Национальные виды спорта Великобритании

XI Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Национальные виды спорта Великобритании

Исаков Д.М. 1
1МБОУ "Погореловская СОШ" Корочанский район, Белгородская область
Лопатина Ю.В. 1
1МБОУ "Погореловская СОШ" Корочанский район Белгородская область


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Introduction

This research work is devoted to the description of the national sports of Great Britain in order to study the culture and history of this country.

Many people are engaged in various sports, without even having an idea how this sport originated.

This work is very actual, because interest in modern sports is growing every day. There is a wide variety of sports in Britain today famous all over the world. There are many sporting facilities and leisure centers and people are more aware of the importance of exercise for their health. Sports require continuous hard work, which tones the body and the muscles of our body. This is a good way not only to strengthen your body for endurance and strength but also learn more about English culture.

Today, there are works devoted to sports in general. However, we decided to study this theme on the example of our school, and this is the novelty of our research.

The goal of this work is to involve students and to make their knowledge about national sports of Great Britain more expanded.

The tasks of our work are:

to find detailed modern information about various sports;

to conduct informational work with students on this theme;

to increase interest in learning English culture.

Great Britain is the birthplace of many modern sports. The British have long been distinguished by an increased interest in sports, competition, fair play, and reasonable rules.

Most modern Britains are passionate about sports to one degree or another: some play, others are passionately root, there are almost no indifferent people.

In modern England, there are over 40 thousand officially registered football clubs, so that you understand the entire volume of the popularity of this game in the country, which is the largest number in comparison with all other countries in the world. Manchester United, Arsenal, Chelsea, who does not know these outstanding and some of the best football clubs in history. These sports have historically developed and formed, as well as were distributed among Britain nation, are part of the national culture.

These sports have historically developed and formed, as well as were distributed among Britain nation, are part of the national culture.

Chapter 1

History of sport in Great Britain

First let's look at the history of the issue. The first mention of the game of cricket dates back to the end of the16th century. In the 18th century, Golf appeared in Scotland,and in England – rowing.

In the 19th century, Great Britain began to play Rugby, footballand badminton, athletics and Boxing. Football became popular among the working classes, Golf among the middle class, and cricket was played by the upper class from the very beginning.

Major competitions in many sports were also held in the UK for the first time. Back in 1660, the first regatta was held. In 1709, England hosted its first cricket match, and in 1781, a football tournament. A chesstournament was also first held ingreat Britain in 1851. Sport has played a big role in shaping the English mentality. English Association football, Rugby Union, and the England cricket team have a huge impacton English identity.

The world's oldest football clubs were founded in England from 1789 and, in the 1871–72 season, the FACup was founded as the world's biggest first organised competition. [3]

The first international match took place in November 1872 when England travelled to Glasgow to play Scotland.The football was first documented in the 1100s in England by Thomas Becket diarist William Fitzstephen.

Rugby is a popular contact sport in the UK, much like football. It originated in the 19th century in England, presumably at aprivate school in the city of Rugby. At that time, all ball games were called football, but the rules in different places were different, there were many varieties of the game.

In the city of Rugby, they played football where you could touch the ballwith your hand. In 1863, football and Rugby officially separated. The football Association has adopted rules against touching the ball. In 1871, the Rugby Union of England appeared. Then the first official match took place. A century later, Rugby began to spread around the world, the world Cup appeared.

Until the 19th century, indoor tennis was played in England. The gameoriginated inthe Middle ages in European monasteries, and was later played by French and English kings. It is now calledreal tennis. And in the 19th century, modern tennis appeared –the so-called lawn tennis. English major Walter Wingfield created the rules and distributed the game. Tennis became instantly popular, and in just a few years it was played all over the world. In 1877, the first tennis tournament was held in Wimbledon.

A common opinion is that today, tennis is considered to be the same native English sport as football.[БуроваИ.И. ДветысячилетисторииАнглии,2006]

Ordinary residents of the UK often play tennis at an Amateur level, but most of all they like to attend games. In general, tennis fans are more likely to belong to higher classes than football fans. Tennis is a spectacular sport, and the Wimbledon tournament is one of the most spectacular and exciting events in England. Until now, this championship has adopted the traditions of the 19th century – ticket sales through the ticketoffices at the stadium, strawberries with cream and a cold low-alcohol drink "Pimms" during the match, the selection of children for picking up balls, and much more.

