Today, there are about 262 countries in the world. And each of them is individual in its own way. Each nation has its own traditions and customs concerning various spheres of life - from harvest and wedding to national features of cuisine and the use of certain products. Tea is one of the most popular drinks in the world, also became a participant in various national traditions.
It is difficult to imagine life without tea, which gives cheer in the mornings, restores strength after a difficult working day and warms up a friendly conversation. Tea is an ancient and noble drink that also has healing properties. So in ancient Chinese myths, the tea leaf acted as an independent medicine.
Tea bush is an amazing plant containing many different substances that have a favorable effect on the human body. It is a very low shrub (only 1 meter) with dark green dense leaves, however, only thin and tender young leaves go to prepare tea.
It was worth the tea to appear in any country, as in a matter of years he conquered it completely and completely. And the tea party procedure itself was riddled with peculiar traditions and became the "calling card" of the people. Tea is a drink that does not tolerate fuss, and you can only get the benefit of it by completely surrendering to this process for at least half an hour.
Problem. In the English school curriculum, we get a lot of material about the cultural traditions of modern England, but there is very little specific information abou tea ceremonies,that details the history of English tea and the English tea party tradition in the Victorian era. In this project, I want to expand my knowledge in this area.
The purpose of the project is to investigate the history of tea in England and modern English tea traditions on the basis of journalistic and scientific literature.
1. To learn the history of English tea by various sources.
2. To learn the history of the English tea party.
3. To find information about Tea Party traditions in England these days. (Appendix 1)
Hypothesis. If there are centuries-old traditions of tea drinking in England, that is, the history of English tea.
Project actuality. Currently, knowledge of any foreign language is mandatory for every person who wants to be considered educated. However, "knowledge of the language is important not only as a way of communication, but also as a way of knowing different cultures."
It is impossible to get a true idea of England without getting acquainted with its culture and traditions, the most striking of which are tea party traditions. In today's world, where education plays an important role, additional knowledge in the cultural field of the country of the language studied will help to better understand this country. The study of traditions brings up curiosity in a person to the history of his own country.
In Britain, where eternal damp, rains and fogs, and seemingly "paradise" for the rise of chronic diseases, life expectancy is one of the highest in the world. The secret of British longevity lies in the centuries-old traditions of the English tea party.
Tea in England is more than tea. The traditions of his drinking are observed by both the queen and ordinary British. This is a special culture - from brewing to consumption; she has many adherents and far beyond the island. European tea party traditions came to us, first of all, from England.
There are 59 million people in the UK. There are 165 million cups of tea in the UK every day. 86% drink tea at home and only 14% drink it outside. The British have a tradition of family tea drinking. The British live to be 80-90 years old, so they are recognized as centenarians.
I.The History of tea in Europe
If we take a closer look at how tea is called in different countries, we will notice an amazing pattern. Half of the world calls tea - "tea" or something very similar.
The tea drink has its own history of distribution. Its homeland is Asia. It took another three centuries before tea became (at the beginning of the 9th century) the national drink of the Chinese.
In 527, the tea drink appeared in India, but never went beyond the narrow layer of Buddhist monks. The broad masses in India became acquainted with tea only at the end of the 19th century and even at the beginning of the 20th century, mainly through the British.
Europe also took a long time to spread tea, although much less long than in the homeland of tea - in Asia. For the first time, Portuguese sailors brought tea to Western Europe from China in 1517, but it did not go beyond the limits of small Portugal.
In 1610, the Dutch made a second attempt to introduce tea to Europe, but even then this drink never went beyond the narrow circle of Amsterdam patricians.
The history of tea in Russia began in 1638 with the gift of as many as four poods of dry tea leaves from the Mongols to the Russian ambassador Vasily Starkov, who served under Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich.
Continuing to explore the history of tea, one cannot fail to mention England, the only European country where its own unique tradition of English tea drinking has developed, with its own rules and regulations. For many, the phrase "English tea" is associated with quality, aristocracy, and high society. Almost everyone who is asked: "What associations do you have with England?" will answer, "five o'clock" or "English breakfast".
