ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА АНГЛИЙСКИХ ПОСЛОВИЦ И ПОГОВОРОК ТЕМАТИКИ «ЖИВОТНЫЙ И РАСТИТЕЛЬНЫЙ МИР» НА РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК

II Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА АНГЛИЙСКИХ ПОСЛОВИЦ И ПОГОВОРОК ТЕМАТИКИ «ЖИВОТНЫЙ И РАСТИТЕЛЬНЫЙ МИР» НА РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Прибыткова Д.А. 1
1Ордынская средняя общеобразовательная школа №1 имени Героя СССР А.Д. Гаранина
Киоссе Е.Б. 1
1МКОУ - Ордынской средней общеобразовательной школы №1 имени Героя Советского Союза А.Д.Гаранина
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

 Introduction “Proverbs” is a widespread genre of oral national creativity. They have been with people since ancient times. Such expressive means as an exact rhyme, simple form, shortness, made proverbs and sayings persistent, memorable and necessary in speech. Thus, studying culture through these idioms, we become closer to them, we understand the mentality of these people. The usefulness of proverbs and sayings in English in the process of learning a foreign language is undeniable. Having faced with some of them on English lessons, I decided to check the fact that all English proverbs and sayings are literally translated into Russian.

In this research we look at ways of translating proverbs and sayings of the topic "Flora and Fauna" from English into Russian. The object of the research is English proverbs and sayings of the topic "Flora and Fauna", taken from the English-Russian phraseological dictionaries (150 units). The aim of this work is to study the ways of translation of English proverbs and sayings of the topic "flora and Fauna" in Russian language.This aim involves the following tasks:

• to review the literature on this issue and draw conclusions;

• to consider the transfer strategy as a whole;

• to provide an analysis of the translations of proverbs and sayings of the topic "Flora and Fauna" in Russian language.

The hypothesis of the research is all English proverbs and sayings of this topic are literally translated into Russian. The research is relevant due to the fact that the results can be useful in the process of intercultural communication of Russian and English people, because studying the proverbs of English and Russian people simplifies their translation, understanding of the culture of the British, their way of thinking, nature and life.

Chapter 1. The problem of the definition of Proverbs and sayings.

Proverbs must be distinguished from sayings. The main feature of the proverb is its completeness and content. The saying has incompleteness and the absence of an teaching nature. For example:When pigs can fly. (Russian «когдаракнагоресвиснет»)Then call off the dogs. Отозватьсобак. Сменитьпластинку. Sometimes it is very difficult to distinguish a proverb from a saying or to make a clear distinction between these genres. In the case of adding one word or changing the word order a saying becomes a proverb. In oral speech sayings often become proverbs, and proverbs become sayings.

We should pay our attention to those expressive means, which ensure the strength or memorability of proverbs and sayings. One of them is an exact rhyme:

Birds of a feather flock together. (Russian " рыбак рыбака видит из далека ")

When the cats away the mice will play. (Russian " Кот из дома-мыши в пляс ")

It is enough to make a cat laugh.(Russian " Чтоживо, тоихитро.")

A simple balanced form of proverbs and sayings is the most commonly used, for example: Nothing venture, nothing have. (Волков бояться - в лес не ходить)Once bitten, twice shy. (Russian " Однаждыукушенный –вдвойнепуглив ")Shortness is an essential aspect of memorable sayings. Only few proverbs and sayings have many words, most of them contains no more than five words:Curiously killed the cat (любопытствокошкусгубило)We are what We eat (Мыто, чтомыедим)

1.1The origins of the English proverbs and sayings.

