Главные туристические центры Австралии и их достопримечательности

VI Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Главные туристические центры Австралии и их достопримечательности

Абророва  В.Н. 1
1Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение Наро-Фоминская средняя общеобразовательная школа №6 с углубленным изучением отдельных предметов
Розумова Ю.С. 1
1Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение Наро-Фоминская средняя общеобразовательная школа №6 с углубленным изучением отдельных предметов
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
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INTRODUCTION.

Red as the setting sun, blue as the sea, emerald, like a jungle, golden as sand dunes, white as salt deserts, yellow as wheat fields, silvery green like eucalyptus forests - these are the colors that make up the palette of Australia's landscapes , the country-continent. For four hours by air or for a week by car it can be crossed to overcome 4 thousand km which separate Perth and Sydney, from the Indian coast to the Pacific coast through endless eucalyptus selva.

We travelled more than once to this country in the lessons of geography and English. We in details studied its climate and its relief, spoke about the unusual fauna and flora of Australia. Perhaps that's why when answering the question, "In which English-speaking country would you like to visit? » most of my classmates chose Australia.

Popularity of Australia among "tourists" was explained exotic nature, as well as favorable conditions for recreation at the sea and in the mountains. But few people could describe in detail at least some sight of Australia. And I decided to study the main tourist centers of the country-continent and their attractions more carefully and then tell to my classmates about it.

Actuality of the work: Australia is becoming an increasingly attractive area for international tourism; Australia is an ideal place for new and vivid impressions; Australia is an English-speaking country, a country of language that we study in school for six years, a language of international communication. So I decided to do the work in English.

The purpose of the work: to study the main tourist centers of Australia and their sights.

Based on the goal, the following tasks were formulated:

1. To examine general information about Australia.

2. To collect information on tourist destinations in Australia.

3. To analyze of selected material.

4. To systematize the information received.

5. To choose a suitable illustration.

6. To introduce of the project in the form of an interactive tour of the main tourist centers.

The object of study: Australia.

The subject of the research: tourist centers, attractive for tourists, and their attractions.

Hypothesis: I suppose that there are tourist centers in Australia that are attractive for tourists.

Methods of research:

• search method;

• analysis of scientific geographic and specialized literature;

• explanatory-illustrative.

I. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AUSTRALIA.

Australia is the smallest of the continents. Approximately 50 million years ago it separated from the continent of Gondwana and since then exists in isolation.

News of the «southern land», opened by Dutch sailors, reached Europe in the early 17th century. The discoverers named it New Holland. In 1770, the world expedition of James Cook approached its southeastern coast. He named the land in memory of England by New South Wales.

Australia, translated from Latin means "southern". This name was given

by Cook's companion, the naturalist Foster. Later Australia was recognized as a mainland. The country is located on the mainland Australia between the Indian and Pacific Oceans and on numerous islands. In addition, Australia owns the Antarctic territory.

The territory of Australia is 7.7 million square km. The population on February 3, 2018 is 24,967,254 people, most of whom live in cities on the east coast. The capital of the country is the city of Canberra. The largest cities are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, Gold Coast, Wollongong and Newcastle. The official language is English. The monetary unit is the Australian dollar. The state system is a federal constitutional monarchy. The basic law of the state is the constitution approved by Queen Victoria in 1900. The head of the executive branch of power in Australia is the Prime Minister, currently is Tony Abbott. The formal head of state is Queen of the Australian Union, is Elizabeth II.

A kangaroo and an emu ostrich are depicted on the coat of arms of Australia. According to experts, these animals were chosen not only because they are the most famous inhabitants of the "green continent", but also for the hidden meaning that they carry in themselves. It is believed that it is these animals that do not know how to move backwards, so they, signifying a constant and steady advance, were placed on the official symbol of a country that aspires only for the future.

Australia - has the oldest geological age, so it is the lowest, flat and arid of all the inhabited continents. Australia is washed by the waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans. It is not bound by land to any other continent. Therefore, Australia, having also in mind its small size, is sometimes called the mainland-island.

The climate of Australia varies dramatically depending on the region. The hottest time of the year is from November to January, at this time throughout the country the temperature ranges from +20 to +32 ° C, and in the central regions can reach +38 .. + 42 ° C.

It is believed that the indigenous people of the country - the aborigines, moved to Australia from Asia 40-50 thousand years ago (on the land bridge).

For a long time, English convicts condemned at home for various, including minor crimes, were being sent here. Later exiled settlers and their descendants became the founders of the modern Australian nation.

