Влияние почвы на рост и развитие растений разных групп

VI Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Влияние почвы на рост и развитие растений разных групп

Котиков  М.А. 1
1МБОУ "СОШ № 11" НМР РТ
Гайнуллина А.С. 1Моряшова О.П. 1
1МБОУ "СОШ № 11" НМР РТ
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя II степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
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Introduction

In the study of biology, a teacher with a boy put the experience of growing peas at home and deciding which land is more suitable for this. In grade 3, I did a scientific work in which I determined experimentally the most suitable land for growing indoor plants (Tradescantia). Based on the result of my previous work, I recommended buying land for growing peas in a store, but the result disappointed me. The plants did not grow very fast and the fruit had to wait a long time.

Objective: To determine which soils are most favorable for growing a house of agricultural plants.

Tasks:

1. To assess the acidity of the soil and the content of nitrates in plants by chemical analysis.

2. Find out how well different types of soils are suitable for plant growth and development.

3. Study the conditions for growing peas.

4. To trace the main stages of plant development.

5. Compare the growth and development of three pea plants planted in pots with a different kind of soils.

6. To draw conclusions and gave recommendations on the use of the appropriate type of soil for growing a house of agricultural plants.

Chapter 1. Literature Review

1.1 The Republic of Tatarstan’s soil

Soil is one of the three major natural resources, alongside air and water. It is one of the marvelous products of nature and without which there would be no life. Soil is made up of three main components – minerals that come from rocks below or nearby, organic matter which is the remains of plants and animals that use the soil, and the living organisms that reside in the soil. The proportion of each of these is important in determining the type of soil that is present. But other factors such as climate, vegetation, time, the surrounding terrain, and even human activities (eg. farming, grazing, gardening etc.), are also important in influencing how soil is formed and the types of soil that occur in a particular landscape.

The territory of the Republic of Tatarstan is located in three soil zones: the zone of podzolic soils, the zone of gray forest soils and the zone of chernozems. These soil groups are automorphic. The water regime of such soils does not depend on groundwater, and their moistening is determined by the amount of precipitation, one part of which evaporates, the other is filtered into the soil. With more detailed acquaintance with the process of soil formation and the factors affecting this process, several subspecies of automorphic soils can be distinguished on the territory of the republic.

Sod-podzolic soils are located at the southern boundary of their distribution. They were formed mainly on ancient alluvial sandy sediments of the rivers of the Volga, Vyatka, Kama, sandy and loamy in composition. The humus content in sandy soils ranges from 0.04% to 1.7% and increases in soils of loamy composition to 3.5%. These soils are developed on 9,9% of the area of ​​the republic. Half of the areas of these soils, mainly loamy, are used in agriculture, because when fertilizing and cultivating they become quite fertile.

Sod-carbonate soils are developed by small areas on high interfluves, steep slopes composed of rocks containing calcium carbonate occupy 2.5% of the area of ​​the republic. The humus content in soils varies from 4 to 5%. Soils are used for arable land, pastures and partly for haymaking.

Gray forest soils occupy 36.9% of the republic's area, are widely developed in Pre-Kama, northern and Middle Volga, quite significant in Zakamye. They were formed under broad-leaved and small-leaved forests with some participation of coniferous species and are represented by four under the types: light gray forest (occupy 13.2% of the republic's area), gray forest (10.1%), dark gray forest (7.2%) and gray forest variegated (6.4%). Light gray forest soils occupy most of the Precamian area, are developed in the extreme north of the Volga and small spots in the Transcaucasia. Their northern position in the republic and somewhat more severe water and heat conditions determined low fertility: humus content 2.5-3.5%. The subtype of gray forest soils is widely developed in the central and southeastern Volga, southwestern and northeastern Zakamye, characterized by fertility of 4.2-5.8%. Dark gray forest soils are developed in small areas throughout the Zakamya and central Prevolzhya, have humus up to 7%. Gray forest variegated soils in small areas are confined to elevated interfluves and steep slopes, developed mainly in the eastern Transcaucasia and have a high humus content. Due to the relatively high fertility, gray forest soils are well developed in agriculture - 42.6% of all arable land - gray forest soils.