II.The History of Tea in England
It is, starting in 1662, that tea becomes a fashionable drink of aristocrats. And it was not without a romantic story and a beautiful woman. Katarina of Bragan, a Portuguese princess, the wife of the English king Charles II was very fond of drinking tea, and instilled this love in the courtiers. Since the queen herself refused wine in favor of tea, the secular elite, lords and ladies followed her example, and soon, the tea party became very popular in the upper circles of England, pushing back the traditional ale.
Having learned about the preferences of the royal family, the English East India Company, in order to obtain the respect of His Majesty, for two years 1664-1666, delivered piece batches of tea from Europe as a present to the court. It was all the tea of England until 1668. Only since 1669, the same joint-stock company received a monopoly on the trade in tea and began to supply it to England, contributing to the distribution of the drink
The first documentary evidence of tea was presented in a newspaper advertising article by Thomas Garvey, published in 1658. Here is an excerpt from the article: "This wonderful drink, approved by all doctors, which the Chinese call" chaa, "can be purchased at the central branch of the grocery store for currency."
The article indicates the main advantages of tea:
• Tea gives you power and energy.
• Helps with headaches, dizziness and feelings of gravity in the head.
• Relieves fatigue, apathy.
• Tea makes sleep calm, enlightens the mind and strengthens memory.
• Normalizes sleep, helps overcome drowsiness
• Helps well with colds and scurvy.
When properly administered, it promotes the removal of decay products from the blood through sweat and urine.
When Garvey started selling tea, the price was quite high: 450 g of dry tea cost sixteen shillings, which is equal to five continental dollars of that time.
By the end of the 1700s, tea became more popular, and its price fell to one and a half shillings in 450 g.
Garvey was also one of the first to introduce England to tea with milk. In particular, he wrote: "Tea with milk helps strengthen the body." Initially, the British, unlike modern tradition, added saffron, ginger, nutmeg and salt to tea. It is said that the addition of milk came to us from Mongolia, where they still drink tea with milk. A similar practice was adopted by the Chinese, and then the French, to whom tea was supplied by the Netherlands West Indies Trading Company.
In 1702, Queen Anne made a statement that for breakfast she prefers to drink tea rather than ale. Anna deserves praise for recommending the use of silver teapots instead of Chinese ceramic teapots. From now on, the attitude towards tea in England has changed, which entailed an increase in the purchase of tea, as well as an unprecedented request for silver for the manufacture of tea utensils.
Black tea came to replace the green China tea. Black tea subjected to oxidation can be stored much longer than green tea, which was especially relevant at that time, since the process of transporting tea from China to England and Europe took from several weeks to several months.
At the very beginning of its history, "English" tea was sold only in pharmacies and coffee houses in the UK. And then, towards the end of the 17th century, having won the hearts of many gourmets, coffee and tea moved to private property. Tea was present at the most dangerous risky transactions, love intrigues, coffee houses turned into closed clubs for men. One of these clubs, Edward Lloyd's coffee house, was the beginning of the organization of the famous insurance company Lloyds of London.
And if it were not for Princess Katarina of Bragan, tea would be an exclusively male drink, since it was drank only in coffee shops, where women were forbidden to enter. She changed lopsided view of tea in England, as a medical and healing aid, legalized tea drinking in secular circles.
Since 1685, not a single aristocrat doubted that tea would be served at a literary evening.
And a year later, tea could already be bought on the market; the import of tea was part of the regular trade for the East India Company. Demand for it increased, and the circle of admirers of this drink expanded, which led to the need to increase its supply from Asia.
Since 1706, Thomas Twining began offering tea to visitors to his coffee shop. The year 1717 is significant for London in that it was then that the long-awaited first tea store called the Golden Lion appeared, both men and women could tea there.