Today, Australia is a country everyone wants to visit to see the distant and amazing land, still inhabited by Aborigines, who have never been touched by civilization, a fantastic world of fauna and flora that does not meet anywhere else, a country in which everything is the other way around - winter is in summer, and summer is in winter. And even the moon is on the left.

II. TOURISTS CENTERS, ATTRACTIVE FOR TOURISTS, AND THEIR ATTRACTIONS.

And so, I want to invite you to travel to Australia. Just want to warn that my story - this is only a small part of the beauty that you can see on the continent. Australian land is a land of dreams. Australia is also a country of stunning contrast and spectacular beauty. Along the coast, visitors can explore vibrant multinational cities, safari through wild sand dunes, can travel through ancient rainforests and dive the Great Barrier Reef, visit national parks and much more.

And so, let's go on a trip!

2.1. Sydney.

Sydney is Australia's largest and most expensive city. Its total area is 12,145 km².

Sydney is Australia's largest city, and also one of the most multicultural and multinational cities in the world, located along the coast in the southeast of the country. Our compatriots associate this city with the 2000 Olympic Games, which took place in Sydney.

Sydney is a city of parks and gardens, lively beaches and interesting sights, which invariably attract the admiring glances of numerous tourists.

Sydney is the largest economic, political and cultural center of Australia in which a huge number of educational institutions and universities with a worldwide reputation are concentrated. In addition to these, there are many well-known and very diverse museums in Sydney: the Art Gallery, the Australian Museum, the Automobile Museum, and the Museum of Astronomy.

And, finally, every tourist, regardless of age and musical preferences, is simply obliged to visit the Sydney Opera House to not only enjoy the divine singing of world stars, but also appreciate the magnificence of the recognized masterpiece of world architecture. The Sydney Opera House with a canopy roof is the most known and most easily recognizable landmark of the city. It took 16 years to build this masterpiece, from 1957 to 1973.

The Harbor Bridge Bridge in Sydney is one of Australia's most famous landmarks. The construction of the bridge in Sydney began in 1924. It was erected by 1400 people. The construction costs amounted to $ 4.2 million. The construction of the bridge was completed in 1932; it was 40 years before the appearance of the Sydney Opera House. The height of the bridge is 134 meters; its length is 500 meters. Harbor Bridge is one of the largest arched bridges in the world. The greatness of the Harbor Bridge has been striking tourists for many decades. The bridge is also called "cohat hanger" - because it looks like a giant hanger.

The bridge was tested in February 1932 with 96 locomotives. The Harbor Bridge was opened in 1932 and by the time the construction was completed it cost $ 20 million. And today, motorists, moving to the southern part of Sydney, pay $ 2 for travel, covering the cost of maintaining the bridge.

From October 1, 1998 regular excursions are made to the upper arch of the bridge, from which a breathtaking panorama of the city opens. For ascent, only shoes with rubber soles and a special suit with insurance, which is issued on the spot, are required; the instructor will be able to cope with everything else.

The bridge serves for automobile, pedestrian and railway communication. The Harbor Bridge connects the business, central part of the city with the North Shore and crosses the Bay of Port Jackson. (Appendix, p.16)

2.2. Great Ocean Road.

Great Ocean Road is one of those places that attract visitors with its beauty and uniqueness. The highway passing from the city of Torquay to Warnambula along the entire southeastern mainland is exactly the place that attracts its visitors. Traveling this route you can enjoy the beauty of the scenery, while making an amazing car trip.

The idea of ​​building a great ocean road visited the engineers and architects in 1864, but it was realized later. In memory of the comrades who died in the war, in 1919 the soldiers began to build the highway, they finished their work only in 1932. Since then it is commonly believed that the Great Ocean Road is a tribute to the memory and respect of fellow soldiers and friends who died in battle during The First World War.

The main attraction of the highway is the memorial Arch, made of wood. It has the inscription "Great Ocean Road".

Traveling along the road, it is impossible to refuse to stop at the observation deck, because it has a beautiful view of the limestone rocks called "The Twelve Apostles".

At the moment, this track is the most magnificent monument associated with military operations around the world. (Appendix, p.16)

2.3. Melbourne.

The population of the second major city of Australia-Melbourne, has about 3.7 million people. Similarly, Melbourne is the capital of the state of Victoria. This city twice became the winner in the nomination "The best city in the world for life".

The area of the urban area is 8, 8 thousand square kilometers.

