Читая сказки: почему добро побеждает зло

IX Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Читая сказки: почему добро побеждает зло

Суровенкова М.Д. 1Азарова Ю.К. 2Сидоренко В.А. 3
1МОУСОШ "Перспектива" г/о Власиха Московской области
2МОУ СОШ "Перспектива" г/о Власиха Московской области
3МОУ СОШ «Перспектива» г/о Власиха Московской области
Суровенкова А.А. 1Монина М.С. 1
1МОУСОШ "Перспектива" г/о Власиха Московской области
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
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Creativity of the peoples of the world is diverse. But for us, children, reading fairy tales is the most fascinating introduction to the culture of different peoples. Fairy tales are amazing, they can be sad and funny, magical and instructive. In them, good always comes into the fight with evil and, of course, wins. Why does it happen? Is it possible to do this in life? What do you need to do to win? The fairy tale was invented in order to become a good lesson for its listeners, and we want to learn it.

The goal of our work is to learn from fairy tales how you can become stronger and win in a difficult situation in real life.

To do this, we will perform a number of tasks:

We’ll read fairy tales and think about what helped the main characters achieve a happy ending in each of them.

We will consult with high school students, why, in their opinion, good wins over evil.

We will think for ourselves and ask our friends what actions or qualities should make us stronger. What actions are their opposite?

We’ll come up with a game that will help us check our conclusions. We’ll play it with the kids.

We'll come up with our own fairy tale that will help us reveal the secret of the power of good.

The main research tools for us will be: brainstorming, interviewing experts using the Delphi method, text analysis, and experimental play.

A brief overview of the literature and sources used:

The subject of our analysis will be a variety of fairy tales: folk and author's.

Many researchers have devoted their work to the study of such a phenomenon as a fairy tale. In our country, among the main researchers of fairy tales can be named Vladimir Propp, Alexander Afanasiev, Eliazar Meletinsky, Vladimir Dal and others [15].

Prominent Western researchers include Carl Gustav Jung, Axel Olrik, Clarissa Pincola Estes, and Joseph Campbell.

All these scientists analyzed fairy tales from a variety of points of view: what historical information they carry, what they tell about the psychology of people, how fairy tales are related to religion, what symbols and archetypes are used in fairy tales.

The value of our work is to learn a practical lesson from fictional stories. We want to make a clear conclusion: what will make us stronger in a difficult life situation. We also want to teach this to the younger children. To do this, we will try to come up with our own story that reveals the secret of victory over evil.

There are wonderful books that teach you to write good fairy tales. For example, Joseph Campbell wrote the book "the Hero with a Thousand Faces" [1], in which he explored the plots of many tales. Based on the ideas outlined in this book, Hollywood producer Christopher Vogler wrote a tutorial for screenwriters. This small note, 7 pages in length, influenced the scripts of many films, in particular the Walt Disney studios. George Lucas used Campbell's theory in his Star wars.

Such writers as Gianni Rodari in his "Grammar of fantasy"[3], Alexander Nikiforov in the book "The fairy Tale and the storyteller"[2], Alexander Sharov in the collection "Wizards come to people" [4] also revealed the secrets of fairy-tale skill. These books are interesting for children to read, they tell about the history of the creation of many fairy tales and their authors. But most importantly, they inspire creativity.


Good in fairy tales always wins over evil. This is a well-known truth. But how does this happen?

Take, for example, one of the favorite modern fairy tales written by the English writer JK Rowling: The Harry Potter stories. A fairy tale about a young wizard.

Harry is extremely lucky in his fight with Volant de mort – an evil and powerful wizard. He is helped by his friends, his kind memories of his parents, and his teachers from the school for wizards.

But every summer, Harry goes to the house where he grew up, to his aunt Petunia's family. They don't like him there, they're even afraid of him. And there's nothing Harry can do about it.

If evil is the attitude of his relatives towards him, then he loses in the fight against it. The older the boy gets, the more difficult it is for him to contain his anger, he breaks down.

No one, not a soul in the world supports him in conflicts with his aunt or uncle. They don't like him, they don't help him. And Harry doesn't like his foster family. He just waits and waits to go back to the magic world, where all the roads are open for him.

This means that even the best person is powerless where there is not a drop of love. The kindest character loses to evil in a fairy tale if he has no one to fight for, and no one is rooting for him. So, maybe the power of good is in love?

Let's take this assumption as our hypothesis.


2.1 Interviewing experts using the Delphi method

So, we have an idea, that the kind characters win the cruel ones if they act together. Friendship and love help them in any trouble. To test that idea, we asked for help the elder children from the seventh grade. We asked them: “Why does good always win evil in the fairy tales?” Their answers are in the Annex 1 []. Also, we used the opinions of internet-users [14].

Conclusion:The experts agree that the power of good is in love. They believe that fairy tales are necessary to teach readers to distinguish between good and evil. Evil is weaker by definition, because it destroys, while good creates. People, like fairy-tale heroes, perform difficult but good deeds, acting on the call of love. So, if we want to learn how to be strong, we must generalize the lessons that fairy tales give us.

