tub-ru.yandex.net/i?id=22a188b32abb0430ce1a9a21bdb1a4cd&n=13 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Grey seal http://nhsn.ncl.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/grey-seal-by-terry-coult.jpg Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Harbour porpoise https://im0-tub-ru.yandex.net/i?id=141815a72f3622f5740672e49618f458&n=13 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Pictures from Last news

03.11.2019: https://vk.com/sealrescue?z=photo-14600522_457240533%2Fwall-14600522_13825

01.10.2019: https://vk.com/sealrescue?z=photo-14600522_457240495%2Fwall-14600522_13164

05.09.2019: https://vk.com/sealrescue?z=photo-14600522_457240467%2Fwall-14600522_12959

07.05.2019: https://vk.com/sealrescue?z=photo-14600522_456240211%2Fwall-14600522_11333

27.04.2019: https://vk.com/wall-14600522_11251?z=photo-14600522_456240186%2Fwall-14600522_11251

14.04.2019: https://vk.com/wall-14600522_10922?z=photo-14600522_456240158%2Fwall-14600522_10922

05.04.2019: https://vk.com/wall-14600522_10688?z=photo-14600522_456240136%2Fwall-14600522_10688

01.04.2019: https://vk.com/wall-14600522_10102?z=photo-14600522_456240057%2Fwall-14600522_10102

30.03.2019: https://vk.com/wall-14600522_10036?z=photo-14600522_456240045%2Fwall-14600522_10036

21.03.2019: https://vk.com/wall-14600522_9890?z=photo-14600522_456240036%2Fwall-14600522_9890

Турпан https://avatars.mds.yandex.net/get-pdb/27625/00f7030a-419f-4806-9f41-363f184e28f3/s1200 Электронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

Морянка https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Clangula_hyemalis_Hokkaido21.jpg/1200px-Clangula_hyemalis_Hokkaido21.jpgЭлектронный документ. Дата обращения 12.01.20

9.Appendix 1. Questionnaire

What do you know about ecological of the Baltic Sea?

Appendix 2. Main characteristics of the Baltic Seaand other seas of the planet.

Water area

Surface area,

thousands km2

Volume,

thousands

km3

Average depth,

metres

Maximum depth,

metres

Baltic Sea

415

21

52

459

Black Sea

423

537

1 271

2 245

Mediterranean Sea

2 505

3 603

1 438

5 121

Atlantic Ocean (without marginal seas)

88 442

323 613

3 926

9 218

The Baltic in relation to the Atlantic, %

0,5

0,007

1,3

5,0

Baltic countries

Name of country

Population

Largest cities and ports

Russia

147 million

Saint Petersburg, Kaliningrad

Estonia

1,3 million

Tallinn

Latvia

1,9 million

Riga, Jurmala

Lithuania

2,8 million

Klaipeda

Finland

5,6 million

Helsinki, Turku

Sweden

10,2 million

Stockholm

Germany

90 million

Kiel, Lübeck

Poland

38,5 million

Gdansk, Gdynia

Denmark

5,7 million

Copenhagen

Map 1. Baltic Sea region

Appendix 2. Map 2. The average depth of the Baltic Sea.

Appendix 2. Map 3. The salinity of the Baltic Sea.

Appendix 2. Map 4.Political Map of the Baltic Sea

Appendix 2. Map 5. Population density in the Baltic Sea Area

Appendix 2. Map 6. Baltic Sea Issues

A ppendix 3. Map 1. Inhabitants of the Baltic Sea

Species of endangered fish and animals of the Baltic Sea

FISH

 

S ea lamprey

Морская минога

 

A tlantic sturgeon

Атлантический осетр

 

B rown trout

Кумжа

 

E uropean bullhead

Подкаменщик обыкновенный

 

G obiidae

Бычок

 

Flounder

Камбала

MAMMALS

       
 

R inged seal

Кольчатая нерпа, или кольчатый тюлень

 
 

H arbour seal

Обыкновенный тюлень

 
 

G rey seal

Серый тюлень

 
 

Harbour porpoise

Обыкновенная морская свинья

 
 

A tlantic white-sided dolphins

Атлантические белобокие дельфины

 

BIRDS

       
 

V elvet scoter

Турпан

 
 

C langula hyemalis

Морянка

 
 

E urasian oystercatcher

Кулик сорока

 
 

C ommon eider

Гага обыкновенная

 
 

A rctic tern

Крачка полярная

 

M ap 2. Fishing in the Baltic Sea

Appendix 4. Protection of animals of the Baltic region:

state and volunteer organizations

Name of organization

Country/countries

Year of foundation

Oceana”

USA

2001

HELCOM

Germany, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Poland

1992

Baltic’s friends”