The sources of origin of proverbs and sayings are different. To become a proverb, a saying must be understood and internalized by ordinary people. In this case the source of it is often forgotten. Becoming a proverb, it becomes a part of the public consciousness; it is not important for the proverb speaker who invented it. It is supposed that any proverb was created by a specific person in certain circumstances, but for many old proverbs the source of their origin is completely lost. Therefore it would be correct to say that proverbs have a popular origin, their source is in the collective mind of the people. In numerous statements that summarize daily experiences, the meaning of the words, apparently, were developed in the form of proverbs gradually, without any explicit declaration. The phrase "Make hay while the sun shines" (косикоса, покароса, Russian «Куйжелезопокагорячо») which takes its origin from the practice of fieldwork, is an example of such proverbs. Any farmer feels the rightness of this thought, not necessarily expressed by these words. But after hundreds of people expressed this idea in different ways, after many trials and errors, this idea is acquired its memorable shape and began its life as a proverb. As an example, the statement "Don't put all your eggs in one basket" (Russian " некладивседеньгиводинкарман ") appeared as a result of practical experience of commercial relationships. On the other hand, it is also obvious that many Proverbs were created by well-defined smart people. If it has happened to intelligent people in verbal form, there was no evidence of records, but if it happened with an intelligent man who had a habit of writing down his thoughts you can access to the original proverbs.It is fair to suppose that the majority of abstractive proverbs began their life in this way. Golden thought "The wish is father to the thought" (Желание - отецмысли), which was first made by Julius Caesar, or the saying "A soft answer turns away wrath" (Кроткийответсмиряетгнев), undoubtedly derived in its form from the Bible. But who can say that these proverbs had not become a part of oral tradition long before they found written form. The use of proverbs reached its golden age in the time of Shakespeare, and it is more than likely that many of them ascribed to Shakespeare, existed before, though in a less memorable fashion. The same is with the Bible. The wisdom of proverbs is certainly not original. In any case, both the source and the folk and literary, are joined. Due to the spread of the printing the thoughts of clever people began to get to the common people who turned them into proverbs if they liked. Another important source of English proverbs is proverbs and sayings in other languages. Here again it is difficult to be sure of the source. If the proverb before becoming English, existed in Latin, French or Spanish, there is no certainty that it had not been borrowed from any other language. It is possible that it was English, but was not recorded. Some of our borrowed proverbs fully assimilated in England, but many of them failed to do so. We don't need to think much what Latin proverb was the basis of "He gives twice who gives quickly" ( дваждыдаеттот, ктодаетбыстро) but the proveb "Through hardship to the stars" (Черезтерниикзведам)sounds like something alien and is less like a proverb than the Latin "Per aspera ad astra"( Черезтерниикзведам). Proverbs taken from the Bible are another kind of borrowings, since the Bible is translated from Hebrew, and its wise sayings reflect the mind of the Hebrew society. In old days the Bible was read very widely, so that many of its sayings have become part of the public consciousness and now not many people can guess about the biblical origin of certain Proverbs. However, many English Proverbs are taken entirely from Scripture, for example:

You cannot serve God and mammon. (ВынеможетеслужитьиБогуимамоне)The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak. (Духкрепок, даплотьнемощна)

Many statements from literary works are used as proverbs from time to time, but they never become proverbs, remaining halfway between the quote and the proverb. For example:

The wages of sin is death (Romans). (возмездиезагрех-смерть(римлянам)).

Thus, proverbs have mobility and are in constant motion. Frequently used idioms, like proverbs, should be separated from the proverbs. "To cry for the moon" (Плакатьполуне, желатьневозможного) is one of such expressions. It has no advice and does not contain a warning, therefore, is not a proverb. But it can easily be turned into a proverb by giving the form of the advice, for example:

"Don't cry for the moon” or “Only fools cry for the moon".

1.2 The diversity, functions and importance of proverbs and sayings

English language is very rich in idiomatic expressions. You can see proverbs and sayings in literature, in newspapers, in films, in radio and television and also in every day communication of English, Americans, Canadians, Australians. English idioms are very diverse and complex for learners of English. There are no languages that do not have idioms, phraseological units, proverbs and sayings. But the English has most of them. Proverbs as an essential part of national folklore and culture carry a reflection of the life of the nation to which they belong, its thoughts and a character of these people. Proverbs and sayings are in a timeless world. Really, in whatever time we live proverbs and sayings will be always relevant and suitable. In proverbs the ideas are associated with work, life and culture of people. Correct and appropriate use of proverbs and sayings gives speech a unique originality and special expressiveness.

Chapter 2.Problems of translation

2.1 Correlation of English and Russian proverbs and sayings

Comparison of proverbs and sayings of different peoples shows that these nations have much in common that makes their understanding and closing better. It should be said that many English and Russian proverbs and sayings have many meanings that makes them difficult to translate. The necessary criterion was matching of the meanings (usually the main) when selecting Russian correspondence of English saying. However, it is important to remember that, being made in different historical conditions, the English and Russian sayings and proverbs express the same or similar thoughts. They often used different images, which reflected different social patterns and everyday life of the two peoples and cannot be absolute equivalents.For example, saying: The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. The literal translation of this proverb is: the Grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. But in the Russian language there is no such proverb, but there is another one - Хорошотам, гденаснет.So, these two proverbs are the equivalents in meaning. But the literal translation of the Russian proverb would be: Life is better, where we are not present.