2.2 Analysis of fairy tales

The purpose of this section is to read and analyze fairy tales. We will think about what helped the main characters achieve a happy ending in each of them.

But not all the fairy tales have a happy ending (in which the main character gets into trouble and overcomes it). Some of them are instructive tales in which the character is punished for his vices. In this case, we need to know what prevented the main character from becoming happy.

We have drawn up a plan for analyzing fairy tales.

Analysis of a fairy tale

Name of the story.

The characters.

A problem or difficulty described in a fairy tale. Test of the main character.

The outcome of the story.

Positive behavior of the main characters.

Bad behavior of the main characters.

How had the other characters helped (or hadn’t) the main hero to pass the test?

Why did they behave like this?

The conclusion.

This plan helped us to understand what each fairy tale teaches. We understood the reasons for the main characters ' victories and failures.

To begin with, we looked at the shortest fairy tales, which were easy to read over and over again [5].You can see an example of this analysis in the Annex 3 [Annexes]. We have analyzed about 10 stories and maid our conclusions.

An important point of analysis was to determine which actions of the characters are good and which are bad. To do this, using the method of brainstorming and interviewing experts, we have compiled a large list of actions towards people. You can see it in the Table -Annex 2 [Annexes].By dividing the cards into pairs of opposites, and comparing these concepts with the actions of fairy-tale characters, we were able to evaluate them.

The most difficult thing was to make a conclusion - to name the reason for the decisive action of the characters, which determined the outcome of the fairy tale.

The first part of our work helped us a lot, as we have sorted out the actions and qualities of people into "good" and "bad". Even at that stage, we realized that good actions create and inspire, and bad ones destroy and cause pain.

And even then, we realized again that the basis of good deeds is love.

Analyzing fairy tales, we, in fact, tested this idea. We have seen again and again that love always wins in a fairy tale. It can be the love of friends, their patience and gratitude. This can be a mother's love-which helps without any conditions. This is love for the Motherland and its people, a selfless feat for their salvation. It can also be a love of nature-observation and thrift.

The lack of love, on the contrary, leads the main hero to the failure. He does bad things by indulging his vices, his egoism. And often offends those who could help him. The main character burns a bridge stretched from heart to heart. Help could have come over this bridge, but the flames of resentment, feelings of unfair treatment destroy this path.

2.3 Analysis of how children perceive the concept of "love", making a game for the 2nd grade.

So, friendship and love are still the main winners in fairy tales. But we also want to learn how to be friendly. We want to make up the rule of love and share it with our young mates.

We are sure that every person can understand where the good is and where is the evil. We feel that in our hearts. Even children feel that good pleases and inspires, and evil hurts and destroys. We just need to check it out.

For our little friends, we have come up with a game that helps them better learn to understand the actions of people, and at the same time introduces them to the words in English that mean "good" and "evil" actions.

We made cards with the words from our list (table 1). It turned out to be a whole set. Each small expert received such a set with the task to divide it into two parts.

We did not tell how to separate the cards. But all the experts accurately divided all the words into "good" and "bad".

We asked them to name these groups. The resulting names are: “love and anger”, “good and bad”, “friendship and quarrel”, “unite and quarrel”, etc.

Then the kids found for each word from the "good" group its opposite. There were different options.

Second-graders asked a lot of questions to better understand the meaning of each word. For example, many of them didn't know what the word “empathizes” meant. After the explanation, they chose the opposite – “to think only of themselves”.

Thus, we have seen that young readers of fairy tales generally distinguish well between good and evil, while at the same time they have some questions that are useful to discuss.

In the next task, the children chose the three most important words that mean love for them. Everyone has their own.

We asked them to draw a picture of love and sign it with their cherished words: "love is...". Girls often chose words like “care” and “help”, and many boys liked the concepts of "protect" and "help out of trouble."

We had a whole exhibition of beautiful drawings, which we dedicated to Valentine's Day, and called " Love through the eyes of second graders."

Photo:" Love through the eyes of second graders." The exhibition dedicated to Valentine’s Day.

Every picture demonstrates the main meaning of the word “love” for every young artist.

Practice: Creating of our own fairy tale about the power of love.

For the same holiday, we decided to arrange a performance for our little friends. We wanted to show a fairy tale that would reveal the secret of love and friendship.

We are very friendly ourselves. We're almost like sisters. And we decided to show a fairy tale about two sisters.

Let their names be like in the fairy tale of the brothers Grimm -Snowhite and Rosered. These are two girls, very different in character: one is diligent and hardworking, the other is bold and determined. But they love each other very much - each other and their mother.

We came up with a new fairy tale in which one of the girls for the sake of a sick mother goes alone to the forest and accidentally gets captured by an evil witch.

There she meets a magical character - the spirit of a warm home. This spirit is not simple in nature, it resembles a sly Fox that acts on its own.

But it turned out that this Fox, on the contrary, can do nothing on its own. She easily fulfills the common desires of two loving hearts. So, she managed to call Snow white to help her sister Rose red, captured in a gingerbread house, and open the prison.

The girls were so kind that they did not become angry with the old woman, and most likely they wished her to become kinder too. At the end of the story, the Spirit of a warm home, the Fox, taught the old woman to bake delicious pies for children. You can read our story and see the performance by following the links [read the story], [watch the performance], [the script of the play].

