Russia in the Olympic history

IX Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Russia in the Olympic history

Погосян А.Г. 1Айрапетян Л.Г. 1
1МБОУ СОШ №29 "Гармония" г. Пятиорск
Янкелевич Е.В. 1Грязева М.А. 1
1МБОУ СОШ №29 "Гармония" г. Пятиорск
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя III степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

Введение

 

Проблема

Данная тема была выбрана в связи тем, что развитие межкультурной коммуникации связано с участием и проведением олимпийских игр, повышением политического и экономического статуса страны в современном мире.

Актуальность Многие страны стремятся к праву проведения олимпийских игр, так как эти соревнования имеют большое значение в современном мире.

Цель:

формирование всесторонне развитой, гармоничной личности, уважающей ценности иных культур, воспитание чувства любви к своей Родине, уважения своего народа, его культуры и традиций.

Задачи:

Повысить уровень образованности, расширить кругозор; уметь применить полученные знания на практике.

Воспитать культуру межнационального общения, патриотизма, интернационализма.

Обзор литературы

При написании данной работы были использованы научная и учебно-методическая литература, статьи в сети Интернет. Основными источниками явились работы:

Москва '80. Игры XXII Олимпиады / В. Жильцов и др. - М.: Физкультура и спорт, 2017. - 250 c.

Пьер де Кубертен Олимпийские мемуары / Пьер де Кубертен. - Москва: Гостехиздат, 2017. - 160 c.

Фокин, Денис Олимпийский Сочи. Путеводитель / Денис Фокин , Артем Синцов. - М.: Эксмо, 2017. - 176 c

Степень изученности темы

Особая роль отводится метапредметным связям, использованию знаний, полученных при изучении физкультуры, географии, истории, позволяющих формировать всесторонне развитую, гармоничную личность.

Характеристика вклада авторов

Авторы исследовательской работы изучили участие нашей страны в Олимпийском движении связь.

Результат

Результатом данной работы является воспитание языковой компетенции, готовность к сотрудничеству с другими людьми, социальным коммуникациям на основе восприятия позитивных ценностей, а также гордости и любви к Родине.

Russia in the Olympic history.

According to historical records, the first ancient Olympic Games can be traced back to 776 BC. They were dedicated to the Olympian gods and were staged on the ancient plains of Olympia. The ancient Olympic Games were initially a one-day event until 684 BC, when they were extended to three days. In the 5th century B.C., the Games were extended again to cover five days.
The ancient Games included running, long jump, shot put, javelin, boxing, pankration and equestrian events. They continued for nearly 12 centuries, until Emperor Theodosius decreed in 393 A.D. that all such "pagan cults" be banned.

Fifteen hundred years later, in 1894, a Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, persuaded people from fifteen countries to start the Olympic Games again. His words "It's a great honor to win, but still a greater honor to compete" became an Olympic motto. Only a dozen countries took-part then (285 competitors). It was not until the Fourth Olympics in London, in 1908 that women were allowed to compete for the first time. The Winter Olympics have been held since 1924.

Russia has competed at the modern Olympic Games on many occasions, but as different nations in its history. As the Russian Empire, the nation first competed at the 1900 Games, and returned again in 1908 and 1912. After the Russian revolution in 1917, and the subsequent establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922, it would be thirty years until Russian athletes once again competed at the Olympics, as the Soviet Union at the 1952 Summer Olympics. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia competed as part of the Unified Team in 1992, and finally returned once again as Russia at the1994 Winter Olympics.

The Soviet Union hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Moscow in the Soviet Union. In addition, the yachting events were held in Tallinn, and some of the preliminary matches and the quarter-finals of the football tournament were held in Leningrad, Kiev, and Minsk. The 1980 Games were the first to be staged in Eastern Europe.

21% of the competitors were female – a higher percentage than at any previous Olympics. There were 203 events – more than at any previous Olympics. 36 World records, 39 European records and 74 Olympic records were set.Eight nations appeared for the first time at an Olympics – Angola, Botswana, Laos, Nicaragua, Seychelles, Mozambique and Cyprus. Zimbabwe also made its first appearance under that name; it had previously competed as Rhodesia. Athletes from 25 countries won Olympic gold and competitors from 36 countries became Olympic medalists.

