They were fighting for our future

IX Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

They were fighting for our future

Осадчая К.О. 1
1МБОУ Школа №16
Сафонова Н.М. 1
1МБОУ Школа №16


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Passport of the project "They were fighting for our future"

Author of the project: Osadchaya Karina

English teacher: Safonova Natalia Mikhailovna

Research object:Battle for Moscow in 1941

Subject of research:Factors that led to victory in the battle for Moscow

Relevance: Some people know little not only about this great battle, but also about the great Patriotic war, the heroism of the people during the Second World War, the names of famous heroes of our country.

The purpose and the tasks of the project:

Form an idea of the course of military operations during the battle of Moscow;

Describe the ratio of forces of the USSR and Germany in the Moscow direction in the autumn of 1941;

Review the sides’ plans;

Identify the reasons why the USSR managed to survive in the battle of Moscow, to characterize its importance.

Tell about the exploits of Russian heroes.

Hypothesis: If we know the history of our homeland, we will take care of it, be proud of our Motherland and its defenders, and will always be able to stand up for it just like our ancestors.

Research method: analysis of materials in books and in the Internet; survey and analysis of survey’s results.

Introduction

I chose this topic because I understand the importance of spreading information about this battle and the Patriotic war in general. The year 2020 marks the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II and the victory over Nazism.

An event that has no equal in significance and scale is moving further and further into the past. We are talking about that unforgettable time for our people when it seemed that the outcome of the great Patriotic war was predetermined and the fall of Moscow was a matter of the next few days. This date is especially cherished in the memory of veterans who reached Berlin, returned from the heat of war alive and won another victory-raised the country from the ruins.

In all its centuries-old history, Moscow's role has never before become as responsible as in the war with Nazi Germany. During the great Patriotic war, the capital became the main command post of the country, from which the Armed Forces of the Soviet army were controlled.

The victory in the Battle of Moscow not only helped strengthen the anti-Hitler coalition and expand the resistance movement of the peoples of Europe, but also inspired the Soviet people and the red Army soldiers to new heroic deeds, gave them confidence that had already seemed lost and an inexorable will to completely defeat the enemy. The Soviet people and army performed a miracle, turning this bloody and brutal battle into a phenomenon not only of the great Patriotic war, but of the entire Second World War.

In my project, I also analyzed the knowledge of students in my class by creating a survey, the questions of which can be found in the application (page 14). The results: 12 out of 25 people answered the first question, 7 answered the second question, and only 4 answered the third question. This indicates the relevance and usefulness of my project. Then I learnt more information in our school museum, there are many exhibits of the war years. I was able to conduct a tour of the topic of my project for students there.

The ratio of forces of the USSR and Germany in the Moscow direction in the autumn of 1941:

Combat forces and means

Red army

German troops

Manpower

(thousands)

1250

1800

Number of tanks

990

1700

Number of guns and mortars

7,6 тыс.

14 тыс.

Number of aircraft

667

1390

Defense of Moscow (operation “Typhoon”)

The General offensive of the German troops of the "Center" group on the capital began on September 30, 1941.

Defeat of the Bryansk front

Guderian's 2nd Panzer group immediately achieved serious success. Already on October 3, parts of the 24th motorized corps broke into Orel. When the German 4th Panzer division broke into the city, trams were still running through the streets. On the evening of October 5, the Bryansk front was allowed to withdraw its troops to the second line of defense in the Bryansk area and to the Desna river line. However, on October 6, the German 17th Panzer division captured Bryansk. In the encirclement of Bryansk were: 27 divisions, 2 tank brigades, 19 artillery regiments.

Vyazemsky boiler

On October 2, the offensive of the remaining forces of army group Center began. Creating an overwhelming advantage in narrow areas, the German troops broke through the Soviet defense front. The enemy entered the area of Vyazma.
On 7 October, the German 7th Panzer division of the 3rd Panzer group and the 10th Panzer division of the 4th Panzer group closed the encirclement of the Western and Reserve fronts in the Vyazma area. In the environment were 37 divisions, 9 tank brigades, 31 artillery regiment. Until October 11, the encircled troops made attempts to break through, only on October 12 they managed to break through for a short time, which was soon closed again. In total, more than 688,000 Soviet soldiers and officers were captured at Vyazma and Bryansk, and only about 85,000 escaped from the encirclement.

From the memoirs of Marshal Zhukov

“…From the conversation at the Western front headquarters and the analysis of the situation, I got the impression that the disaster in the Vyazma area could have been prevented… Despite the superiority of the enemy in manpower and equipment, our troops could avoid encirclement. To do this, it was necessary to determine the direction of the main enemy attacks in a timely manner and concentrate the main forces and means against them at the expense of passive sections. This was not done, and the defense of our fronts could not withstand the concentrated attacks of the enemy.”

Mozhaisk line of defense

The main line of resistance on the approaches to Moscow was the Mozhaisk line of defense. The command of the front sought to firmly cover only the most important directions leading to Moscow: Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets and Kaluga. In fierce battles from mid-October to early November, the Soviet troops resisted the superior forces of the enemy and detained him on the borders of the Lama, Ruza and Nara rivers. Despite the persistent resistance of the Soviet troops, by the end of October 1941, the German troops managed to shoot down the Western front's connections with the Mozhaisk line of defense almost throughout its entire length and gradually press them to Moscow. Thus, it was not possible to stabilize the defense on the far approaches to Moscow, and the fighting at the end of October was already 80-100 km from Moscow.