Tea merchants began to create new flavors. In order to get a new rich taste and unique aroma, tea traders mixed various tea varieties collected in different regions. So since 1870, new tea blends were created. This led to the fact that the tea market expanded its capabilities, now tea could be chosen based on its own preferences and taste. Customs duties on the import of tea decreased, accordingly, tea became even more accessible. Since the second half of the 80s, when tea began to be supplied from Ceylon, prices have fallen even more.
Since 1938, tea consumption amounted to 96.11 pounds per person (more than 40 kg!!!), tea by this time was firmly established in England, as well as in the cultural traditions of the British. England has become the "European homeland of tea."
III.English Tea Party these days
The British drink tea six times a day, and each time of day corresponds to their own tea variety and their own tea party traditions. Addiction to different varieties at different times developed due to the flavor characteristics and properties of tea. A strong tonic drink is better to drink in the morning. "Daytime" involves a harmonious combination of strength and softness. And the soothing aroma of bergamot is good in the evening.
The British themselves joke that it is easier to imagine England without the Queen than without tea. But the fact that tea drinking has become a tradition in their lives, around which the whole working day and rest is organized, the merit of the Royal Court is great.
IV.English Tea Party Rules
What is the traditional English tea party? A typical British tea ritual takes place as follows. The table is covered with a tablecloth, usually white or bluish shades. Napkins according to the rules should be in the tone of the tablecloth. In addition, a small vase with fresh flowers should be on the table. (Appendix 2)
As for dishes, the tea table kit includes: a tea pair, a dessert plate, a teaspoon, a fork and a knife for each guest, a jug with boiling water, a milkman with milk or cream, a sieve with a stand, as well as a saccharica with raffinade and tongs. It is very important that all the dishes are from one service, usually porcelain.
The classic English tea service includes up to thirty items. It is interesting to note that unlike Russian "round" cups and teapots, elongated shapes prevail in English tea utensils. In addition, one cannot but recall that we owe the British the usual cup with handle to us. So at the beginning of the 18th century, by order of the British, Chinese manufacturers attached a handle to the traditional eastern piale. Moreover, the British demanded to supplement the cups with saucers so that hot tea would not accidentally drop on their knees or stain the tablecloths.
The first and mandatory rule of tea drinking in England states: for each time of day and each mood, there is its own tea variety. That is why there are always different tea varieties to choose from on the English tea table. Such a custom is a manifestation of special respect for those present, which permeates the entire ritual of the English tea party.
The tea chosen by the guest is brewed in an individual teapot, previously rinsed with boiling water. According to the rules, 30-35 g of tea per liter of water is supposed. The brew should be infused for about 3-5 minutes so that the tea reveals all its taste and healing properties.
One of the trends of our time is the replacement of loose tea with tea bags. Today, the share of packaged tea in England is approximately 90%. However, it is worth noting that the British, famous for their conservatism, did not abandon infusion teapots at all. Tea manufacturers produce special large bags for infusion teapots (in no case be confused with our usual bags "for one cup." After the tea has brewed, it is poured into a cup and diluted with boiling water. Probably, many know that the traditional English tea is "white tea," that is, tea with milk or cream. Milk is an indispensable participant in the tea party in English. And here the main disputes among tea lovers begin, namely: what should be poured into a cup earlier - tea or milk?
It is traditionally believed that first milk should be poured into the cup and only then tea. Initially, this method was distributed among the working class. The fact is that under the influence of boiling water, a thin cup could easily crack, and the pleasure was very expensive. To avoid such a nuisance, milk was first poured into the cup, and only then tea was added.
Representatives of the opposite "camp" believe that at first it is necessary to pour tea and only then milk into the cup. This opinion was held by the famous English writer George Orwell. In his article "A Cup of Excellent Tea," he writes that this method allows you to accurately determine the required amount of milk. In addition, in his opinion, English tea should certainly be Indian and strong. As for sugar, Orwell considers sweet tea unacceptable, "unless you drink it in Russian."