Archery at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

The women's archery gold was won by Ketevan Losaberidze (USSR) who was also the world, European and Soviet champion.

The women's archery silver was won by Natalia Butuzova (USSR). In 1979 she had set nine national records and three world records.

Athletics at the 1980 Summer Olympics

The 1980 Olympic women's long jump competition produced a surprise when the 3rd string Soviet jumper, Tatiana Kolpakova, bested her compatriots and other competitors by setting a new Olympic record of 7.06m (23'2").

Tatiana Kazankina (USSR) retained the 1,500m title that she had won in Montreal.

In the women's pentathlon the Soviet Nadezhda Tkachenko scored 5,083 points to become the first athlete to exceed 5,000 points in the event during Olympic competition.

Although she won the silver medal Olga Rukavishnikova (USSR) held the world record for 0.4 seconds as she finished 1st in the last event of 800m.That gave her the shortest reign of any world record holder ever.

Yuriy Sedykh (USSR) won gold in the hammer throw event. 4 of his 6 throws broke the world record of 80m. No hammer thrower in the world had ever achieved this before. As in Montreal the USSR win gold, silver and bronze in this event.

Soviet Dainis Kula won gold in the men's javelin. He also had the best sum total of throws, showing his consistency. He finished ahead of his teammate Alexander Makarov

Basketball at the 1980 Summer Olympics

In the Women's competition, the host Soviet Union won the competition beating Bulgaria for Gold, Yugoslavia won Bronze.

All events in canoeing and rowing took place at the Moscow Canoeing and Rowing Basin in Krylatskoye

Uladzimir Parfianovich of the USSR won 3 gold medals in canoeing.

Cycling

The 189 kilometer individual road race gold was won by Sergei Sukhoruchenkov (USSR).

Diving

Irina Kalinina (USSR) won gold in the springboard final. As a result of her 10 dives in the preliminaries she amassed a unique number of points : 478.86. In the previous 4 years no diver had scored so many.

Fencing at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Soviet foil fencers, who had taken possession of all the World and Olympic titles, were not among the 6 challengers in the finals. The Soviet 5 time world champion Alexander Romankov won a bronze.

Football

The USSR football team won bronze medals.

Gymnastics at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

Soviet gymnast Alexander Dityatin won a medal in each of the eight gymnastics events, including three titles. He was the first athlete to win 8 medals at an Olympics. He scored several 10s, the first perfect scores in men's gymnastics since the 1924 Paris Olympics.

In women's gymnastics the USSR won 1 medal in the All-Around competition. In each Olympics before this they had always won 2 and in Rome 1960 had won all 3. In the Friendship Games at Olomouc '84 and at Seoul '88 they would win 2 again. In the Team Competition they won the gold medal for the eighth time, continuing the "gold" series started in 1952.

Field hockey at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

Women's field hockey was an Olympic sport for the first time. Six countries competed: Austria, India, Poland, Czechoslovakia, USSR, and Zimbabwe. The USSR team won bronze medal.

Modern Pentathlon at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

In the men's Pentathlon Anatoly Starostin (USSR) became the youngest ever Olympic champion in this sport.

26 competitors scored over 5,000 points.

It was the 1st time ever at either a world championship or an Olympics that as many as 8 teams topped the 15,000-point level.

Sailing at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

Soviet sailor Valentyn Mankin won a gold medal in "Star" class. He won Olympic champion titles in "Finn" and "Tempest" classes before, and as of 2007[update] remains the only sailor in Olympic history to win gold medals in three different classes.

In 1980 the medals were awarded to yachtsmen from 12 countries, the widest medal distribution in the sport at an Olympics.

Swimming at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

Vladimir Salnikov (USSR) won three gold medals in swimming. He became the first man in history to break the magic 15 minute barrier in the 1500 metre freestyle, swimming's equivalent of breaking the 4-minute mile. He missed the LA Games because of the boycott but won gold again in this event at Seoul 88.

