Способы перевода фразеологических оборотов в рассказе Мустая Карима "Таганок" (Английский язык, башкирский язык, русский язык)

XI Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Способы перевода фразеологических оборотов в рассказе Мустая Карима "Таганок" (Английский язык, башкирский язык, русский язык)

Аюпова А.Н. 1
1МБОУ СОШ № 1 с. Мраково
Ташбулатова В.Т. 1
1МБОУ СОш №1 с. Мраково
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

Introduction

 

Every country has its own outstanding people who have contributed to the individuality and status of their country.Mustai Karim is one of them. Last year we celebrated the 100th anniversary of his birthday. A lot of his works have been translated into the different languages. One of his most famous stories “Golden Eagle Village” has been translated into 7 languages. This story is about 4 boys and their adventures. The author used a lot of different stylistic devices, to show the beauty of his native language and one of them is idioms. I think translating idioms is the most difficult and interesting. In fact the idiom cannot be translated word for word (meaning is lost) so often there are difficulties in translation and understanding.

We must preserve the beauty and originality of each language. That’s why my theme of research work is actual

The purpose of my research is to find out the ways of translating idioms from Bashkir into Russian and English. For the achievement of the given purpose I have put the following tasks:

To study the literature on the theme;

To give the definition of the word “idiom”;

To read the story “ОсТаган” written by Mustai Karim in the Bashkir language, the translation of this story in Russian “Таганок” and in English “Golden Eagle Village”;

To find idioms and their translations in these stories;

To analyse the ways of translating idioms.

Hypothesis: we can find equivalents idioms in Bashkir, English and Russian.

The base of the research is the Secondary Comprehensive School № 1 of Mrakovo, Kugarchinsky district.

The object of the research is the texts of Mustai Karim's work ("Taganok") in Bashkir, Russian and English.

The subject of the research is translation of idioms into English and Russian.

Research methods:

Studying the literature on the theme;

Comparison;

Analyses.

Theoretical value. I investigated the literature on the given theme and improved my knowledge in English, Russian and Bashkir.

Practical value. The information of my research work can be used in English, Russian and Bashkir lessons.

The structure of the research work. The research work consists of the introduction, two chapters, and the conclusion.

The introduction provides the purpose, the tasks, the object, the subject and the methods of the research.

In the first chapter there is information about the idioms in English, Russian and Bashkir languages.

The second chapter includes analysis of the ways of translating idioms in the stories “Таганок” and “Golden Eagle Village”

In the conclusion I explained what and why has been done in my research work and described my inferences.

Chapter 1. Theoretical Part.

The definition of the “idiom”.

The word does not create the imagery and emotionality that phraseology has. One of the ways to develop the vocabulary of any language is lexical and syntactic formations, more complex than a single word, which are called as phraseological units or idiomatic expressions.1[8]

Prof. Smirnitsky classifies phraseological units according to the functional principle. Two groups are distinguished: phraseological units and idioms.

Phraseological units are neutral, non-metaphorical when compared to idioms: make friends, pull over, and run out of. Idioms are metaphoric, stylistically coloured: be a piece of cake, be over the moon, and face the music.

Idioms show the cultural origins of the writing.They can make our language more descriptive and enjoyable. Writers use idioms to make their characters more believable.

Idioms are phrases which are often difficult to understand out of context.

The ways of translating idioms

The ways of translating idioms were studied by many researchers. Translation of idioms is difficult. This is due to the fact that many of idioms are bright, emotionally saturated turnovers belonging to a particular style of speech and often have a national character.

Most researchers (V. N. Komissarov, L. F. Dmitrieva, S. E. Kuntsevich, E. A. Martinkevich, N. F. Smirnova) highlighted four main ways of translating idioms. In this research work we will consider these ways of translating idioms in detail.[7]

Full equivalents - idioms which are identical with translating idioms. For example: Аҡты ҡаранан айыралар (4). − Отличают белое от черного (4). – They can tell black from white (10).

Descriptive - translation by transferring the meaning of idiom by a free phrase. For example: ...үпкәһе боғаҙына килгәндәй булды (16). – и Айдару казалось, что легкие его сорвались с места и сердце клубком подкатывает к горлу (17). − …it seemed to Aidar that his lungs were going to burst and that his heart would pop right out of his mouth (22).

Calculus- literal translation of expressions. For example: Ҡалайыраҡ эре сирттергән була (11). – Как круто разговаривает (11). – Listen to him talking big (18).