2.2 The difficulties of English proverb and saying translation in Russian language

The centuries of experience of speaking and writing people in different languages shows a good translator must not only understand the meaning of the translated text, but also possess phraseological richness of the language into which the translation is made. English has its rules, Russian has its ones. In English the word order is one, but in Russian is another. In English the phrase can never have two negations, in Russian we can use both "never" and "no". Russian language is flexible, and it allows you to preserve the English word order in the phrase, but not always. The English phrase "He was not ready" is literally translated as "онбылнеготов". This order sounds wrong and we change it to «Оннебылготов».The difficulties of English proverbs and sayings translation were always and can be always. Taking into consideration all the features of a language it is difficult to translate the part of one nation culture into another language .Let’s consider the English proverb The pot calls the kettle black. The literal translation of this proverb is “Горшокобзываетэтотчайникчёрным”. If the meaning of the proverb is clear for English person, it seems new for Russian one, so the meaning is not always fully disclosed. So, we should look for a Russian equivalent to understand the real meaning of English proverb:Whose would cow lowed, and your paused (Чьябыкоровамычала, атвоябыпомолчала)This proverb is more understandable and closer to Russian people. But if we translate it into English, we will get the following one:Anyone's cow may moo, but yours should keep quite As you can see, the first proverb is far from the last one. A translator can have such difficulties when he translates an English proverb.So, based on the mentioned difficulties of translation and the peculiarities of proverbs and sayings, we can form the basic rules of translation.

2.3 Rules of phraseological unit translation in general and proverbs and sayings in particular.

1. The great solution while translating is finding the similar proverb or saying. However, it should be known that the number of such correspondences in English and Russian languages is extremely limited.

2. If there no any correspondences it can be translated with a help of a similar phraseological unit, although it will be built on another word-image basis. It should also be noted that stylistic and emotional collocations are not always the same. In this case, the interchange is impossible.

3. Calques, or word-by-word translation is sometimes possible, although this method is not always effective. It is interesting that sometimes translators can implement even the culture of a new proverb or saying into the target language. It concerns to idioms with biblical, ancient or mythological sources.

4. Calques can be used with explanation in a brief form in the translation of cultural and historical texts. This kind of translation is called double, or parallel.

5. If there is no translation of phraseological units and no their equivalents in language you need to look for the appropriate meaning and color of words, the so-called single-word partial equivalents of them.

It is recommended to use the most comprehensive bilingual phraseological dictionaries published in Russia translating proverbs or sayings from one language to another one.

Chapter 3. Classification of English proverbs and sayings in relation to Russian ones.

English- American idioms, phraseological units, proverbs and sayings can be easily correlated with familiar parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives). I.e. some proverbs and sayings are used as nouns, others as adjectives, for example, green with envy (позеленевшийотярости). But such proverbs and sayings are few that characterize a particular part of speech.Many proverbs and sayings are easily translated into Russian: seize the bull by horns – взятьбыказарога; others need explanation, because on the contrary, they have nothing in common with our Russian expressions, in spite of the fact that you can sometimes guess what the British want to say. For example, the most common saying between the devil and deep blue sea, which in Russian sounds like " междудвухогней ". In America the literal "between two fires" sounds like "between the devil and the deep blue sea" means the same as "to be between Scylla and Charybdis" and does not need much explanation.

As you can see, proverbs and sayings can be divided into the following categories:

1. English proverbs and sayings, which are fully translated into Russian by the same way, i.e. the English version totally corresponds to the Russian one;

2. English proverbs and sayings, which are partly translated into Russian by the same way, i.e. the English version is a bit different from the Russian one;3. English proverbs and sayings, which have completely different translation in Russian language, i.e. the English version does not correspond to the Russian one.

Let’s consider proverbs and sayings of the topic "flora and Fauna", selected by us earlier, according to these three categories.

1. Proverbs, which are fully translated from English into Russian.1.The apple never falls far from the tree-яблокоотяблонинедалекопадает

.......

23. Не who would catch fish must not mind getting wet. Кто хочет рыбку поймать, не должен бояться намокнуть. Чтобырыбкусъесть, надовводулезть.

Such proverbs and sayings are15% (see App 1)

2. English Proverbs and sayings, which are partly translated into Russian.1. Adoginthemanger. - Собака в яслях. Собака на сене.