Golf is a Scottish invention. According to legend, the game was invented by shepherds who arranged such entertainmentduring their holidays: they used staves to drive stones into rabbit holes. In a primitive form, Golf existed in the 14th century under the name "Gough".[9]

In the 15th century, the authorities forbade playing it, as the game interfered with the training of archers. But Golf did not disappear, it continued to be played. And in the 17th century, Golf went beyond the British Isles and appeared in Europe. In the 19th century, the rules of Golf finally took shape in their modern form. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, generally regarded as the world's "Home of Golf"

Chapter 1 conclusion

Based on the above, it is logical to assume that the national sport of Great Britain has a centuries-old traditions. This chapter reveals us the formation of a rich culture of the country. Given the fact that these sports have become global, which testifies to the huge investment of the UK in the world culture of sports.

Chapter 2

2.The kinds of Britain’s sport

2.1 Football

In order to find out what students know about the culture of Great Britain,we decided to conduct a survey among students of our school. The survey was conducted orally. Students in grades 9-11 took part in the survey .

Attention is drawn to the fact that the survey showed very minimal knowledge about the culture of Great Britain, so using the example of national sports, this work deepens students ' knowledge about the culture and history of Great Britain

Football is the main national sport in the UK. It originated in the Middle ages, and in the 19th century began to flourish and won the love of the entire population. In the mid-19th century, the first football club appeared in England, the Football Association was founded, and uniform rules of the game were adopted, borrowed from prestigious private schools where this sport was very popular.

The full name of the game in English is association football, meaning "Association football".

Each country in the UK has a separate football Association and its own national team. Football is the most popular sport among the British. The most popular English clubs are Manchester United, Liverpool, Arsenal, Chelsea, Manchester

city.

The fans in England are some of the most dedicated and active in the world.

Football – is a game, which is played in two teams, each consisting of 11 players. A round ball is kicked up and down the playing field and each team tries to kick the ball into the other team's goal.[7]

The main football stadium in England is Wembley. It is also the country's largest stadium (90,000 seats). Wembley is owned by the football Association of England. It plays home matches of the England national team, as well as hosts the finals and semi-finals of the FA Cup, the final of the Football League Cup and a number of other competitions.The largest club stadium in the country is old Trafford, located in Manchester (76,212 seats).

Emirates (60,355 seats) and St James ' Park(52,387 seats) are the second and third largest club stadiums.

Football is a way of life in Britain –millions of supporters follow their teams around the country and by visiting one of the many football venues in Britain, you too can share the passion.

2.2 Rugby

Today, Rugby is included in the program of the Olympic games, has a huge number of teams of different divisions. A huge number of competitions were held,with different awards. Championships, tournaments, money, blood and cups!

Rugby is a very popular game. A lot of events, division into women's and men's divisions, different tactics and epic victories with brutal defeats.

This is what attracts everyone to this sport. Rugby is a team competition that has long been one of the most popular and entertaining games around the world. The game of Rugby has given rise to many related sports.[5]

The game is played on a 100x70 meter rectangular grass field. The lines on which the gates are located are adjoined by rectangular scoring zones with a width of 10 to 22 meters. Thus, the maximum field size is 144 × 70 meters, and the largest possible playing area is 1.008 hectares. The field marking in cludes several more lines parallel to the front one. Of particular important ceare the line dividing the field in half, and the lines located 22 meters from both goal lines.

2.3 Tennis

The standard size of a tennis court is 23.77 meters long and 8.23 ​​meters wide (10.97 meters for doubles). The tennis court area is about 196 m^2. For the construction of tennis courts intended for competitions, an area of ​​668 m^2 is required. The court has a rectangular shape with a flat surface with markings applied to it:

The lines along the short sides of the court are called backlines, and along the long sides are called сoridors.

The service areas are marked on the court using service lines parallel to the back lines and the net, 6.40 m from the net and drawn only between the sidelines for singles, as well as the center service line drawn in the middle of the court parallel to the sidelines and between the service lines . The center service line is also displayed on the net with a vertical white stripe stretched from the surface of the court to the top of the net.

The back lines are marked with a short mark to indicate their middle.

There is a net stretched in the middle of the court, which runs along the entire width and divides it into two equal parts. The standard tennis net size is 1.07 meters by 12.8 meters, and has square meshes with a side of 4 centimeters.[13]

Types of tennis court surfaces:

herbal (grass);

soil (clay);

hard (hard);

synthetic carpets (artificial grass)

There are other types of tennis court surfaces such as asphalt, wood or rubber surfaces, but these are not used in official matches. Tennis courts are open and covered.

