Первая железная дорога в мире

IX Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Первая железная дорога в мире

Беппаев Д.А. 1
1МБОУ "Школа №16"
Сафонова Н.М. 1
1МБОУ "Школа №16"
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя III степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
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Passport of the project “The First railway in the world”


Author of the project: Beppaev Daniyal, form 9, school №16, Balashikha

English teacher: Safonova Natalia Mikhailovna, school №16, Balashikha

Relevance: I think the project is relevant, because today billions of people use the railways. This is one of the most important ways of transport communication.

The problem: Today, railway is one of the most familiar things. People use trains every day. But many people do not know the history of their creation.

Hypothesis: It is British railway that marked the beginning of the construction of a railway network in Russia.

The purpose and the tasks of the project:

To learn where the first railway was built

To learn about first locomotives

To find out who invented railway

To learn when the first railway appeared in Russia

To compare Russian and English first railways

Research object: Railway system

Subject of research: Railway systems in Britain and in Russia

The progress of the project:

Defining of goals

Information research

Photos research

Analyzing information

Summing up and making the project

Research methods:

Searching information on the Internet

Comparison the results

Uniqueness: 52.51%

Main body:

Introduction: When I was 7, I travelled by the train for the first time. I very liked it. One day, I decided to find a history of railway and compare the history of railway systems in Britain and in Russia. But why I choose this project? Because of huge relevance of railroad as a transport system. Today billions of people use the trains, but most of them do not know the history of their creation.

Where was the first railway built?

On October 27 at 1825, the world's first public steam railroad was opened in England. It connected Stockton with Tisza and Darlington. The track had a length of 40 kilometers. Initially, this road was intended for the export of coal from coalmines in Darlington County to the port in Stockton, where coal was loaded on ships. It was created by George Stephenson. First railway which connected two big cities was built in 1830. It placed between Manchester and Liverpool. In 1840 length of railways in Britain was 2390 kilometers.

First English railway

First locomotives

First train “Locomotion” was built for the first railway “Stockton – Darlington”. Afterwards, the name of this train became a household name and subsequently not only locomotives, but also other self-propelled rail carriages began to be called locomotives.

In 1804, English engineer-inventor Richard Trevitik showed the first steam locomotive to curious viewers. This design consisted of a cylindrical steam boiler to which a tender was attached (a cart with coal and a place for a stoker) and one car in which anyone could ride. The first locomotive did not arouse much interest from the owners of mines which just wanted to interest Treitvik. Perhaps his, in fact, ingenious invention ahead of his time, as is often the case. The high cost of materials for the manufacture of rails, the need to create all the details of the engine manually, lack of funds and qualified assistants - all these negative factors led to the fact that in 1811 Treitvik abandoned his work.

The first cargo trains could carry about 30–40 tons of cargo and accelerated to 6–8 km / h. They were invented in 1814 by European engineers. They were used to carry coal and other ores from mines, but later they became transport other important loads.

This is the first train

Who invented railway?

One of the predecessors of the track was the ancient Greek diolk - a stone road-portage for transporting ships through the Corinth isthmus. The guides were deep troughs in which the runners were placed, greased with grease.

In the 16th century, in the mines of Germany and the neighboring regions, wooden rail tracks and trolleys were used, the wheels of which were fitted with ribs. In some regions of England, wooden rail tracks for trolleys were known during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (the second half of the 16th century), in the 17th century they became widespread in mining areas of England, and in the 18th century, railways gradually replaced them.

The first overland rail road is considered to be a wooden “Wallathon carriage road”. This three kilometer long rail road was built between 1603 and 1604 to carry coal on a horse-drawn train between the villages of Strelli and Wollaton near Nottingham. The exact time of the closure of the road is unknown, but the Strelly mines were closed in 1620. Most likely, at the same time the rail road ceased to exist.

But, the most famous first railway was built by George Stephenson. He was born in 1781 in Wylam. His homeland was England. He is considered one of the "fathers" of the railways. Stephenson suggested using iron rails (instead of cast iron), and making pillows wooden, which turned into sleepers.