Analogue -Вәзир тамам ҡойолоп төштө (75). − Вазира словно молния ударила (81). – Vazir looked as if he had been struck by a bolt from the blue2 (86).

Conclusion to chapter 1

The idiom is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. Idioms show the cultural origins of the writing.They can make our language more descriptive and enjoyable. Writers use idioms to make their characters more believable.

There are four ways of translating idioms:

Full equivalents

Descriptive

Calculus

Analogue

Chapter 2. Analysis of the ways of translating idioms in the stories “Таганок” translated by V. Oseeva and “Golden Eagle Village” translated by T. Botting

In this chapter we will try to analyze the ways of translating idioms from the Bashkir language into Russian and from Russian into English on the example of Mustai Karim’s story "Taganok". For the analysis were taken translations of V. Oseeva, T. Botting, who are known as children's writers and translators.

I have read the story “ОсТаган” written by Mustai Karim in the Bashkir language, the translation of this story in Russian “Таганок” and in English “Golden Eagle Village” and found around 40 idioms.[6]

2.1. Analyses of idioms translated by full equivalents

As the analysis shows, translators V. Oseeva and T. Blotting used the way of phraseological equivalent.

Аҡты ҡаранан айыралар (4). − Отличают белое от черного (4). – They can tell black from white (10).

Иллегә етеп, ситкә аяҡ атлағаны юҡ, ә үҙе ер шарын биш бармағы кеүек белә (4). ...никуда не отлучался из своего аула, а весь земной шар знает как свои пять пальцев! (4) –Sharifulla never left the village for a single day, yet he knows the whole globe like the palm of his hand (10).

...тик үксәләре генә алмаш-тилмәш ялтырап бара (12). - Только пятки одна за другой сверкали (13). – Only his heels flashed one after the other (18).

Ҡулыңды бысратма (20) – Не пачкай рук! (22). – Don’t dirty your hands on him (27).

...әллә ҡайҙа шайтан ҡыуып йөрөйһөң (23). – Где черти носили тебя до темноты? (25). – Where did the imps keep you until dark? (30).

Ошо уйҙарҙан уның түбәһе күккә тейҙе (43). – Вазир так размечтался, что почувствовал себя на седьмом небе (46). – Vazir was so deep in daydreams that he was in the seventh heaven (52).

Яҡуптың китеүе булды, ауыҙы ҡолаҡ артына еткән Гөлнурҙың Вәзир ҡаршыһына килеп сығыуы булды (45). – А перед Вазиром вдруг предстала Гульнур. Растянув рот до ушей... (48). – She was grinning from ear to ear… (54).

...йөрәге жыу итеп китте (49). – Сердце матери снова екнуло (52). – His mother’s heart missed a beat (57).

...ҡыҙыл түңәрәктәр һикерешеп уйнарға кереште (50). – ...в глазах заиграли красные кружки (53). – …red spots before his eyes prevented him from seeing (58).

Бер аяғың унда, икенсеһе бында булһын! (58). – Вазир, чтоб, одна твоя нога была здесь, другая там! (62). – Run like the wind, Vazir, one foot here and the other foot there (68).

...Вәзир генә китте лә батты (59). – а Вазир ушел и словно в воду канул (63). – But as for Vazir he had vanished into thin air (68).

Ләкин үҙен тиҙ генә ҡулға алды (61). − ...но тут же взял себя в руки (65). – But he immediately took himself in hand (70).

Һинән рәт сығасаҡ (64). – Из тебя выйдет толк (68). – You’ll turn out to be a good egg yet (73).

Бесәй балаһының күнәккә күсеп ултырырға башы етмәне (71). – но у котенка не хватило ума перелезть в ведро (77). – But it did not have enough sense to do that (81).

Бүтәндәрҙең дә тамаҡ төптәрен ҡытыҡланып китте (74). – У других тоже в горле защекотало (80). – Anticipation was tickling the palates of the others, too (85).

Ауыҙыңды ла асма! (77). – И рта не раскрывай! (83). – You keep your mouth shut! (88).

...ике-өс көн эсендә бөтөнләй ҡулдан ысҡынды (78). – ...за какие-нибудь два-три дня совсем отбился от рук (84). – The lad … in a mere couple of days or so, had got utterly out of hand (89).

Улар Яҡуптың янауҙарына ҡолаҡ та һалманылар (79). – Она никак не поддавалась на уговоры Якупа, даже ухом не повела (86). – Not one of them yielded to Yakup’s persuasion (90).