.....47. A black hen lays a white egg-Чернаякурицанесетбелоеяичко. Черна корова да бело молоко ,От черной курицы да белое яйцо)

Such proverbs and sayings are 31% (see App 1)

3. English Proverbs and sayings, which have completely different translations in Russian language.1. Not that lies down with dogs must rise up with fleas. Кто с собаками ляжет, с блохами встанет. С кем поведешься, от того и наберешься.

......80. То flog a dead horse. Стегать мертвую лошадь. Голую овцу стричь.Such proverbs and sayings are 54% (see App 1)

This can be schematically represented in such way:

Conclusion

We considered the methods of translation of "flora and Fauna" proverbs and sayings from English into Russian and the analysis of their translations into Russian, reviewed the literature on this problem and the strategy of translation in general and we came to the conclusion that the main difficulties translating English phraseological units (proverbs and sayings) are: the difference of the phrase, the presence in its composition of realities, proper names that is the cause of national-cultural specifics of language phraseological fund; imagery. In addition it should be said that not all proverbs and sayings can be literally translated into Russian, because Russian people and English– speaking countries people have different mentality and traditions, but you can find a Russian analogy to many English proverbs and sayings. We considered 150 examples and came to the conclusion that there are54 % English proverbs and sayings, which are completely different translation to Russian language;31% English proverbs and sayings, which are partly translated into Russian;15% English proverbs and sayings that are fully translated from English into Russian.

Thus, our hypothesis that all English proverbs are literally translated into the Russian language has not been confirmed, therefore, not all proverbs can be literally translated into Russian, but you can pick up some equivalent. The results can be a great help in the process of cross-cultural communication Russian and English, because the study of proverbs and sayings in English and Russian peoples simplifies their translation, understanding of British culture, their way of thinking, character and way of life.

Proverbs are not the most extensive, but the most characteristic part of the folklore heritage of the people. Every nation has invested in saying their own experience, but often it coincides with the experience of other nations.

There are many ways to transfer phraseological units, but the actual their translation process can not be reduced to the equivalent of language selection matches, and is a complex process, in which the translator’s own skills and the cultural knowledge of the potential listeners play a great role.

The list of references

1. http://www.diary.ru/~polyglot/p180190896.htm?oam2. http://bebi.lv/poslovici/angliyskie-pogovorki-i-perevod-angliyskih-poslovits-i-pogovorok.html3. http://www.sixthsense.ru/proverbs/4.The comprehensive English-Russian phraseological dictionary by A. V. Kunin 19845. D. I. Kiselevich "Russian-English phraseological dictionary" ,"Russian language" , 2000 -705 p.6. S. S. Kuzmin "Russian-English phraseological dictionary translator's / Translators' Russian-English Phraseological Dictionary", "flint, Science" (2006), p. 7767. V. V. Gurevich, J. A. Dragonfly "Russian-English phraseological dictionary / Russian-English Dictionary of Idioms", "Eksmo" (2004), p. 6568. V. V. Gurevich, J. A. Dragonfly "Short Russian-English phraseological dictionary / Concise English-Emglish Dictionary of Idioms", "Russian language" (1988), 544 p.9. Russian-English, English-Russian dictionary of phraseological units, Parhamovich T. V., 2012.

Appendix 1

1.Proverbs and sayings are partly translated into Russian

1.The apple never falls far from the tree-яблоко от яблони недалеко падает

2. Eggs can't teach a hen. - Яйца курицу не учат.

3.Money don’t grow on the trees – Деньги не растут на деревьях

4. As slippery as an eel. - Скользкий как угорь (изворотливый).

5.You can’t teach an old dog new triks- Вы не можете научить старую собаку новым трюкам.

6. Fit as a fiddle. - Здоров как бык.

7. A tree is known by its fruit. Дерево познается по плодам/От яблони яблоко, от ели шишка.

8.As like as two peas –Как две капли воды

9. An apple a day the doctor away. - По яблоку в день - и доктор не нужен.

10. Don’t change horses in midstream Коней на переправе не меняют

11. Forbidden fruit is sweetest. - Запретный плод сладок.

12. An oak is not felled at one stroke. С одного удара дуба не свалишь.

13. Barking does seldom bite. Лающие собаки редко кусают. Лающая собака реже кусает

14.It is a poor mouse that has only one hole. Плоха та мышь, у которой только одна лазейка. Худа та мышь, которая одну лазейку знает.

15. It is good fishing in troubled waters. Легко ловить рыбу в мутной воде. Ловить рыбу в мутной воде.

16. Laws catch flies, but let hornets go free. Законы ловят мух, а шершней отпускают. Закон, что паутина: шмель проскочит, а муха увязнет.