Salnikov also won gold in the 4x200m relay and the 400m freestyle. In the 400m freestyle he set a new Olympic record which was just eleven-hundredths of a second outside his own world record.

Volleyball at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

The prominent nation in both volleyball competitions was the USSR; only once had their teams failed to reach the final. The Soviet men and women had lost only 6 games between them in the 5 Olympics since volleyball was incorporated into the list of Olympic sports at Tokyo 1964.

Russian athletes have won a total of 397 medals at the Summer Olympic Games and another 91 at the Winter Olympic Games. Over the most recent ten Games (since 1994), Russia's 488 total medals, including 169 gold medals, are second only to the United States (with 631 and 237, respectively).

The Russian Olympic Committee was created in 1991 and recognized in 1993.

All Summer and Winter Olympic medals of the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire were inherited by Russia, but not combined together with the medal count of the Russian Federation.

Winter Olympics 2014 was an international sporting event held in the Russian city of Sochi on February 7-23, 2014. At the end of the Olympic Games, the same objects were used for Paralympic Winter Games 2014 - March 7-16, 2014.

Olympics in Sochi was distinguished primarily by the fact that this is the first winter games carried out at the sub-tropical city. Also, the Winter Olympics 2014 were the most expensive Olympic Games in history.It was the second time since 1980 Russia hosts the Olympic Games. The previous Olympics became a symbol of pure international friendship. That’s why today many people already have high hopes about the games of 2014. Fifteen winter sport disciplines, organized as seven Olympic sports, were included in the 2014 Winter Olympics. On 6 April 2011, the IOC accepted a number of events to be considered for inclusion into the official program of these Olympic Games.

 The events included:Figure skating team event

Synchronised skating, a large and fast-growing discipline, consists of 8—20 (the number of skaters on a team depends on the level) athletes skating on ice at one time moving as one flowing unit at high speeds.

Women's ski jumping

After an unsuccessful legal battle for inclusion at the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, women's ski jumping won its place Wednesday on the program for the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi. The reason for the rejection cited for the low number of athlets as well as few participating countries in the sport. There are two competition rounds: the first and the final rounds. Each athlet gets two jumps and receives a score based on distance and style. Theathlet with the highest combined score is the winner.

Mixed relay biathlon

The mixed relay features two female athletes and two male athletes from the same NOC competing together. Women race a 6 km leg and men race a 7.5 km leg in the following order: W-W-M-M. Each athlete shoots twice (1 prone, 1 standing). For every missed target a penalty loop of 150 m must be skied. The start is performed simultaneously in three rows, with the start order based on the results of the World Cup Nations Cup Score (combined for men and women).

Ski half-pipe

Ski halfpipe is a young and dynamic event.One competitor at a time performs a routine of acrobatic jumps,flips,twists and other manoeuvres on a halfpipe.The athelets are judged on their take-offs, the height they reach above the top of the pipe, and difficulty of their manoeuvres. A qualification round and final round are staged with tow runs per athelet in both.

Luge Team Relay

This new race format features teams comprised of a doubles sled, a women’s singles sled and a men’s singles sled. All three entrants from one team slide one after another with the clock stopping only after the third sled has crossed the finish line. A touch pad at the finish line must be activated by an athlete in one sled before the gate at the start line opens for the following team member to compete.

Snowdoard Slopestyle

Slopestyle is a competitive event for freestyle snowboarders and skiers that involves an athlete performing tricks in the air as well as on rails and boxes. Unlike racing, there is no clock - competitors are awarded points for style and difficulty of their run by a group of judges.

Ski slopestyle

 Ski slopestyle is a competition held in a terrain park where competitors all ski over the same jumps and rails. Each competitor attempts his best rail skiing style and most extravagant aerial maneuvers.

Snowboard parallel special slalom

Two identical courses are built in the parallel slalom (red and blue). The race takes place on a shorter course, with a shorter distance between the individual gates.