Tennis player's inventory: tennis racket and ball. The racket consists of a handle and a rounded rim with stretched strings. The rim of the racket is made of complex composite materials (ceramics, carbon fiber, metal). Tennis racquet strings can be natural or synthetic. Previously, it was believed that natural strings have the best characteristics, but today artificial strings have caught up with natural ones in terms of characteristics. Interestingly, the tensile strength of horizontal and vertical strings is usually different. Usually a tennis racket is selected individually for each player.

There are special requirements for rackets from the International Tennis Federation (ITF):

The length of the racket should not exceed 73.66 cm.

The width of the racket should not exceed 31.75 cm.

The size of the stringing surface of the racket, that is, the inner dimension (up to the rim) —29.21 cm wide and 39.37 cm long.

A hollow rubber ball of yellow-white color is used for the game. The outside of the ball is covered with a fluffy felt to give it certain aerodynamic properties.[7]

In modern tennis, the largest competitions are 4 Grand Slamtournaments:

Australian Open — Australian Open

Rolland Garos (Roland Garosse) - French Open

Wimbledon Championships - the most prestigious Grand Slam

championship, held on the out skirts of London - Wimbledon

Davis Cup is the unofficial world tennis championship. The Kremlin Cup is the largest championship in Russia.

Tennis organizationsTennis structures:

International Tennis Federation(ITF) - International Tennis Federation.

Russian Tennis Federation.

Association of Professional Tennis Players (ATP).

Children's International Organization.

Junior International Tennis Organization.

There are special requirements for rackets from the International Tennis deration (ITF):

The length of the racket should not exceed 73.66 cm.

The width of the racket should not exceed 31.75 cm.

The size of the stringing surface of the racket, that is, the inner dimension (up to the rim) —29.21 cm wide and 39.37 cm long.

A hollow rubber ball of yellow-white color isused for the game. The outside of the ballis covered with a fluffy felt to give it certain aerodynamic properties.

The best tennis player at the time of 2020 is Roger Federer, who was born on August 8, 1981. Roger Federer now

Federer is one of the highest paid athletes in the world. Presumably, his fortune is 76 million francs (about $ 76.4 million).

In June 2018, rumors of a collaboration with Uniqlo were confirmed. Roger signed a 10-year contract for $ 30 million a year. Thus, the contract will remain in effect even after the end of his career.

In February 2018, Roger again became the first racket of the world in Rotterdam, while again bypassing his eternal opponent Rafael Nadal in the ATP rankings.

In June 2018, at the tennis tournament in Halle, to the surprise of many fans, Federer defeated Croatian Born Coric, despite the fact that the Swiss was the current trophy holder. Awards

2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2018 - winner of the prestigious Laureus World Sports Awards nomination - athlete of the year

2008 - gold medal at the Beijing Olympics (doubles)

2012 - silver medal at the London Olympics (singles)

2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 - player of the year according to the Association of Tennis Professionals [10]

2.4 Golf

The golf course must meet a number of requirements, namely, consist of a series of holes, each of the holes must have its own launch pad. There are two markers on the starting area that show the permissible limits for the ball peg. In addition to the launch pad, the field contains: smooth field, uneven field and other obstacles.

The final part of the site is a hole, which is marked with a flag for ease of orientation. The hole is placed in an area with a minimum grass height called a green. In other areas, the height of the grass fluctuates, this is done in order to make it difficult for players to pass the site. As a rule, holes are located in the line of sight from the starting area to the green. But this does not always happen, if the holes deviate to the left or to the right, then such holes are called "left dogleg" and "right dogleg", respectively. If the direction bends twice, then the hole is called "double dogleg". The courses consist of 18 holes, but there are also 9-hole courses, in such a situation they are passed twice, which in total is the same 18 holes. A player can take with him to the game no more than 14 clubs, each of them is designed to perform a specific stroke.[8]

There are two types of golf clubs:

"Wood" - clubs designed to take hits at maximum distances, as a rule, these are the first hits. They are called "wood" because of the wooden head, although modern woods are made from titanium-based metal alloys.

"Iron" - clubs designed to execute strikes at different distances, depending on the position of the ball. The golf clubs are so named because their heads are made of metal.