...кеше ауына бер-ике тапҡыр ҡул һалғайнылар (80). – ...они и сами раза два совали руки в чужие сети (86). – …they themselves had taken a fish or two out of other people’s nets a couple of time… (91).

Аллабирҙе олатай башымды бәке менән ҡырғанда, күҙҙән уттар күренә торғайны (94). – А вот когда брил мою голову Аллабирде, то у меня из глаз искры всегда сыпались (104). – That made me see stars (106).

2.2. Analyses of idioms translated by descriptive way

There are cases when the translation into Russian was chosen the equivalent, and in the English text the translator gave a descriptive translation. Examples:

Шулай ҙа ҡойроҡ-фәлән эйәрмәне (7). ...но обошлось все-таки без хвостов и переэкзаменовок. (7) – At least they did not have any odd tasks left over to do, moreover, they wouldn’t have to take any exams a second time (13).

Аҡылды ултырып йыялар (10). Ума-разума набираются сидя (10). – Where we live men never remain standing when they are talking of serious things. They exchange words of wisdom sitting down (17).

Яҡуп оҙаҡ баш ватты (35) – ... долго ломал голову (36). – Yakup spent a long time wondering how to put end… (42).

Тиҫтерҙәре унан бөтөнләй ҡул һелтәмәгәндәр икән (36) – ...не все еще сверстники махнули на него рукой (38). – …not all the boys of his age had given him up as lost (43).

Һүҙ менән тирмән тарттырып булмаҫ (91). – Да что зря языком молоть... (98). – Don’t stand there gabbling (101).

An idiom that has no analogue or equivalent in Russian and English, and hasn’t literal translation, Oseeva and Botting translated by descriptive way:

...үпкәһе боғаҙына килгәндәй булды (16). – и Айдару казалось, что легкие его сорвались с места и сердце клубком подкатывает к горлу (17). − …it seemed to Aidar that his lungs were going to burst and that his heart would pop right out of his mouth (22).

Көн ашаған (17). – ...была еще одна рубашка, правда, она до того вылиняла от солнца (18). – …thesunshinehadbleacheditsocompletely (23).

Башлыҡ менән йүгеректең дүрт күҙе һигеҙ булды (19). – Вожак и бегун замерли от удивления, глаза их раскрылись широко ...(20). – Theireyeswerewidewithsurpriseastheygazedattheknife (26).

Ундай малдар кереп сыҡҡылай... (20). − ...что в руки этого меткого стрелка нет-нет да попалали “нечаянно” кой-какие вещички (21). – …the sharpshooter often got his hands on things “accidentally for the purpose” (26).

Йомош ҡушһаң, элкә йоҡа, уйын тиһәң, донъяһын онота (25) – Если что-нибудь сделать, то сил не хватает, а если играть да гонять с мальчишками, то тут первый! (27). – If I ask you to do anything you’re feeling too weak, but when it comes to forever running round with other boys, you’re always in the lead (32).

6. Шаҡ ҡатырһың бына (34). – Вот увидишь сама и удивишься! (36). – You shall see for yourself and you will admire us for them (41).

7. Сөнки уны күптән инде берәү ҙә һанға һуҡмай ине (36). – Потому что уже давно никто не нуждался в нем и не звал его к себе (38). – For a long time past nobody had needed him for anything at all (43).

8.Беҙҙең яҡта хатта йәйге ямғырҙар ҙа ултырып яуа. Бер башлаһа, тәүлек буйына талғын ғына шыбырҙай бирә. Шуға күрә уны: “Ямғырҙар ултырып яуа”, - тиҙәр (56). − В наших краях даже летние дожди затягиваются надолго. Коли уж начнется такой дождь, так он идет себе и идет целые сутки и шуршит монотонно. Потому и говорят, что дождь идет без передышки. – In our parts even the summer rains last for a very long time. Once it begins raining, it goes on for days and days on end, pattering monotonously. That is why they say it rains without a breathing spell (66).

2.3. Analyses of idioms translated by calculus way

Relying on the fact that the imagery of some idioms is easily perceived by Russian-and English-speaking readers, the translators used a literal translation. ( Calculus)

Шул тиклем маҡтаныуҙан нисек телдәре талмай ... (15). – Как только язык не устает от такого хвастовства! (16). – I wonder your tongue doesn’t get tired from so much boasting (21).

...бармаҡ осомдо ла тейҙермәйем (20). − …иначе и кончиком пальца не прикоснусь к твоему ножику (21). – Otherwise I won’t touch your knife (26).