17. Old birds are not caught with chaff. Старых птиц на мякину не поймаешь. Стреляного (старого) воробья на мякине не проведешь.

18. Never offer to teach fish to swim. Никогда не предлагай рыбе научить ее плавать. Не учи рыбу плавать.

19. One scabby sheep will mar a whole flock. Одна паршивая овца все стадо портит.

20. The mountain has brought forth a mouse. Гора мышь родила. Мучилась гора родами, да родила мышь

21. There is no rose without a thorn. Нет розы без шипов.

22. You cannot flay the same ox twice. одного вола двух шкур не дерут.

23. Не who would catch fish must not mind getting wet. Кто хочет рыбку поймать, не должен бояться намокнуть. Чтобы рыбку съесть, надо в воду лезть.

Such proverbs and sayings are 15%

2.Proverbs and sayings which have completely different translation in Russian.

  1. A dog in the manger. - Собака в яслях. Собака на сене.

  2. Still waters run deep. - Тихие воды имеют глубокое течение. В тихом омуте черти водятся.

  3. To take to something like a duck to water. - Как рыба в воде.

  4. I am as hungry as a hunter. - Я голоден как волк.

  5. Dog eats dog — Человек человеку волк;

  6. Dog does not eat dog — ворон ворону глаз не выклюет.

  7. A bird may be known by it’s song-Птицу можно узнать по тому как она поет(Видна птица по полету)

  8. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush-Синица в руках лучше,чем две в кустах(Синица в руках-лучше соловья в лесу,Не сули журавля в небе дай синицу в руки)

  9. A cock is valiant on his own dunghill-Петух храбр на своей навозной куче(И петух на своем пепелище храбрится)

  10. A curst cow has short horns-У проклятой коровы рога коротки(Болтливой корове бог рог не дает)

  11. A fox is not Taken twice in the same snare-Лису в одну и ту же ловушку дважды не поймать(Старую лису дважды не проведешь)

  12. Dogs that put up many hares kill none-собаки ,которые спугивают много зайцев ни одного не убьют(за двумя зайцами погонишься ни одного не поймаешь)

  13. Don’t count you chickens befor they are hatched-не считай цыплят пока не вылупились(Цыплят по осени считают)

  14. A shy cat makes is proud mouse-у робкой кошки мышь хвастлива(у робкой кошки мышь резвится)

  15. A word spoken is past recalling. Сказанного не воротишь. Слово — не воробей, вылетит — не поймаешь.

  16. All cats are grey in the dark (in the night). Ночью все кошки серы. Ночью все кони вороные.

  17. All lay load on the willing horse. На добросовестную лошадь весь груз взваливают.Ретивому коню всегда работы вдвое, а тот же корм.

  18. An ass is but an ass, though laden with gold. Осел ослом останется, даже если он гружен золотом. Свинья в золотом ошейнике — всё свинья.

  19. As the old cock crows, so does the young. Как старый петух кукарекает, так и молодой ему вторит. Молодой петух поет так, как от старого слышал.

  20. As the tree falls, so shall it lie. Как дерево упадет, так ему и лежать. Куда дерево клонилось, туда и повалилось.

  21. Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion. Лучше быть головой собаки, чем хвостом льва.Лучше быть головой кошки, чем хвостом льва.

  22. Dumb dogs are dangerous. Молчаливые собаки опасны. Не бойся собаки брехливой, а бойся молчаливой.

  23. Every dog is valiant at his own door. У своих дверей всякий пес храбр На своей улочке храбра и курочка.

  24. Every dog is a lion at home. Дома каждый пес чувствует себя львом. Всяк кулик в своем болоте велик.

  25. Fish begins to stink at the head. Рыба с головы начинает пахнуть. Рыба с головы гниет (портится).

  26. Go to bed with the lamb and rise with the lark. Ложись спать с ягненком, а вставай с жаворонком. Ложись с курами. а вставай с петухом.

  27. Hawks will not pick hawks' eyes. Ястреб ястребу глаз не выклюет. Ворон ворону глаз не выклюет.

  28. If you run after two hares, you will catch neither. За двумя зайцами погонишься, ни одного не поймаешь.

  29. It is a good horse that never stumbles. Хороша та лошадь, которая никогда не спотыкается. Конь о четырех ногах, и тот спотыкается.