Melbourne is one of the few cities in the world where tourist zones and office, "business" quarters are peaceful neighbors. Today in Melbourne live about four million people.

Founded in 1835, Melbourne received its real name and status of the city twelve years later. It was named after the British Prime Minister, William Lam Melbourne, whose family estate was located on this territory. Between 1901 and 1927, Melbourne was the capital of Australia.

At the moment Melbourne is considered the most dynamically developing economic and cultural center of Australia. The oldest Australian St. Kilda School of Ballet, the annual International Comedy Festival in Melbourne, cinemas and historical museums erected along the perimeter of Federation Square all indicate the diverse cultural life of Melbourne. In 1956, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games, which became an excellent impetus for the development of its sporting life. And today the guests of Melbourne will find several sports grounds (including children grounds) in each of its quarters.

Highlights of the city include the Royal Botanic Gardens, National Gallery of Victoria, and Melbourne stadium for cricket. (Appendix, p.17)

2.4. Blue Mountains National Park.

Blue Mountains National Park in Australia is one of the most picturesque and therefore unforgettable places in the world!

The Blue Mountains are called, because there is an unusual optical phenomenon: due to the refraction of light, the numerous drops of eucalyptus oil from huge eucalyptus trees, which cover the mountains in abundance, give them a gentle blue color.

The Blue Mountains are a part of the famous Great Dividing Range. It takes about an hour to get from the Blue Mountains to Sydney. And they are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Blue Mountains national park itself was founded in 1958. The park area is 97 thousand hectares.

The uniqueness of the Blue Mountains is, first of all, in their atypical, for the Great Dividing Range, composition. Short rough rivers, running down to the Tasman Sea, had paved in them narrow deep gorges. The highest point of the Blue Mountains is Mount Victoria (1111 meters).

The park's flora includes: blue eucalyptus, tree ferns, acacia, and mint tree. The composition of the fauna includes: gray kangaroos, mountain kangaroos (vallara), marshal wallabies, bush-tails and ring-tailed possums and other marsupials. There are many exotic birds here.

On the territory of the park there are several viewing platforms. From the points you can enjoy breathtaking views: the valleys located below, the famous Three Sisters cliffs (giant stone formations from Aboriginal legends) and the Echo gorge.

In the village of Katoomba you can ride on the world's steepest railway or high above the rocks in the cabin of a cable car. Here you can see the highest waterfall in Australia. Nearby you can go down to the caves of Jenolan. (Appendix, p.18)

2.5. North-east coast of Australia. Great Barrier Reef.

The Great Barrier Reef is one of the most beautiful natural landmarks in the world, representing a chain of 70 km long coral islands. In the waters of the Reef, millions of divers descend to see the diversity of their underwater world.

One of the unique creations of the nature of Australia, the Great Barrier Reef, is the world's largest system of coral islands (them are more than 900). Often the Great Barrier Reef is called one of the wonders of the world. This natural formation with a length of more than 2300 kilometers emerged more than 18 million years ago. A large barrier reef is particularly interesting by its unique fauna and flora. There are more than one and a half thousand fish there.(Appendix, p.18)

2.6. The city Adelaide. Kangaroo Island.

Kangaroo Island is located about 112 kilometers from the city of Adelaide. Kangaroo is the third largest island of those which belong to Australia, 4,250 people are living there.

This name was given to the island, because there are a lot of kangaroos on its territory. It was discovered in 1802 by a sailor from England - Matthew Flinders.

There are a lot of hairy animals, of course, kangaroos, and even you can meet a wild cat with cute kittens. Kangaroo Island is somewhat reminiscent of Tasmania. Only here there are no mountains.

Kangaroo had separated from Australia long before Europeans arrived on this continent.

Possums, New Zealand seals, echidna, brown bandicoots, wallabies, Rosenberg's lizards and, of course, kangaroos are abundantly found there. Among the endemic animals there are only marsupial mice of dunnarts, but platypuses had not inhabited earlier on the island, but were imported from the mainland. Years ago , there were many emus ostriches on the Kangaroo, but in the first half of the century before last, they had been completely exterminated. Of the birds living on the island, black cockatoos are particularly interesting. They are listed in the International Red Book and are in danger of extinction. (Appendix, p.19)

2.7. East coast of Australia.

Island Fraser (Fraser Island or Great Sandy Island) - the largest sand island in the world, it is located near the east coast of Australia. Its length is about 120 km; width is from 7 to 23 km. The area of the island is 1840 km ². Since ancient times this aboriginal corner of nature was called "K'gari" by the aborigines, which means "paradise" in the translation from Butchulla.