Apart from the material, the clubs differ in the shape of the heads. So for strikes at short distances and with a high trajectory, pitching wedge (wedge) are used, the angle of inclination of such clubs is 50-60 degrees. If the blow is to be made from a sand bunker, then a sand wedge stick is suitable for this, it has a heavier sole and a special shape. For finishing shots, players use a putter, which is designed specifically for striking on a flat surface with great precision. In the wood and iron groups, the clubs are numbered according to the angle between the shaft and the face of the head. The lower the number, the longer the potential impact trajectory. The difference in the length of blows with clubs from adjacent numbers is about 10 meters.[14]

Another important part of golf inventory is balls. They must have the following characteristics:

diameter not less than 4.27 cm,

weight within 41-46 grams,

the surface of the ball should have 300-500 depressions (the more depressions, the higher the ball flies).

When considering golf balls, mention should be made of the "compression" rate.

In simple terms, compression is the level of deformation of the ball upon impact. Its conditional value varies from 0 (the ball is strongly deformed upon impact) to 200 (the ball is not deformed upon impact).

Most balls have a compression of 80-100 (compressed by 2-3 mm on impact). Internally, balls can consist of one, two, three or more component layers. Single-layer balls, due to their low cost, are ideal for training beginners.

Double-layer balls consist of a hard core and a thin rigid shell. They combine low cost, durability and range and are therefore suitable for most golfers.

Three-layer balls are wound from an elastic thread over an elastic or gel-like core. Such balls can be twisted very strongly, sometimes it is very beneficial for athletes.

At the most prestigious and popular world tournaments: Olympic Games. Golf was included in the program of the 2016 Olympic Games, before that golf was at the Olympiads only 2 times (1900, 1904).

Masters (The Masters Tournament) - one of four major golf tournaments (similar to the Grand Slam tournaments in tennis).

US Open is an annual open golf championship held in the United States.

The Open Championship is the oldest golf competition and one of four major events.

The PGA Championship is an annual golf tournament hosted by the Professional Golfers Association of America.[12]

Chapter 2 conclusion

Based on all of the above, we can say that this Chapter provides a broad overview of the basic concepts of popular sports in the UK.As a result of our research, we found that these sports are popular among students. our school has a football team that has shown interest in this topic.

CONCLUSION

In our opinion, it would be interesting to study national sports of Great Britain. Research in this direction can be continued. This could be the study of not only sports, but also other cultural features .

The research can be useful and interesting for school students who are interested in foreign languages, as well as for everyone who is interested in world sports.

In the process of writing the work I learned about the rich sports culture and history of Great Britain.

Nowadays, the most popular sport for people to take part in is football. Many sports reflect the diversity of interests in British life: rugby, cricket, golf, tennis, greyhound and horse racing, polo, hunting, riding, shooting, hockey, bowls, athletics, sailing, mountaineering, ice sports, car and motorcycle racing and rally driving.

Sport forms a person's character and basic qualities. Most sports games emphasize the importance of a strict schedule of classes and training. In this way, it forms a discipline that helps us in our daily life. When playing sports, you can get not only the necessary physical activity, but also pleasure. Through this work, a large number of stdents will increase their interest in sports and English very much.

LITERATURE

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2. Nolasco R., Medgyes P. When in Britain: Intermediate. – 6th ed. – Oxford etc.: Oxford Univ. Press ,2014.

3. Sheerin S. et al. Spotlight on Britain/S. Sheerin, J. Seath, G. White. – 7th ed. – Oxford etc.: Oxford Univ. Press, 2015.

4. Taylor D. Mastering. Economic and Social History/ D. Taylor. – London: Macmillan, 2013.

5. Beenstock M. The World Economy in Transition. -2nd ed. – London: George Allen and Unwin,2004.

6. Cox A. Privatisation and Supply Chain Management: On the Effective Alignment of Purchasing and Supply after Privatisation/ A. Cox, L. Harris, D. Parker. – London etc.: Routledge, 2004.

7. Boswell T. Why time begins on opening day. – London etc.: Penguin book, 2015.

8. Maki D.P., Thompson M. Finite Mathematics. – 2nd ed. – New York: McGraw-Hill Book,2003.

9. Golf Great Britain and Ireland by Contemporary Books. 2008.

10.Golf Great Britain and Ireland: A Traveler's Guide to More, May 2, 2005. Reviewer: Mark E. Haas from Houston, Texas.

11.An absolute must if you are planning your own UK golf trip, April 18, 2014.

12.A must-have for golfing travel to the British Isles, October 23, 2017.

13.Бурова И.И. Две тысячи лет истории Англии/И.И. Бурова. – СПб.: Бельведер, 2006.

14.Thomas P. Images of Devon.-Tiverton: Halsgrove, 2004.

15.Nolasco R., Medgyes P. When in Britain: Intermediate.-6th ed. – Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2013.

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