  30. Jackdaw in peacock's feathers. Галка в павлиньих перьях. Ворона в павлиньих перьях

  31. Just as the twig is bent, the tree is inclined. Куда веточка гнется, туда и дерево клонится. Куда дерево клонилось, туда и повалилось.

  32. Love me, love my dog. Любишь меня, люби и собаку мою. Кто гостю рад, тот и собачку его накормит.

  33. Nightingales will not sing in a cage. Соловьи в клетке не поют. Не нужна соловью золотая клетка, а нужна зеленая ветка. Воля птичке дороже золотой клетки. Золотая клетка соловью не потеха. Птичке ветка дороже золотой клетки.

  34. One beats the bush, and another catches the bird. Один поднимает дичь, а другой ее ловит. Золото моем, а сами голосом воем.

  35. One swallow does not make a summer. Одна ласточка лета не делает. Одна ласточка весны не делает

  36. The dogs bark, but the caravan goes on. Собаки лают, а караван идет. Собака лает на слона.

  37. The moon does not heed the barking of dogs. Луна не обращает внимания на лай собак. Всю ночь собака на месяц пролаяла, а месяц того и не знал.

  38. The rotten apple injures its neighbours. Гнилое яблоко соседние портит. От одного порченого яблока весь воз загнивает.

  39. The scalded dog fears cold water. Ошпаренный пес холодной воды боится. Обжегшись на молоке, будешь дуть и на воду.

  40. To beat about the bush. Ходить вокруг куста. Ходить вокруг да около.

  41. When the cat is away, the mice will play. Когда кота нет поблизости, мыши резвятся. Без кота мышам раздолье.

  42. When the fox preaches, take care of your geese. Когда лиса толкует о морали — береги гусей. Берегись крокодила, когда он слезы проливает.

  43. Не that fears every bush must never go a-birding. Тот, кто боится каждого куста, не должен ходить на ловлю птиц. Волков бояться — в лес не ходить.

  44. Не that would have eggs must endure the cackling of hens. Кто хочет иметь яйца, должен терпеть кудахтанье. Любишь кататься, люби и саночки возить.

  45. То buy a pig in a poke. Купить поросенка в мешке. Купить кота в мешке.

  46. Just as the twig is bent, the tree is inclined. Куда веточка гнется, туда и дерево клонится. Куда дерево клонилось, туда и повалилось.

  47. A black hen lays a white egg-Черная курица несет белое яичко.Черна корова да бело молоко,От черной курицы да белое яйцо)

Such proverbs and sayings are 31%

3. Proverbs and sayings which are fully translated into Russian

1. Не that lies down with dogs must rise up with fleas. Кто с собаками ляжет, с блохами встанет. С кем поведешься, от того и наберешься.

2. Zeal without knowledge is a runaway horse. Рвение без знания все равно, что лошадь, закусившая удила. Рвенье без ученья — не польза, а беда.

  1. You cannot judge a tree by its bark. Нельзя судить о дереве по его коре. По дыму над баней пару не угадаешь.

  2. Who keeps company with the wolf, will learn to howl. Кто водится с волками, научится выть. С кем поведешься, от того и наберешься.

  3. While the grass grows the horse starves. Пока трава растет, лошадь с голоду подыхает. Пока солнце взойдет, роса очи выест.

  4. When pigs fly. Когда свиньи полетят. Когда рак свистнет.

  5. Wait for the cat to jump. Подожди, пока кошка не прыгнет. Посмотрим, куда ветер подует.

  6. True coral needs no painter's brush. Настоящий коралл в кисти художника не нуждается. Хороший товар сам себя хвалит.

  7. There is more than one way to kill a cat. Существует не один способ убить кошку. Свет не клином сошелся

  8. The leopard cannot change its spots. Леопард не может перекраситься . Волк каждый год линяет, а все сер бывает (да обычай не меняет). Сколько волка ни корми, он все в лес смотрит. Горбатого могила исправит.

  9. The last straw breaks the camel's back. Последняя соломинка ломает спину верблюда. Последняя капля переполняет чашу.

  10. The early bird catches the worm. Ранняя птичка ловит червя. Кто рано встает, тому бог дает.

  11. The cat would eat fish and would not wet her paws. Кошка хотела бы рыбы поесть, да лапки замочить боится. И хочется, и колется. Проглотить-то хочется, да прожевать-то лень.

  12. The camel going to seek horns lost his ears. Верблюд, собиравшийся подыскать себе рога, потерял собственные уши. За чужим погонишься — свое потеряешь. Искав чужое, свое потерял.