Speaking about tea supplements, it should also be noted that the British, as a rule, do not drink tea with lemon and call it "Russian tea." In their opinion, lemon is not the most successful addition to tea, which, of course, can be argued with.
So, when tea is poured over cups, you can start a tea party. According to the tea etiquette, the cup and saucer should be taken from the table together: with the left hand - the saucer, and with the right - the cup. Drinking tea from a saucer, as well as in Russia, is considered a violation of etiquette.
Now let's go to the traditional treat, which is served for tea. Typical English snacks for tea are, firstly, traditional pastries (ginger cakes or raisins). Secondly, these are thin triangular sandwiches (finger sandwiches). They are made of white bread (crusts are necessarily trimmed), and on top they are mixed with various fillings: butter with cucumber, with cream cheese and smoked salmon, with crushed boiled egg, lettuce and mayonnaise, with shrimp and Marie Rose sauce.
Traditional scones are served too, which are usually eaten with Devonshire Clotted Cream and homemade jams. At the English tea ceremony, you can taste small tall crumpets, served hot with honey and butter. If you are lucky, you can taste the famous muffins (ginger and fruit), finger cakes (finger biscuits), baked baskets with fruits and other sweets.
It should be noted that traditionally the main concept in the English tea party has always been and remains the style. The ability to serve the table, brew tea according to all the rules and spill it in cups, the ability to present oneself from the right side, the ability to conduct a relaxed conversation - skillfully, naturally, respectable and stylish. In the center of the English tea party are not so much people and treats as a house as a whole.
V.Types of English tea parties
According to centuries-old tradition, tea in the UK is supposed to drink 6 times.
Early morning cupper - the first cup of strong, invigorating tea until washing face and dressing - arose because the raw climate of England, famous for its morning mists. The English wake up early, at 6-7 a.m., and a cup of strong tea is simply necessary to wake up. After the Englishman tidies himself, he goes to the living room for breakfast and drinks another cup of tea with traditional oatmeal, toast with jam or eggs with bacon. (Appendix 3)
Lunch is the second breakfast during which "a nice cup of tea" is always drunk - a glorious cup of tea.
Afternoon tea - noon tea. The British owe this tradition to Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford. In the 19th century, breakfast was very early, and lunch was supposed to be only at 8 p.m. Once at about 12 o'clock in the afternoon, the duchess was terribly hungry and ordered to bring her a snack, and she was served tea. The duchess tasted and began to invite friends to tea.
Such a tea ceremony quickly became fashionable. In winter, "day tea" was drank in the living room, in front of the fireplace, and in summer - in the garden, in nature. Over time, prudent British even created special suits for tea parties. "Tea robes" were easier to sew, they do not so tight around the waist so nothing prevented from enjoying the taste of the drink.
Five-o-clock - an earned break for tea with a snack. Traditional snacks for tea - heated sandwiches, toast, muffins.
At dinner, soothing teas flavored with bergamot are popular. The most famous "evening" tea is Earl Grey (Earl Gray). The recipe for this tea belongs to Charles Gray, a member of the British Parliament and an influential diplomat.
There are also Tea breaks or Low tea - small hourly breaks for tea with light snacks. And right before bed, the Englishman will drink a cup of fruit tea. (Appendix 4)
VI.English tea brands
This brand of tea appeared in the UK in 1706, when the founder of the company Thomas Twining opened his first store on Strand Street in London.
In 1784, Richard Twining achieved a reduction in tea duties, making this drink much more widely available.
In 1837, in the first year of Queen Victoria's reign, Twinings received the Royal Order of Her Majesty's Permanent Supplier of Tea. Since then, the company has always confirmed its right to a Royal Order from each subsequent monarch.
During World War II, Twinings supplies tea for military food kits.
In 1964, Twinings first produced tea in bags.
In 1972, Twinings won the Queen's Export Award.
In 1981, Twinings began to produce cold tea.
In 2000, Twinings first introduced a new Organic tea mix.
Twinings owns its own modern plants and has branches in different countries of the world.