Chernozems occupy 31.7% of the republic's area, 48.08% of all agricultural lands, including 44.05% of arable land, are located on them. Chernozem soils are formed in the optimal for vegetation and fauna water and thermal conditions of the temperate belt, which cause intensive annual accumulation of humus. They occupy most of the Zakamye, dominate in its southeast, are widely developed in the Volga region, especially in the south-west, but are completely absent from the Precamite. Chernozemnye Soils of the republic are represented by subtypes: chernozem podzolized, chernozem leached, black soil typical. Chernozems podzolized formed in the southern subzone of broad and small-leaved forests under a multi-tiered deciduous forest with a rich herbage, the humus content is 6.6-10.3%. At present, they have almost no forests, since they were cut down for a long time to use land for arable land. Leached chernozems formed under vegetation from interchangeable massifs of broad and small-leaved forests and areas of meadow-steppe, humus content 7.6-9.1%. Typical chernozems formed under the grassy vegetation of meadow steppes with sparse forest groves, humus content 10-13%.

On the lowered sections of the relief, in the valleys, on the flood plains, where the ground waters lie close to the surface, hydromorphic soils are formed. Filtering atmospheric precipitation and groundwater create conditions for excessive moistening, in which such types of soils are formed, as marsh alluvial saturated. Four types of hydromorphic soils are developed on the territory of the republic: alluvial soddy saturated, alluvial marsh, meadow-marsh and marshy lowland, they occupy 5.5% of the area of ​​the republic. Alluvial soddy saturated soils are formed on floodplains of rivers under forests with a ground cover of meadow coarse grass. The content of humus in such soils is low (1-3%) and usually they do not plow up, since plowing leads to flushing of the upper layers of soils. Alluvial bog soils are formed in depressions on floodplains of rivers under marsh vegetation. Significant tracts of these soils are in the valleys of the rivers Ik, Uritum. For agriculture, these soils are not suitable, as flooding with river water leads to their flooding. Meadow-bog soils are developed in river depressions at a depth of groundwater about 1.5 m. The smallest area in the republic is occupied by marsh lowland soils. They are in the lower reaches of the Abyss and M. Cheremshan. The inability of these soils for agricultural work has preserved the natural vegetation and the entire landscape.

The lower parts of the slopes, the bottoms of the hollows and depressions, the high floodplain areas, where the ground waters lie somewhat deeper, are characterized by alternating moistening conditions. During the spring snowmelt and floods in these places a single water horizon is formed due to deeper filtration of thawed waters. For soil formation, conditions similar to hydromorphic conditions are created. The same is observed after heavy showers. In the rest of the time, the moistening of these soils is similar to automorphic. Under these conditions semihydromorphic meadow chernozem soils are formed. They are represented by a single type - meadow-chernozem, which is on lowered forms of relief, therefore, additionally moist due to the flow of moisture from higher relief areas and due to seasonal feeding by groundwater. These soils contain 6-7% humus.

The soils of the republic are a valuable natural resource. 65.9% of the country's area is occupied by agricultural land. The arable lands of the republic differ in the fertility of soils, in the productivity of agricultural crops on these lands.

1.2 Botanical description of the studied plants

Species of the genus Pea - annual grasses with weak climbing stalks. Leaves pinnate and end with branchy antennae, with which they cling to other plants. Stipules are particularly large. Flowers with a halo of a butterfly type. A distinctive feature in the flower is a three-ribbed column with a groove underneath and a bundle of hairs at the top. Fruit is a flat bivalve bean with seeds-peas. Peas are usually spherical or somewhat angular in shape.

In general, peas are an annual, self-pollinated herbaceous plant of the Legume family, a grain legume. Peas are not only delicious, but also very useful. It is appreciated, mainly, for the high content of proteins. The protein in pea is almost the same as in beef. But unlike meat protein, it is much easier to digest. The peas are rich in carbohydrates and trace elements. Green peas contains vitamins of group B, carotene (provitamin A), vitamins C and PP. The composition of peas includes salts of potassium, manganese, iron and phosphorus.

Varieties of peas:

Peas are husked (Pisum sativum L. convar. Sativum). Peas have a spherical shape with a smooth surface. Dry grain is used to make soups and is a part of a variety of dishes, as well as a separate side dish to dishes. Contains a lot of starch and is used not only in the food industry, but also for the production of bioplastics. For other uses young seeds are collected; if they are ripe, they become mealy in taste.