Russia

1994

Coalition Clean Baltic

Germany, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Poland

1990

International maritime organization (IMO)

The United Nations

1948

The Information Office for the Baltic Proper. County Administrative Board of Stockholm

Sweden

 

Appendix. 4. Latest shelter’s news

Date

What happened

21.03.2019

Center workers took part in XX Jubilee international environmental forum “Baltic Sea day 2019”. It happened with the support of the Government of Saint-Petersburg and Ministry of nature of Russia. The program was developed jointly with the Secretariat of HELCOM and reflected main areas of HELCOM work and problems, that relevant to Russia. For 2 days more than 700 representatives took part in the forum. Among them are 100 foreign participants from Baltic region countries, Norway, Switzerland, Belarus. Among them are representatives of the authorities, scientific Institutes, different organizations and companies. As part of the work, a live broadcast was organized with Canadian, Estonian, Polish and Finnish colleagues.

30.03.2019

The Center received 2 babies gray seals.

01.04.2019

The Center got a baby Baltic seal, who was found in the town of Sosnovy Bor.

05.04.2019

In the Center there was a Baltic seal from Sosnovy Bor and little seals

14.04.2019

The Center received a baby Ladoga seal from Kirovsk.

26.04.2019

A meeting of Ladoga seal specialists from Russia and Finland was held in the shelter, in which take part representatives from University of Eastern Finland, Lappeenranta technological University, “Fund of friends of the Baltic seal”, Biologists for the conservation of nature, and also team of experts-biologists, who work for field monitoring of Ladoga seal a lot of years.

07.05.2019

Seal was taken to the fund from the base Okunevaya. It was weak and hungry.

12.06.2019

Opening of a hiking trail for watching ringed seals.

05.09.2019

5 years since the opening of a rehabilitation center for seals and hundredth rehabilitated seal Okuneva 2.

01.10.2019

Center workers took part in the work of the Environmental Council for environmental protection under the government of St. Petersburg

03.11.2019

Center workers took part in the discussion forum "Common Baltic sea" in Helsinki

07.12.2019

Appearance of a trailer for a film about Ladoga ringed seals.

10. Glossary

Baltic ringed seal is subspecies of ringed seal. Lives in the cold regions of the Baltic Sea.

Glaciation - a glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.

Baltic Sea region — the countries located on the Baltic sea: Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany.

Ecology is the branch of biology dealing with the relationships of organisms with their environment and with each other.

Eco-shelter is an institution that provides temporary housing for stray animals.

Environmental organization is an organization coming out of the conservation or environmental movements that seek to protect analyses or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation from human forces.

Gulf of Finland is the bay of the Baltic Sea.

Lake Ladoga is a lake in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast.

Shelter is an institution that provides temporary housing for homeless people, stray animals etc.

The “Day of the Baltic sea” conference is an international environmental forum held in St. Petersburg with the support of the Government of St. Petersburg and the Ministry of natural resources of Russia.

The Red Book is a list of endangered or extinct species of animals, plants and mushrooms.

Volunteer is a person, who enters into, or offers for, any service of his/her own free will, especially when done without pay.

Volunteer organization is an organization that advocate for human and civil rights, environmental preservation and conservation, and wildlife.

РЕГИСТРАЦИОННАЯ ФОРМА

 

Фамилия, имя, отчество ученика (полностью)

Имхасина Асия Хамудовна

Тарасова Варвара Алексеевна

Адрес (с индексом)

198328 Санкт-Петербурга, пр.Героев 26, к. 3 п. 2 кв. 163

198328 Санкт-Петербург Ленинский пр., д. 57, корп. 2, П. 6, кв. 397

E-mail ученика (автора)

crokky31@gmail.com

sovavar25@gmail.com

Название работы 

Важность экологического образования

в Балтийском регионе

Наименование раздела конкурса, куда представляется работа 

Окружающий мир

Английский язык

Полное и сокращенное наименование учреждения

ГБОУ СОШ №291 Красносельского района г. Санкт-Петербурга

Государственное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение средняя образовательная школа №291 Красносельского района г. Санкт-Петербурга

Адрес (с индексом)

198328 Санкт-Петербург ул. Маршала Захарова, д.16, к.4. литера А

Фамилия, Имя, Отчество педагога (полностью)

Савинова Лариса Михайловна

E-mail педагога

savilarisa@yandex.ru

E-mail учреждения

info@school291.ru

Оплата организационного взноса участника конкурса

(сумма, номер платежного документа, дата оплаты)

Имхасина Асия

Тарасова Варвара

417879

705719

200 рублей

28.04.20

200 рублей

28.04.20

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