  13. The best fish swim near the bottom. Самая хорошая рыба по дну ходит. Хорошо дешево не бывает.

  14. The best fish smell when they are three days old. Через три дня и самая лучшая рыба пахнуть станет. Мил гость, что недолго гостит (сидит).

  15. That's a horse of another colour. Это лошадь другой масти. Это совсем другое дело. Вот это уже из другой оперы.

  16. Set a beggar on horseback and he'll ride to the devil. Посади нищего на коня, он и к самому дьяволу отправится. Посади свинью за стол, она и ноги на стол.

  17. Scornful dogs will eat dirty puddings. Брезгливым собакам придется есть грязные пироги. Много разбирать — и того не видать.

  18. Oaks may fall when reeds stand the storm. Буря валит дубы, а тростник может устоять. Мал, да удал.

  19. Never fry a fish till it's caught. He жарь непойманной рыбы. Медведя не убив, шкуры не продавай.

  20. Never cackle till your egg is laid. Пока яйцо не снес, не кудахтай. Не говори гоп, пока не перепрыгнешь.

  21. Many a good cow has a bad calf. Плохие телята и от хороших коров родятся. В семье не без урода.

  22. Little strokes fell great oaks. Малые удары валят большие дубы. Капля по капле и камень долбит.

  23. Little pigeons can carry great messages. Мал голубь, а важное послание доставить может. Мал, да удал.

  24. Little things amuse little minds. Мелочи занимают мелкие умы. Малые птички свивают малые гнезда.

  25. Like begets like.Подобное рождает подобное. От яблони яблоко, от ели — шишка.

  26. Like a cat on hot bricks. Словно кошка на горячих кирпичах. Сидеть, как на иголках.

  27. Let sleeping dogs lie. Спящих собак не буди. Не буди лиха, пока лихо спит.

  28. It is an ill bird that fouls its own nest. Плоха та птица, которая собственное гнездо пачкает. Выносить сор из избы.

  29. In the country of the blind one-eyed man is a king. В стране слепых и одноглазый царь. На безрыбьи и рак рыба. На бесптичьи и ворона соловей.

  30. If you sell the cow, you sell her milk too. Продаешь корову — значит продаешь и ее молоко. Продавши корову, по молоку не плачут. Снявши голову, по волосам не плачут. С чем лошадь покупается, то с нее не снимается.

  31. If you cannot bite, never show your teeth. He скаль зубы, если не можешь кусаться. Не суйся в волки, когда хвост телкин.

  32. If you agree to carry the calf, they'll make you carry the cow. Только согласись нести теленка, так на тебя целую корову взвалят. Дай воли на палец — и всю руку откусят.

  33. If wishes were horses, beggars might ride. Если бы желания были лошадьми, нищие могли бы ездить верхом. Кабы сивому коню черную гриву, был бы буланый.

  34. If the sky falls, we shall catch larks. Если небо упадет, мы будем ловить жаворонков. Если бы, да кабы.

  35. If an ass (donkey) bray at you, don't bray at him. He реви на осла по-ослиному. Смысл: не связывайся с дураком. Свяжись с дураком, сам дурак будешь.

  36. Honey is sweet, but the bee stings. Сладок мед, да пчелки жалятся. И хочется, и колется. Видит око, да зуб неймет.

  37. Honey is not for the ass's mouth. He для ослов существует мед. Понимает, как свинья в апельсинах.

  38. Hares may pull dead lions by the beard. Мертвого льва и зайцы за бороду дергать могут. Молодец среди овец. Околевший пес не укусит.

  39. Grasp all, lose all. За все хвататься — все потерять. Многого желать — добра не видать.

  40. Give never the wolf the wether to keep.He поручай волку за бараном присматривать. Волк — не пастух, свинья — не огородник. Плохо овцам, где волк воевода.

  41. Fine words butter no parsnips. Разговором сыт не будешь. Соловья баснями не кормят. Коней песнями не кормят.

  42. Don't trouble trouble until trouble troubles you. He тревожь беды, пока беда сама не потревожит. Не дразни собаку, она и не укусит. Не хлещи кобылы — и лягать не станет.

  43. Every mother thinks her own gosling a swan. Всякая мать считает своего гусенка лебедем. Дите хоть и криво, а отцу-матери диво.