Photo: “Path of love” – the participants of the performance


In our work, we have made a very important conclusion: in fairy tales, it is not just good that wins, but love itself. Only it makes the end of the story happy. True love can even translate evil into good.

Mutual love will not allow even those who had to make a sacrifice in the name of their loved ones to become unhappy. Their good will surely return to them many times.

We were able not only to find out what actions are a manifestation of love, but also told about it to our little friends – second graders.

We came up with a story about two loving sisters and showed it in honor of the holiday of St. Valentine's Day. The children liked our fairy tale, we were happy to please them, and we hope that we will be able to do it again and again.


Кэмпбелл Д. Герой с тысячью лицами: Миф. Архетип. Бессознательное = The Hero with thousand faces / ред. И. Старых; пер. с англ. К. Семёнов. — СПб.: София, 1997. — 336 с.

Никифоров, А. И.Сказка и сказочник / А. И. Никифоров ; сост. Е. А. Костюхин. - Москва : ОГИ, 2008. - 374, [1] с. : портр.; 20 см.

Родари, Джанни .Грамматика фантазии : Введ. в искусство придумывания историй / Джанни Родари; Пер. с итал. Ю. А. Добровольской; [Предисл. А. Г. Алексина]. - 2-е изд. - М. : Прогресс, 1990. - 191,[1] с. : ил.; 20 см.

Шаров, А.И. Волшебники приходят к людям. Автор предисловия Лев Разгон. Ил. Н. Гольц. Издание 2-е, доп. М.: Детская литература; 1979 г. Переплет: коленкоровый; 384 страниц; формат: увеличенный.


Жадный Тошка/ Г.А. Передериева. - https://skazkibasni.com/zhadnyj-toshka-pouchitelnaya-istoriya-dlya-detej

Как голубь учился гнездо вить. Азербайджанская сказка. - https://azerbajdzhanskie-skazki.larec-skazok.ru/kak-golub-uchilsya-gnezdo-vit

Как воробьи кошку перехитрили. Индийская сказка. - http://hobbitaniya.ru/indian/indian33.php

Сказки братьев Гримм - https://royallib.com/book/Grimm_The_Brothers/Grimms_Fairy_Tales.html

Сказки о Гарри Поттере/ Дж. Роулинг. - https://www.bookscool.com/en/harrypotter.php

О дружбе журавля и лягушки. Азербайджанская сказка. - https://zooclub.ru/skazki/narodov-SNG/o-druzhbe-zhuravlya-i-lyagushki.shtml

Сказка о непослушных зайчатах. - https://345-games.ru/skazka-o-neposlushnyx-zajchatax/

Хороший совет. Эфиопская сказка. - http://www.skazayka.ru/horoshiy-sovet-efiopskaya-skazka/

The fisherman and the Goldfish/A. Pushkin. - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xiMiIkMLMZk


Исследование сказок представителями различных научных школ. Сравн.-историч. Анализ- https://infopedia.su/11xba64.html -


6.1 Annex 1: Analysis of expert arguments: "Why does good overcome evil in fairy tales? »

By Kate Galchinyuk:

The expert believes that fairy tales are created to teach us to distinguish between good and evil and to perform only good deeds.


Good-evil, truth-lies, sincerely-pretended, to pass all the trials - to give up, a hero - a villain, omnipotent - miserable, to help - to stand in way.

By Eva Obukhova:

T he expert believes that in fairy tales, love works wonders and makes heroes invincible.

The keywords: To help weak, to be generous, kindness.

By Julia Lebedeva:

T he expert claims that in fairy tales, good is love in all its manifestations. It makes the characters stronger. Love is what creates, and evil is what destroys.

The keywords: beautiful - ugly, to make life better - to ruin, tender - angry, love - hatred, to believe in miracles, love for the Motherland, love for relatives, love for people, love for nature.

By Liza Chebotaryova

T he expert expressed the opinion that evil is a manifestation of weakness, instability of character. Fairy tales teach to be kind, which means to be strong and win.

The keywords: Do good - do bad, do with pleasure - do with stupidity, emotional instability.

Conclusion: experts agree that the power of good is in love. They believe that fairy tales are necessary to teach readers to distinguish between good and evil.

6.2 Annex 2: A set of cards with some words that indicate people's actions towards others









make friends








давать добрые советы


просить прощения




help out

give good advice


Say “I’m sorry”





Поддерживать, подбадривать

говорить правду

быть достойным любви





Support, encourage

tell the truth

be worthy of love









Подставлять, предавать







Substitute, betray

быть неблагодарным




распускать сплетни


заслуживать ненависть

be ungrateful

take away



spread gossip


deserve hatred





быть черствым







be callous



6.3 Annex 3: Analysis of fairy tales according to the plan. Samples. Identification of cause-and-effect relationships of events in fairy tales.

1. Greedy Toshka

The fairy tale shows the lack of love to nature, but the main character is rescued by his loving parents.

2. The tale about the fisherman and Golden fish

The fairy tale shows thelack of love between spouses.


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