In 1992, the paradise island Fraser was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as a unique natural monument. On the island there are more than 40 freshwater lakes - the so-called Hanging Lakes. The largest of them, as well as the largest hanging lake in the world, is Boehmingen. It covers an area of 200 hectares.

The west coast of the island is occupied by mangrove forests and swamps, and the east coast, facing the ocean, is a white sandy beach about 100 km long. In the northern part of Fraser untouched wet equatorial forests were preserved. The animal world of the island is also interesting. In small well-warmed lakes freshwater turtles are found, on land there is a wild dog Dingo.

This charming island got its name thanks to a married couple of James and Eliza Fraser. In 1836, the ship "The Castle of Sterling," whose captain was James Fraser, crashed off the coast of the island. (Appendix, p.19)

2.8. City of Yular. Uluru Mountain.

Mount Uluru is one of the most recognizable and interesting symbols of Australia and is one of the most amazing of its natural attractions, the rock Uluru in Australia has long attracted crowds of tourists from all over the world.

The Uluru rock is almost completely covered with caves and ancient rock carvings. This is due to the fact that the Uluru rock has been the object of worship of local Australian tribes for thousands of years. Aborigines constantly conduct their sacred rites at Uluru rock: not so long ago an agreement was established with the Australian government, according to which the Uluru rock together with the surrounding national park is leased to the government for 99 years. It is known that since 1977, for its amazing beauty and exceptional cultural significance, the Uluru rock is protected by the World Organization of UNESCO.

Uluru Rock consists of red sandstone, therefore it acquires absolutely fantastic colors in the rays of sunrise and sunset: in the morning it becomes dark purple, and in the evening - purple-red. And just before sunset, the rock flashes like a crimson flame. (Appendix, p.20)

CONCLUSION.

Australia is the large advanced state in the Southern hemisphere occupying the territory of the whole continent. Australia is the continent - island, which attracts tourists.

Studying the most popular tourist centers of Australia and their sights, it is possible to draw a conclusion that Australia is one of the few tourist places on the planet where rest can be found for all. An opportunity to swim in the ocean and to have a rest on beaches, to enjoy masterpieces of architecture of large megalopolises, to visit the mysterious woods or just, personally, to be convinced of a variety of live and inanimate nature can be presented to you here.

In spite of the fact that a large number of guides is annually published, Australia remains one of the most mysterious and attractive corners of the world to this day.

The purpose of the work: to study the main tourist centers of Australia and their sights, - is reached.

Within the purpose the following tasks have been solved:

1. General information about Australia has been studied.

2. The information on the tourist directions of Australia has been collected.

3. The chosen material has been analyzed.

4. The obtained information has been systematized.

5. The illustration has been picked.

6. The video has been issued and shown.

My work, undoubtedly, will be useful to those people who are going to visit the country - continent and to spend time there with advantage. The tourist video-guide which I have prepared will allow making an unforgettable trip across Australia, without leaving a class.

But in my work only some of a huge number of sights of this mysterious earth have been investigated. Australia has absorbed me by its magnificence. I am eager to studying this land, especially, the fauna of Australia.

THE LIST OF LITERATURE.

1. Marco Moretti, "National Geographic. The most beautiful Islands are the Pacific Ocean and Australia. Myths and wonders of the southern Moreau", M., 2011

2. Marco Moretti. Australia: history and attractions. M., 2007

3. FF M. S., "Australia", Moscow, 2008

4. World country. The guidebook, Ed.: Rostov-on-don "Phoenix", 20009.

5. Sights of Australia. [Electronic resource.] – Mode of access: http://www.tourister.ru/world/oceania/australia/placeofinterest (accessed 12.06.2015)

6. Australia Trends., [Electronic resource.] – Mode of access: http://www.australiatravel.ru (accessed 12.06.2015)

7. Useful information. [Electronic resource] – Mode of access: http://www.turizm.ru/countries/australia/poleznaya_informaciya_ob_avstralii/ (accessed 13.06.2015)

8. The main tourist Centers. [Electronic resource.] – Mode of access: http://www.migration.ru/kakuehat/view/tyristicheskie-centri-avstralii.html (accessed 13.06.2015)

APPENDIX

Sydney

Great Ocean Road

Melbourne

Blue Mountains National Park

North-east coast of Australia. Great Barrier Reef

The city Adelaide. Kangaroo Island

East coast of Australia

City of Yular. Uluru Mountain

Unplanned product of the project

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