The rail track gauge chosen by him, equal to 1,435 mm (4 feet 8½ inches, the so-called “Stephenson” or “normal gauge”), became the most common in Western Europe and is still the standard on railways in many countries of the world.

Start of Stephenson’s career

From 8 years he worked for hire. He began working as a coal sorter; But his attention was most of all taken by pumps pumping water from the mines. The pumps were driven by a steam engine. In 17 years, Stephenson was appointed its machinist. Then he got the opportunity to disassemble the entire machine and study its device in detail. This caused interest in the general principles of the structure of individual mechanisms. The entire childhood of Stephenson was spent on a wooden rue several miles long from Wilam to the Tyne River built in 1748. It was used for the export of coal from the mine on trolleys with horse gear and in fact was the ancestor of modern railways. At the age of 18, he learned to read and write and through persistent self-education he acquired the specialty of steam engine mechanics. In 1802, Stephenson got a job as a machinist in a coal mine. In 1803, his wife, Fannie, gave birth to a son, who was named Robert. Over the next ten years, George studied steam engines. In 1811, Stephenson fixed the machine for pumping water, working in the mine. For this, he gets a job engineer. Now, in his practical work, he all the time seeks to improve mining equipment and soon makes various improvements to the then used Newcomen’s steam engine. Thus, in 1812, he ceased to be engaged only in servicing steam engines and began to design them independently. At the age of 31, he was appointed chief coal mine mechanic. Here Stephenson in 1815 developed a miner lamp of the original design, called the Lamp Geordi; it was invented almost simultaneously with the “Davy Lamp” proposed by the English scientist Humphry Davy and it is still not known which of the designs was the first.

The heyday of Stephenson’career

Already during the construction of the Stockton-Darlington Stephenson railway, he was convinced that the slightest ups significantly reduced the speed of the locomotive, and on slopes the primitive brakes become ineffective. Based on these observations, Stephenson came to the conclusion that in the future on the new railways should avoid large irregularities of the relief. When designing the Bolton-Lee lines (Eng. Bolton and Leigh Railway) and Liverpool-Manchester Stephenson, the complex tasks of railway equipment were solved: several difficult excavations, embankments, bridges and viaducts were laid to smooth the longitudinal profile of the track, iron rails on stone pillars were used, contributing to an increase in the speed of movement of the engine. The L & MR project caused serious discontent among the landowners whose interests it affected, and was rejected during the parliamentary hearings. At the next session, the substantially revised project was accepted for execution. The difficulty was that changing the route led to the need to lay a line through Chet Moss peat bogs.

The opening ceremony of the Liverpool-Manchester railway, held on September 15, 1830, became a very important event on a national scale. On one of his locomotives, Stephenson himself stood as a driver. [2] It was attended by many members of the government, including the Duke of Wellington’s Prime Minister. The holiday was overshadowed by the tragic death of Liverpool member of the Parliament William Huskisson. Wanting to talk with Wellington, who was on the other side of the road, Huskisson tried to run across the road, ignoring the approach of the train, was hit by Stefensson’s “Rocket” and died on the way to the hospital, becoming the first person in the world to be hit by a steam locomotive. Nevertheless, the new railway, as a whole, was perceived positively by the public.

The end of Stephenson’s career

In 1836, Stephenson organized a design office in London, which became the scientific and technical center of railway construction. Being a conservative person, he was inclined to offer time-tested and therefore more reliable options. But often the routes or construction projects chosen by him turned out to be more expensive than their opponents suggested. Thus, when designing the West Coast Main Line railway line, Joseph Locke suggested building a straight line between Lancaster and Carlisle. In this case, the highest point of the line was at an altitude of 914 feet (~ 279 m) above sea level. The variant proposed by Stephenson suggested laying a substantially longer line through Alverston and Whitehaven. After comparing the two options, the Lok’s project was chosen.