Tetley - Tetley (English Tetley) tea brand, which has more than 60 types of tea and is sold in 40 countries. Tetley Group is a division of Tata Tea Limited, part of the Tata Group, and is the second manufacturer in the world.
Yorkshire tea is a black tea mix produced by The Bettys & Taylors Group. This is the second most popular tea brand in the UK, it was introduced in 1886 by Charles Edward Taylor. Founded as CE Taylor & Co., later shortened to Taylor, the company was bought by the rival Betty Tea, which today forms The Bettys & Taylors Group. Taylor is still based in Harrogate, Yorkshire.
Ahmad Tea Ltd was founded in 1986 in England. One of the permanent owners of the company throughout its history was the Afshar family (English Afshar). In 2014, after restructuring, control over Ahmad Tea Ltd. passed to Ahmad Tea (UK) Ltd., the owners of which remained representatives of the Afshar family. The company's headquarters and one of the tea industries is located in Chandlers Ford, Hampshire, Southampton.
At the end of 2014, Ahmad Tea (UK) Ltd. was controlled by several enterprises located outside the UK: tea factories in Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kharkov (Ukraine), Mytishchi (Russia), Nanchan (China), Sri Lanka and Iran. The main sources of raw materials are China, India and Sri Lanka.
The history of Riston tea dates back many years. And all this time there is a constant improvement in quality, due to the constant development of production. Over the years, a truly unique collection of Riston teas of the highest quality was created.
The presence of various flavors and flavors in the presented collections, elegant packaging and premium teas have won the hearts of many buyers. By purchasing Riston tea, you can be sure of the impeccable quality of tea blends, regardless of their packaging. TM Riston provides a huge selection of green and black teas that can meet the needs of any gourmet.
This work is devoted to the history of English tea. My goal was to study the history of English tea and traditions of English tea party.
As a result of studying theoretical sources, we found out that the history of the English tea party has its own unique features. For the British, the traditions of tea drinking and tea varieties during numerous tea parties are of great importance.
Thus, in the course of research on the history of English tea, all the tasks set were completed: I traced the history of English tea to various sources, covered the history of the English tea party, and found information about the traditions of tea parties in England today.
The goal: to explore within the framework of the project the history of the appearance of tea in England and modern English tea traditions on the material of journalistic, scientific and fiction literature has been achieved.
Hypothesis: If there are centuries-old traditions of tea drinking in England, that is, the history of English teaб - was confirmed.
Indeed, in England there are centuries of tea party traditions and certain rules of tea etiquette followed by the British. Also, the English tea party is in the UK a state treasure and tradition, an achievement of culture dating back to the era of Victorian England.
Of course, today the classic English tea party in modern England is not held so often. Nevertheless, traditions remain traditions. So, London restaurants and expensive hotels continue to arrange tea evenings and, in order to get to them, you need to book in advance.
The material collected as part of a research project on the history of English tea can be used in English lessons, and can also be interesting and useful to all those who often travel, study English or are simply interested in studying the traditions of different countries and want to expand their knowledge in this field.
A cup of tea is a symbol. A symbol of the comfort, warmth and inviolability of traditions. Everything around changes - the person himself, the environment of communication, the stylization of forms and the environment itself, only tea drinking has always accompanied, and will still accompany human life.
Completing the story of the history of English tea and tea party in England, I would like to note that, despite the modern pace of life, in which less and less space remains to national traditions, you just can't do without a cup of excellent tea in raw cold England! (Appendix 5)
The list of literature
Mair, Victor H.; Hoh, Erling (2009). The True History of Tea. Thames & Hudson. p. 169.
"How to make a perfect cuppa: put milk in first". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December, 2014
Мюллер, В.К. Большой англо-русский словарь / сост. В.К. Мюллер, А.Б. Шевнин, М.Ю. Бродский. – Екатеринбург: У-Фактория, 2007. – 1536 с.
Мюллер, В.К. Большой русско-английский словарь. – М: ООО « Дом Славянской книги» 2009. –608 с.