Peas cerebral (Pisum sativum L. convar., Medullare Alef. Emend., C.O.Lehm). Peas have a spherical shape, and in the ripe state are wrinkled and similar to the brain. They contain 6-9% sugar, almost exclusively sucrose, so they have a sweet taste, due to what they are often mistaken for the seeds of sugar peas. It is mainly used in the canning industry (for canned products with brine, light varieties are preferred, and for dark ones). To make soups are not suitable, because during cooking do not become soft.

Peas sugar (Pisum sativum L. convar., Axiphium Alef emend., C.O.Lehm). Does not have parchment in the bean and does not become "rubber". Mostly whole fleshy, sweet beans are used, with still underdeveloped grain. For sugar peas it is characteristic that its dried seeds are strongly wrinkled due to the high moisture content in the raw seed.

Pea seed (Pisum sativum) - the most famous and common. Its seeds (pea) are globose or slightly compressed, but not angular, the flowers are almost always white, although they are pink. Divorced from ancient times; but the Egyptians were not known. Oswald Heer claims that his seeds were found by him in the pile constructions of the bronze and even the Stone Age. In India, he was divorced from ancient times. The origin of peas, therefore, although recognized as eastern, but not with complete certainty. His varieties are extremely numerous.

The pea field (Pisum arvense), also known as the peljushka, is distinguished by angular seeds. Diluted in the field, but much pea seed.

The main pest of green pea is a pea seed beetle, a beetle of the grain family. The larva of the pea grain, damaging the pea, reduces the germination and yield of seeds.

Peas are affected by pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and fungi. Viral diseases of peas have international economic importance

Insects, such as weevil nodules (Sitona lineatus), can damage the plant itself and fruits. Weevil nodule lives in Europe, but was able to Горохпосевной (Pisum sativum)

spread to other regions of the world, for example, in Canada (Alberta province). The larvae of the weevil feed on the root shoots of peas (responsible for supplying the plant with nitrogen), which affects the decrease in the growth of the stem and leaves. Adult weevils feed on leaves and create a dentate, "c-shaped" shape on the outside of the leaves.

On the packaging containing pea seeds, it was pointed out that Alexandra is a sort of sugar pea for fresh consumption and after cooking. Sweet variety of early maturing. The period of ripening from shoots to harvesting is from 50 to 63 days. The plant is low, weaving. Valve leaf bright green, smooth, thin, crispy and juicy, high in sugar. Variety of pea seeds "Alexander" is resistant to various types of disease and is adapted to any climatic conditions.

Chapter 2. Research and discussion of the results

I tried to establish how the composition of the soil affects the growth and development of plants. At first, together with the biology teacher, we determined the acidity of the soils and the content of nitrates in them. To determine the acidity, I placed the soil mixture from the store, the ground from the garden area of ​​the village of B. Afanasovo and a mixture of these soils in test tubes, added to each 10 ml of potassium chloride solution, and after a while put the indicator paper there. After waiting a little, took it back and checked its color with a special scale, and then with the table number 1. My analysis showed that the soil I took came from the garden area of ​​the village of B. Afanasovo to moderately acidic, as the indicator paper acquired a red color, and the soil mixture from the store had a weak acidity. A mixture composed of these two soils also has a weak acidity.

To determine the content of nitrates, we crushed the pieces of the studied plants to make a juice. Then add 5 drops of 1% diphenylamine solution to the test tubes to 10 ml of juice. If nitrates are absent, the juice does not change, which is what happened in that test tube, where there was a soil mixture from the store. In the presence of nitrates, a blue color appears. I observed this color in a test-tube with earth from a garden plot of the village of B. Afanasovo. When checking for nitrates of a mixture of two soils, I observed a slight staining of the juice, which indicates the presence of nitrates, but in small amounts.

. We chose a room suitable for research. The room air temperature is + 24 ° C and sufficient illumination. These parameters must be taken into account, as it turned out that pea plants are very demanding for light, the optimal average growth temperature is between +15 and + 19 ° C, at a temperature above + 27 ° C growth slows down, so peas are a plant of a long day, then there is a rapid bloom when the longitude of the day is the maximum.