...тип шылдырҙы ул (44). – ...на ходу соврал он (47)....making up the fib on the go (52).

2.4. Analyses of idioms translated by analogue way

Translators used the way of a phraseological analogue

Тура эште кәкре ҡул менән эшләмәйҙәр (11). – Чистое дело не делается грязными руками (11). – You can’t do a noble deed with dirty hand (18).

Күҙең ҡыҙамы? Эсең әрнейме? (14). – Завидуешь? В душе мыши скребутся! (16). – You’re jealous, you are! Got the wind up! (21).

Юғиһә, донъяның ҡыҙығы ҡалманы (46). – Иначе мне и свет и мил станет (49). – Otherwise life will not be worth living (54).

Уға иң тәүҙә Ғабдулланың күңелен иретергә кәрәк ине (70). – Этими словами Вазир надеялся прежде всего расположить к себе Габдуллу (75). – Vazir hoped to win the chief over with these words (80).

Вәзир тамам ҡойолоп төштө (75). − Вазира словно молния ударила (81). – Vazir looked as if he had been struck by a bolt from the blue (86).

Алдыңды-артыңды ҡарап йөрөй күр инде... (79). – Только гляди в оба там (84).Butdotakecare (89).

Юғиһә, эстә лә эттәр өрә башланы (79). – И голод начал донимать, в животах уже кошки скребут (86).Besides, hungerwasmakingitselffelt. Their tummies were rumbling (90).

...тот тоҡсайыңды (80). – Ну да, держи карман шире... (87). – Oh, go on! You just try holding your pocket wide open and see if anybody accidentally pops something into it (91).

Әммә беҙҙең балыҡсылар асыҡ ауыҙҙарҙан түгел ине (81). – Но наши рыбаки не были такими простачками, которых можно было бы водить за нос (88). – However, you must not think those fishermen were the kind that can be easily fooled (93).

Conclusion to chapter 2

While working with idioms I looked through around 40 idioms in the English, Russian and Bashkir languages.

In the Bashkir story “Oc таган” written by Mustai Karim I have found around 40 idioms .

After reading the story Таганок” translated by V.Oseeva I try to find the translations of these idioms. Then I compare these idioms with English translations.

I analyses the ways of translating idioms in the stories “Таганок” and “Golden Eagle Village”

So, I came to the conclusion that mostly idioms are translated by using phraseological equivalent.

The results of my research you can see in these diagrams. (Appendix 1)

Conclusion

The research work made to find out the ways of translating idioms from Bashkir into Russian and English. To achieve the purpose of the research I solved some tasks: studied the literature on the theme, gave the definition of the word “idiom”, read the story “ОсТаган” written by Mustai Karim in the Bashkir language, the translation of this story in Russian “Таганок” and in English “Golden Eagle Village”, found idioms and their translations in these stories, analyzed the methods of translations idioms.

In the first chapter I have investigated the information about idioms. Idioms show the cultural origins of the writing.They can make our language more descriptive and enjoyable

In the second chapter I have analyzed idioms in the stories “Таганок” translated by V. Oseeva and “Golden Eagle Village” translated by T. Botting

I have found 40 idioms and their translations in these stories. If you look at the diagram you can note that 50 % of these idioms are translated by equivalents,

23 % by analogue idioms;

20 % by descriptive way;

And only 7% by literal translation.

In my opinion, my hypothesis is true. I can say that it is possible to find equivalents idioms in Bashkir, English and Russian. It was interesting for me to read these stories and analyse the idioms in the English, Russian and Bashkir languages.

Bibliography

Жуков В.П., Жуков А.В. Школьный фразеологический словарь русского языка. –М.:Просвещение, 1994-431 с.

Кәрим М. С. Өс таған. – Өфө, 1962. – 109 б.

Карим М. С. Таганок. – М., 1964. – 125 с.

Кунин А.В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь. Русский язык, -1984 - 944 с.

Ураксин З.Г. Русско-башкирский фразеологический словарь. //Под. ред. Э.Р.Тенишева. М.: Русский язык, 1989. -404 с.

Internet resources

Mustai Karim ‘Golden Eagle Village’ http://ebook.bashnl.ru/dsweb/Get/Resource

http://elar.urfu.ru/bitstream/10995/40815/1/avfn_2016_38.pdf

https://studylib.net/doc/7761027/lecture---phraseology-phraseology-and-phraseological-units

1https://studylib.net/doc/7761027/lecture---phraseology-phraseology-and-phraseological-units

2 Вазир выглядел так, словно его поразил гром среди ясного неба

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