The First Crown In The Rainbow Of The World Languages

VI Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
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The First Crown In The Rainbow Of The World Languages

Мигранова К.Р. 1
1Муниципальное бюджетное обще образовательное учреждение “Средняя общеобразовательная школа №12”
Байгускарова Т.Б. 1
1Муниципальное бюджетное обще образовательное учреждение “Средняя общеобразовательная школа №12”
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"I want to know one thing.

What is color? "

Pablo Picasso

Last year 2015 was really «red» on our planet. A lot of earthquakes, natural disasters, terror attacks and thousands of people losing their homes and relatives…

What is «красный» for us? – Blood, danger, love? I have always tried to understand the meaning of this concept «красный»; besides, I am fond of drawing myself and the red color is my favourite. It means power, impulse, a strong will for a victory. «Красный» - is the source of energy, it likes to be the first. This color gives our life a sense of new measuring, it allows us to perceive the Beauty around us.

We see the world of different colors and we are happy to live in it.

The concept «color» has a great meaning in any language. The more «color» words has a language the richer is the culture, customs and traditions of the people.

Our Research group has chosen the concept «красный цвет» in different cultures as the leader in the color rainbow. It is passionate, the greatest top. It is the first of the colors recognized in Russia, England and many other countries.

So the words «красный», «red», «kызыл» are the Subject of our Research. The Objectives of the project are:

Research the history of the origin of the word «красный» in Russian culture, the word «kызыл» in Bashkir language, the word «red» in English culture.

Match the meaning and the usage of these words in concrete cultures/

Familiarize with the influence of national authentical feautures upon the concept «красный цвет» in cultures: Russia, the UK and Bashkortostan through studying fiction, Art, documents, mass-media materials, DVD-CD products, Internet resources.

Bringing up in the atmosphere of friendship and tolerance: «Let only red roses of love bloom on our Planet».

Forming the correct attitude and understanding of the idea of aesthetic culture.

Methods of the Research are:

Theoretical – studying informative materials, dictionaries, fiction

Empirical – linguistic watching (proverbs and sayings)

Sociological – interview, surveing

Statistical methods of working up the data

According to D.N. Ushakov, Webster, Longman and Bashkir language Dictionaries the words «красный», «red», «kызыл» can be traced off in following meanings.

Indian Sanscrit

Rudh (reudh – roudh – красный)

The 14th – the 15th centuries

Slavonic – рьбръ – красный

German – rot

English – red

Turkish – kиз, kыз.

As the history has been developing the meanings of the concept «красный цвет» are becoming more and more perfect:

Красный цвет





Светлый (ясный)

Красивый (хороший)

Theoretical value of our Project is to show that a human being is born and irrespective of his colour of skin, nationality and religious outlooks he appreciates the Beauty of the world of colours. He deserves to be loved, cared for. Theoretical and practical significance is that the researched materials are showing the kinship of the languages on the given examples of the concept «красный цвет».

Main Body

Красный – «пусть выживет сильнейший».

Красный – «пусть победит сильнейший»

1. Concept «красный» - «red» - «kызыл» and their origin

in three cultures: Russia, England and Bashkortostan

We have studied a lot of reference books, a number of various newspapers, the Internet materials and understood that the words «красный», «red», «kызыл» have got ancient origin: they all were formed approximately in the 14th-15th centuries.

The concept «красный цвет»




Краса – красень, красота, прелесть

Red, read, reed – red

Красный, кровавый, румяный

Kызыл – kыз, kуз

Алый, красный, темно-красный, красно-синий, революционер

Красный – красивый, прекрасный, разукрашенный, парадный, почетный

Red – революционер, задолженность, долг, убыток, красный предмет, рыжее животное

Красная армия, красное знамя


Сленг - деньги


Maximal meaning of the word «красный»

«Красный» - 4 «Red» - 14

Common for both languages

Цвет крови Blood

Любовь Love

Different meaning

Красивый Долг, война

2. The symbolic meaning of the word «красный»

in Russian culture

Colour has always been the main role in the life jf any society. In the centre of the Russian linguistic awareness the colour «red» has always been the first: «Red» - is the colour of life, the sun and fertility, health.

The red colour was given the honour of a shield. It is changing from one tint into another, radiant with its love for life, so festive and expressive.

The word «красный» has a wide spectre of synonyms, describing concrete periods of Russian History and Culture: алый, багровый, пурпурный, огненный, пламенный, рубиновый, коралловый, пунцовый, багряный.