Kalinin defensive operation

Meanwhile, the German 3rd Panzer group turned to Kalinin and took the city on October 14.
To cover the capital from the North-West, on October 17, the Kalinin front (Colonel-General I. S. Konev) was created on the basis of the troops of the right wing of the Western front.
The front's troops, supported by aviation, attacked the Germans daily in the Kalinin area. As a result of these actions, on October 23, von Bock's Directive to suspend the offensive through Kalinin was followed. Thus, vigorous attacks in the Kalinin area, although not leading to the capture of the city, disrupted the main task for which the 3rd Panzer group was deployed from Moscow to the North.

M easures for the defense of Moscow

On October 15, the state defense Committee of the USSR took measures to strengthen the defense of the capital. The next day, the evacuation of the General staff offices, military academies, people's Commissars and other institutions, as well as foreign embassies, began from Moscow (to Kuibyshev, Saratov and other cities). Mining of factories, power plants, and bridges was done.

November 7, 1941

Despite the dull artillery cannonade of the close front, a parade of troops took place on the Red Square. It had a huge impact on the morale of the fighting red army and the entire people. Participants of the parade marched from the Kremlin square directly to the battle positions, inspired by the words of the Supreme commander: "... brothers and sisters! The whole world looks at you as a force capable of destroying the predatory hordes of German invaders…The war you are waging is a war of liberation, a fair war… Long live our glorious Motherland, its freedom, its independence!»

The second German offensive

The second offensive of army group Center on Moscow began on November 15, 1941. Once again, the Moscow region became the scene of bloody battles. On many sections of the front, the Hitlerite command created multiple superiority in manpower and military equipment. In some places, the enemy managed to approach Moscow by 25 kilometers. But invariably the advance of the enemy troops was broken by the steadfastness and courage of the Soviet soldiers. On November 16, at the Dubosekovo junction, 28 men from Panfilov's 316th rifle division, led by Junior political officer V. G. Klochkov, engaged 50 German tanks. 24 enemy tanks were shot down and burned, and the enemy tank group was delayed for more than 4 hours. The words spoken by Klochkov flew all over the country: "Russia is great, but there is nowhere to retreat. Moscow is behindus!»

The last rush to Moscow

At the end of November, there were fierce battles in the area of Kashira and Tula. On November 27, the Soviets launched a counterattack against the 2nd Panzer army and drove it back from Kashira. The 2nd Panzer army attempted to bypass Tula from the northeast and cut the Serpukhov-Tula railway and highway, but a Soviet counter-attack drove the enemy back to their original positions. Mikhail Efremovich Katukov's tank brigade distinguished itself here.

The results of the defense of Moscow

During the defensive phase of the Moscow battle, the Soviet command imposed a "war of attrition" on the enemy (when the "last battalion" is thrown into battle to decide the outcome of the battle). But if during the battle all the reserves of the German command were exhausted, the Soviet command managed to save the main forces. The commander of the German 2nd Panzer army, Guderian, wrote down his CV as follows: "The offensive on Moscow failed. All the sacrifices and efforts of our gallant troops were in vain, And we suffered a serious defeat, which, due to the obstinacy of the high command, led to fatal consequences in the coming weeks. There was a crisis in the German offensive, and the strength and morale of the German army were broken."

Feeling the turning point in the course of the battle, the Soviet command ordered a counteroffensive.

The Soviet counter-offensive near Moscow

On December 5, the troops of the Kalinin front (Colonel-General Konev), and on December 6, the Western front (army General Zhukov) and the right wing of the South — Western front (Marshal Timoshenko) launched a counteroffensive. In the course of the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow, by mid-December the enemy had been driven 60 km North and 120 km South of Moscow.

Importance of the battle of Moscow:

The myth of the invincibility of the German army has been dispelled.

The growth of the liberation anti-fascist movement of peoples in the territories occupied by Germany began.

The process of folding the anti-Hitler coalition began.

Germany's allies, Turkey and Japan, refrained from entering the war against the USSR.

Conclusion:

The defeat of German troops near Moscow debunked the myth of the "invincibility" of the Wehrmacht before the whole world, undermined the morale of the German army, and shook its faith in victory in the war. The victory of the Soviet troops at Moscow meant the beginning of a turn in the great Patriotic war and the entire Second World War.

Sources:

История России XX – XXI века Н.В. Загладин

Отечественная история XX- начала XXI О.А. Чубарьян

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Битва_за_Москву

https://yandex.ru/images/

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Великая_Отечественная_война

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Празднование_75-летия_Победы_в_Великой_Отечественной_войне

Application

Moscow citizens dig anti-tank trenches on the outskirts of the city

Anti-tank hedgehogs on the streets of Moscow

Moscow citizens on the construction of barricades

Registration of volunteers at the front

Survey:

I interviewed 25 people in my class about the battle for Moscow.

When did the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow begin?

When was the medal "for the defense of Moscow" established?

Who authored the plan for a decisive German offensive on Moscow in the autumn of 1941? (operation Typhoon)?

The results:

Questions

Students who answered correctly

Students who answered incorrectly

When did the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow begin?

12

13

When was the medal "for the defense of Moscow" established?

7

18

Who authored the plan for a decisive German offensive on Moscow in the autumn of 1941? (operation Typhoon)?

4

21

Drawing «Defend Moscow!»

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