Both the Olympic and Paralympic Games were organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee.

The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games took place between 7-16 March 2014 and featured medal events in Alpine Skiing, Nordic Skiing, Ice Sledge Hockey and Wheelchair Curling.

The Paralympic Movement has come a long way in Russia in recent years. The first Paralympic Games ever to take place in Russia were a huge opportunity for the whole Paralympic Movement. Тhe whole country made the most of the upcoming Games, leaving a lasting legacy for sport and people with an impairment in Russia.All the venues have acquired their shape and their infrastructure is fully adapted for people with impairments. And it’s a milestone in terms of staging the most innovative Paralympic Games.

The Paralympic Games in 2014 helped to transform Sochi into a model city in terms of constructing a barrier-free environment. All infrastructure in the Olympic and Paralympic host city became more accessible to people with an impairment. Тhanks to the Paralympic Games, the environment is accessible and this started to spring up not just in one particular area, but in other cities throughout Russia.

The Leopard, the Polar Bear, and the Hare were chosen mascots of the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympiс games.The mascots of the Paralympic Games were the Snowflake and the Ray of Light. The slogan of the Sochi Olympics was “Hot. Cool. Yours.”

The Games took place in two main areas (clusters): the Coastal Cluster and the Mountain Cluster.

The Coastal Cluster (the Olympic Park)

The Olympic Park is located on the Black Sea coast in the Imereti Valley. It was the central object of the Coastal Cluster combining all sports facilities, parkland and infrastructure.

First time in the history of the Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games all the ice arena were within walking distance from each other.

Major facilities of the Coastal Cluster:

Olympic Stadium “Fisht”, 40.000 seats. The stadium was used for the opening and closing ceremonies, ceremonies of awarding medals.

Ice Dome “Bolshoy”, 12.000 seats, hockey.

Ice Arena “Shayba”, 7.000 seats, hockey.

Curling center “Ice Cube”, 3.000 seats, curling.

Skating Palace “Iceberg”, 12.000 seats, figure skating, short track.

“Adler-Arena”, 8.000 seats, speed skating.

Main Olympic Village, a place where most of the participants of the Games lived.

The Mountain Cluster (Krasnaya Polyana)

The Mountain Cluster is situated at a distance of 48 km from the Coastal Cluster, approximate travel time between clusters - 30 minutes by railway.

Major facilities of the Mountain Cluster:

Cross country ski and biathlon center “Laura”, 7.500 seats.

Alpine center “Rosa Khutor”: ski center and extreme park, 17.750 seats, skiing, snowboarding, freestyle.

Jumping center “RusSki Gorki”, 7.500 seats, ski jumping.

Sliding center “Sanki”, 5.000 seats, bobsled, skeleton, luge.

Mountain Olympic Village

Conclusion

The Russian Olympic movement occupies an important place in the sports life not only of the state, but also of all citizens. For more than a hundred years, Russia has been participating in the Olympic games, and its victories have become simply legendary and historical.

The result of this work is the education of language competence, willingness to cooperate with other people, social communication based on the perception of positive values, as well as pride and love for the Motherland.

Список использованных источников и литературы

Великие моменты великих Игр. С 1896 года до наших дней. - М.: Манн, Иванов и Фербер, 2017. - 306 c.

Год Олимпийский ' 76. XII зимние Олимпийские игры. XXI летние Олимпийские игры. - М.: Физкультура и спорт, 2015. - 238 c.

Москва '80. Игры XXII Олимпиады / В. Жильцов и др. - М.: Физкультура и спорт, 2017. - 250 c.

Пьер де Кубертен Олимпийские мемуары / Пьер де Кубертен. - Москва: Гостехиздат, 2017. - 160 c.

Фокин, Денис Олимпийский Сочи. Путеводитель / Денис Фокин , Артем Синцов. - М.: Эксмо, 2017. - 176 c

. Яременко, Николай Главные спортивные события - 2012 / Николай Яременко. - М.: Эксмо, 2015. - 176 c

http://ru.wikipedia.org

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