Since the ancient times the red colour has been the symbol of Fire: «к отблеску заката – красное пламя…» The image of the fairy-tale bird «жар-птица», and so on.

As a shield: a round red circle, protecting people from illnesses, dirt, animals.

As a charm: a red thread tied to a child's hand

As beauty: красная девица, Красная площадь, красное солнышко, красная изба, на миру и смерть красна, красный сын.

A s state symbols of Russia: banners and flags, the Russian Federation State Emblems have preserved «red» in their designs.

As blood: it is assosiated with strong emotions, such as hatred and love: красное сердце, красные розы.

As revolutionary forces: Красная армия, красные лампасы, красная гвардия.

As danger: the point marks of dangerous live volcanoes at the geographical maps, scarecrows of red to point the birds poisonous places, the red lights for the traffic, red fire cars.

3. Tracing off the colour word «red»

in English Culture

To brighten the «colour nature» of the language, the British use «red» in the following synonyms: blood, blooming, brick, cardinal, cherry, chestnut, flaming, maroon, pink, rosy, russet, scarlet; so we can see, that the Russian «красный цвет» is used in 4 positive meanings: Beauty, Power, Love, Danger. The British «red» is taken in 14 meanings, many of them are usually «negative»: red-handed, red-rag, red-skin, to see red, to go red, red with anger, with red eyes, the Red Army, dressed in red, to be in the red (Oxford advanced learners' Dictionary of Current English).

In inderect meaning: not worth a red cent (гроша ломаного не стоит), red cent (грош), red skin (краснокожий), red men (индеец).

The dirrect meaning the word «red» denotes «colour»: red-appled face. As leading the red colour is the great importance in the English culture. Red Flag is a symbol – reade for a battle. Since the17th century in the English fleet.

The red colour presents practically everywhere in British today and very actual: the red double-deckers, telephone booths, red-bricked Universities, the guard soldiers of the British Queen are also in red uniform. This colour symbolizes life, blood, fire, war and revolution, but I think it is not so popular in usage as in the Russian life.

The red colour is one of the main colours in the life of the British people living in the atmosphere of bare and poor in bright colours environment. The «foggy» Albion has always been trying to «improve» this unjust need for colours: it has become the first to mean such symbols, as:


Red cross (красный крест).

Red Rose – the flower emblem of England.

Red skin, Red indian


Red Poppies Day (the 11 th of November) Red Friday

4. The history of the word «kызыл»

in Bashkir Culture

The Bashkort language ethymologocal Dictionary (Moscow 1993) shows the wideness of usage of the colour word «kызыл» in the history of the Bashkir people:


1) красный, один из основных цветов радуги: kызыл байраk, kызыл kулдяk, kызыл тасма.

2) растение, животное, минералы: kызыл тал, kызыл берлеген, kызыл kарагат, kызыл телkе, kызыл яkут.

3) словосочетание, где слово «kызыл» один из основных: kызыл kуk, kызыл сары, kызыл сейа.

4) революционная символика: kызыл совет, kызыл партизан дар, kызыл офицер дар.

5) башкирская национальная еда: kызыл эремсек, kызыл туй, «kызыл кар», kызыл юл.

5. The red colour in the world Art and Literature

The concept «красный» in three cultures has taken place not only in the spoken languages of the people, it has proudly entered into the World Art and Literature The great masters of Art often used the red paint in their works to express joy, power, strength, Beauty, Passion and Love. Red – so radiant, so changing into hundreds of brilliant shades: Petrov-Vodkin «Купание красного коня»

About the painting «Купание красного коня» not once were written the poems of the most popular masters of that time (Rurik Ivnev, Sergei Esenin)

Кроваво-красный конь, к волнам морским стремящийся
С истомным юношей на выпуклой спине,
Ты, как немой огонь, вокруг меня крутящийся
О многом знаешь ты, о многом шепчешь мне.

(Рюрик И.)

This poppies are really great. It is a red salute of nature painted by the Master.

«The Field of Red Poppies»

Vincent Van Gogh

The children's literature was also enriched with red masterpieces: «Красная шапочка» братья Гримм, «Мороз – красный нос» Некрасов Н.А., «Аленький цветочек» Аксаков С.Т.

Russian classics A.Pushkin and S.Esenin used a lot of «red» in their creation:

… Люблю я пышные природы увядания,

В багрец и золото одетые леса…

… Вылетели первые пчелки,

Полетели по ранним цветочкам

О красной весне поразведать…

…Да слава Богу, ты здорова!