  44. Every dog has his day. У каждой собаки свой праздник бывает. Будет и на нашей улице праздник.

  45. Every bird likes its own nest. Всякая птица свое гнездо любит. Всяк кулик свое болото хвалит.

  46. Every ass loves to hear himself bray. Всякий осел свой рев слушать любит. Всяк сам себе загляденье.

  47. Each bird loves to hear himself sing. Всякая птица себя любит слушать.Всякая лиса свой хвост хвалит.

  48. Beware of a silent dog and still water. Берегись молчащей собаки и тихой воды. В тихом омуте черти водятся. Где река глубже, там она шумит меньше. Не бойся собаки брехливой, бойся молчаливой.

  49. Better an open enemy than a false friend. Лучше иметь явного врага, чем лицемерного друга. Не та собака кусает, что лает, а та, что молчит да хвостом виляет.

  50. Better an egg today than a hen tomorrow. Лучше яйцо сегодня, чем курица завтра.Не сули журавля в небе, а дай синицу в руки.

  51. As well be hanged for a sheep as for a lamb. Всё равно за что быть повешенным: за овцу или ягненка. Семь бед — один ответ.

  52. As snug as a bug in a rug. Уютно, словно клопу в ковре (т. е. очень уютно). Тепло, светло и мухи не кусают.

  53. As like as an apple to an oyster. Так же похоже, как яблоко на устрицу. Похоже, как гвоздь на панихиду.

  54. An ox is taken by the horns, and a man by the tongue. Быка берут за рога, а человека — за язык. Всякая сорока от своего языка погибает. Болтуна язык до добра не доведет. Язык мой — враг мой. Говори, да не проговаривайся

  55. An old dog barks not in vain.Старый пес без причины не лает. Старый ворон даром не каркает. Старая собака на пустое дерево лаять не станет.

  56. An empty hand is no lure for a hawk. Пустая рука ястреба не влечет. Сухая ложка рот дерет

  57. An ass loaded with gold climbs to the top of the castle. Груженый золотом осел и на крышу замка взберется. Денежка дорожку прокладывает. Иному слова не скажи, а только деньги покажи.

  58. All asses wag their ears. Все ослы ушами поводят. Не в бороде честь, борода и у козла есть.

  59. A thief knows a thief as a wolf knows a wolf. Вор узнает вора так же, как волк узнает волка. Рыбак рыбака видит издалека.

  60. A lazy sheep think it’s wool heavy-Ленивой овце и собственная шерсть тяжела(Ленивой лошади и хвост в тягость.Проглотить-то хочется да прожевать лень)

  61. Follow the river and you’ll get to the sea-иди вдоль реки, к морю выйдешь(По нитке до клубка дойдешь)

  62. Fish and company stink in three days-рыба и компания начинают плохо пахнуть через три дня(И лучшая песенка придается)

  63. First catch your hare-сперва поймай зайца(Не дели шкуру не убитого медведя)

  64. Fine feathers make fine birds-Красивы птицы своим оперением(Одежда красит человека)

  65. Custorm is second nature-Привычка вторая натура(Трясет бородку козел,как привык с молоду)

  66. Curses like chickens come home to roost-Проклятия,подобно цыплятам,возвращаются на свой насеет(Не рой яму другому сам в нее попадешь)

  67. А fly in the ointment-Муха в бальзаме(Ложка дегтя в бочке меда).

  68. A close mouth catches no flies-В закрытый рот муха не залетит(Кто молчит тот не грешит,Молчание глупостей не делает)

  69. A cat in gloves catches no mice. -Кошка в перчатках мышей не поймает. «Без труда не вытащишь рыбку из пруда».

  70. To be busy as a bee. - Вертеться как белка в колесе.

  71. No pain, no gain. - Без труда не выловишь и рыбку из пруда.

  72. People who live in glass houses should never throw stones. Люди, которые живут в стеклянных домах, не должны кидать камни. (Не руби сук, на котором сидишь).

  73. Once bitten, twice shy. - Однажды укушенный - вдвойне пуглив. (Пуганная ворона куста боится).

  74. Fling dirt enough and some will stick. - Набросай достаточно грязи - и часть её пристанет. (Клевета как уголь: не обожжёт, так замарает).

  75. Barking dogs seldom bite. - Лающие собаки редко кусаются. (Кто много грозит, тот мало вредит).

  76. There is more than one way to kill a cat. Существует не один способ убить кошку. Свет не клином сошелся

  77. That cock won't fight. Этот петух драться не будет. Этот номер не пройдет

  78. То flog a dead horse. Стегать мертвую лошадь . Голую овцу стричь.

Such proverbs and sayings are 54%

 

29

 

Просмотров работы: 1234