We took three pots: in one of them there was land from the garden plot of the village of B. Afanasovo, and in the other - a shop soil mixture, and in the third a mixture of the two above mentioned species of land. We planted in advance the seeds of pea "Alexandra", soaked in water. The pots of earth were placed on the windowsill and watched. The observations were recorded in Table 2. Based on the results of observations, I made the following conclusions. Plants of peas grow better in a mixture of two types of land than soil, from the garden area of ​​the village of B. Afanasovo and the shop mix, since the mixture contains all the necessary substances for the growth and development of the plant and it does not need to spend its vitality on combating the adverse environmental factors environment, which may be bad soil. In a plant planted in ordinary land, many "forces" go to such a struggle, it does not receive nutrients, so it grows slowly and looks weak and sick, and store land does not give it all the necessary substances, as it quickly becomes depleted.

According to the results of my research, I recommend planting plants in specially prepared soil for them. And if houseplants feel better in special shop mixes, open-ground plants grown at home should be planted in a mixture of garden soil with shop soil.

Conclusion

The tasks set in the beginning of the work during its implementation were fully implemented. So, as a result of the work done, I succeeded:

To assess the acidity of the soil and the content of nitrates in plants by chemical analysis.

Find out how well different types of soils are suitable for plant growth and development.

Study the conditions for growing peas.

To trace the main stages of plant development.

Compare the growth and development of three pea plants planted in pots with a different kind of soils.

To draw conclusions and gave recommendations on the use of the appropriate type of soil for growing a house of agricultural plants.

List of used literature

Chemical basis of ecology: Textbook. A manual for pupils of high school, gymnasiums with in-depth study of chemistry, biology and ecology. - Moscow: Education, 1994.

Ecology of Russia. A book for teachers. - Moscow: MDS JSC, 1995.

Geological map of the Tatar ASSR. Scale 1: 500000 with an explanatory note. / M .: Publishing house GUGK, 1960

Geography of Tatarstan: Trial teaching aid for high school / Ed. G.P.Butakova. - Kazan: Magarif, 1994.

A.T. Lebedev, "Peas, beans, beans" Moscow, Astrel AST 2004

Optional chemistry classes in secondary school. Ed. Applicant Act. Novosti Press Agency of the USSR DA Epstein. M., "Enlightenment", 1971

The king of peas. Magazine "The Gardener" № 7, 2007

Vinokurov MA, Koloskova AV, Fatkullin A.Sh. Brief description of soils and agro-soil areas of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. / Kazan: Kazan. University, 1963.

Application №1

Table №1

Scale for determination of soil acidity

High acidity

Moderate acidity

Low acidity

Neutral environment

Alkaline environment

pH 1-2

pH 3-4

pH 5-6

pH 7

pH 8

Тable №2

Experiment parameters

Рlant 1

Рlant 2

Рlant 3

Composition of soil in the pot

The shop primer, completely ready, slightly acidic (pH 5.5 - 6.5), is made on the basis of a mixture of peats of various degrees of decomposition with the addition of organic substrates, spinning structuring components, macro- and microelements, the content of basic nutrients, mg / l, not less nitrogen - 120, phosphorus - 180, potassium - 280.

The land from the garden plot of the village of B. Afanasovo, moderately acidic (pH 3 - 4), contains nitrates in moderation.

A mixture of store soil with earth from a garden plot of the village of B. Afanasovo (1: 1), slightly acidic (pH 4.5 - 5), contains a minimum amount of nitrates.

Date of planting seeds in the ground

16.10.2013

16.10.2013

16.10.2013

Emergence of sprouts

19.10.2013

19.10.2013

19.10.2013

Seed height 7 days after appearance

7 cm

6 cm

9 cm

Seed height 10 days after appearance

12 сm

10 сm

15 сm

Seed height 14 days after appearance

15 сm

12 сm

20 сm

Seed height 40 days after appearance

38 сm

30 сm

48 сm

Seed height 65 days after appearance

47 сm

36 сm

53 сm

The appearance of fruits

19.12.2013 (on day 65)

no

24.11.2013(on day 40)

Appearance of plants

Seeds externally strong, have an intense green color, stems dense

The plant is externally pale, inconspicuous, thin stems, few additional branches, leaves drooping.

Seeds externally strong, have an intense green color, stems dense

 
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