In 1847, Stephenson became the first president of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. By this time, he had practically retired, overseeing only the construction of the tunnels of the North Midland Railway and the mining industry in Derbyshire. Having discovered undeveloped coal seams, Stephenson invested most of his funds in their development.

Steam locomotives in other countries were also built according to the projects of Stephenson. He belonged to those happy inventors who happened to see their plans embodied in life.

Stephenson died on August 12, 1848 at Tapton House in Chesterfield.

George Stephenson

First Russian railway

First Russian railway was built in 1837. It called “Tsarskoselskaya railway”. It connects Saint-Petersburg with Tsarskoe selo and Pavlovsk. Track width – 1829 mm.

Building of railway

The construction of the railway from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo was financed by a private joint-stock company, almost all of whose shares (totaling 250 thousand rubles) were acquired by Count Alexei Bobrinsky . Thanks to the connections of the earl’s wife at the court, the joint-stock company received from the government “the exclusive right to build the road so that for the next 10 years to grant the privilege no one had the right to build such a road at the designated distance’’.

The construction was led by Austrian engineer Franz Gerstner. The railway was built with a track width of 1,829 mm (6 feet), the maximum slope was 1.9 . Almost everything needed for the railway was purchased abroad: rails, switches, fasteners, rolling stock were purchased .

Initially, the Tsarskoye Selo railway was built from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo, and later extended to the summer residence of Pavlovsk, while the total length of the route increased to 27 kilometers. The first test drive of a horse train between Tsarskoye Selo and Pavlovsk took place on September 27, 1836.

On October 3, the first steam locomotive was delivered to Kronstadt from England, and on November 3, this steam locomotive with a train was run-in on the Pavlovsk-Bolshaya Kuzmino section, which is shown on the watercolor (erroneously called "Arrival of the first train"). The wagons rather resembled carts of different types and were called respectively “sarabins”, “berlin”, “diligans”, “wagons”. In total, 6 locomotives, 44 passenger and 19 freight wagons purchased from England and Belgium arrived at the opening of the road to Russia. The locomotives were created on the basis of the types of locomotives used at that time in Europe, but changes were made to the design related to the increased gauge. At the request of Gerstner, the locomotives should have a capacity of 40 horsepower and be able to carry several carriages with three hundred passengers at a speed of 40 miles per hour.

The ceremonial opening of traffic on the St. Petersburg - Tsarskoye Selo section took place on October 30, 1837. The driver of the first train, which consisted of a locomotive R. Stephenson, who had not yet had the name of the “Agile” locomotive, and eight cars, was Gerstner himself. Members of the Board were invited to the opening of the first Russian railway of Emperor Nicholas I and other guests of honor. Passengers took their seats, and at 2 hours and 30 minutes in the afternoon the train, operated by F. A. Gerstner, smoothly withdrew from the platform. After 35 minutes, to the loud applause of those who met and shouting “Hurray!”, The first train arrived at Tsarskoe Selo station. The trip from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo took 35 minutes, and the return trip took 27 minutes; The maximum speed of the train reached 64 km / h, and the average was 51 km / h. Over the next three days, everyone who was on the train from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo and back went.

The first Russian railway

Comparison of the first Russian and English railways


Russian railway

English railway

Date of creation



The length of railways

26 kilometers

40 kilometers

Track width

1829 mm

1435 mm

First trains which were used on it



Speed of the first trains

60 km/h

6 km/h

Conclusion from the table: in this table we can see that dates of creation of Russian and English railways are different. English railway was built earlier. And Russian railway was shorter than English one. But track width and speed of the first trains varied significantly. But we can say that they have their pros and cons. Each railway was good for its time.

My prospects for the future: So, in the future I want to create a layout of the first English railway with people, stations and steam locomotives. I think it will be interesting and useful.

Сonclusion: I think I reached all my goals. I learnt all about the first trains and steam locomotives, I learnt who invented the railway. And I found information about the first Russian railway. It was interesting for me. And finally, I compared these railways. Besides, I improved my English.

Full list of sources:












The first English railway

The first train

The first Russian railway

George Stefenson

Richard Trevitik


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