Тоски ночной и следу нет

Лицо твое как маков цвет…

… Вот оно глупое счастье

С белыми окнами в сад

По пруду лебедем красным

Плавает тихо закат…

… И игриво взмахнет кобылица над равниною красным хвостом…

The great British used «red» as the symbol of love R.Burns:

O, my love is like a red, red rose,

That is newly sprung in June.

O, my love is like the melody,

That is sweetly played in tune…

Любовь, как роза, роза красная,

Цветет в моем саду.

Любовь моя - как песенка,

С которой в путь иду… 

My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;

Coral is far more red than her lips' red;

If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun*;

If hairs be wires**, black wires grow on her head.

I have seen roses damasked***, red and white,

But no such roses see I in her cheeks,

And in some perfumes is there more delight

Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks…


Ее глаза на солнце не похожи,

Коралл краснее, чем ее уста,

Снег с грудью милой не одно и то же,

Из черных проволок ее коса.

Есть много роз пунцовых, белых, красных,

Но я не вижу их в ее чертах, -

Хоть благовоний много есть прекрасных,

Увы, но только не в ее устах…

The Bashkir classical literature with Z.Biisheva, M.Karim created masterpieces with the colour word «kызыл» in their works:

Моң шишмәһе һандуғастай йырсы ла һин,
Һығылма бил тал сыбыҡтай нәфис тә һин,
Аллы-гөллө гөл-сәскәләй наҙлы ла һин,
Эй, илһамлы, эй, хөрмәтле башҡорт теле!

…Я ухожу, товарищи, на фронт.

Чтоб стариков текла спокойно старость,

Чтоб нашим девушкам краса осталась.

Чтобы наш Урал всегда стоял могучий…

… Ах как чудно ярким цветом

Распустился алый мак

Май цветет, огнем пылает…

… Слова, слова, слова

Язык и стар и вечно нов!

И это так прекрасно –

В огромном мире – море слов!

Купаться ежечасно


Surveying the concept «красный»

among grown-ups and schoolchildren

We conducted a survey among 43 students, 15 teachers and 6 adults of the secondary school № 12. The purpose of the survey was to find out the main meanings of the conсept «красный цвет» in their lives:

1. What does the red colour mean in your life?

2. What emotions does it call?

3. What periods of your life are connected with the concept «красный»?

a) love

b) holidays

c) beauty

d) danger

e) blood

f) war

The results of the survey showed that:

1)60% of schoolchildren noted the positive impact of red color, 20% negative, and 20% the color does not matter

2)50% of adults red improves positive mood, 20% saw its irritating effect, 30% saw this color in former country - the USSR

The most children used the word ''red'' with " the red Apple", "the red flag", "the red sun''. The adults used: the USSR, love, beauty, make-up in their interview.


This is a result of our comparison we concluded that not all expressions that include the name «red colour» will be a literal translation from one language to another.

To identify the national identity of the people world vision requires comparison of two or more languages: Russian, English and Bashkir: "Every nation has its own way of perception and reflection of the world and creates his picture of language. This awareness of identity becomes more distinct in the matching process with another system of perception" (Uraksin Z. G.).

The practical significance of our Research is in the given materials, statements and conclusions that will contribute to the effective study of the Russian, English and Bashkir languages. And we are sure that the results of our Research will be used at the lessons of Russian, English and Bashkir languages, at linguistic seminars and conferences and will contribute the aesthetic culture and tolerance between people of the world.

Reference Literature

Akhmanova O.S.; Russian-English Dictionary, “Russian Languages Publisher”, 1981

Evans Virginia, Dooley Jenny; Spotlight 6; Prosveshenie – Moscow; 2014

Longman; New Contemporary Advanced Learn’s English, “Express Publisher”, 2006

Muller V.K.; “English-Russian Dictionary”, Moscow, 1973

Nuariakhmetov G.M.; “My Homeland is Bashkortostan”; Birsk, 2002

Tomakhin G. D. the dictionary of great Britain United Kingdom of great Britain and Northern Ireland. – M.: AST-PRESS BOOK, 2003

Tsaryov A.; Humane English; Sterlitamak, 2003

Vezhbitskaya A. N. Understanding cultures through their key words. M., 2001

Hisametdinova F. Academic dictionary of the Bashkir language, 2015

Shanski N. Fraseology of the Russian language, 1996

Ushakov D. Academic dictionary of the Russian language, 1940


Copies of the articles from the Dictionaries.

Copies of the extracts from the fiction.

Copies of the articles from “This is Bashkortostan”

Copies of linguistic issues from “Spotlight” 6, 10, 11

Copies of the photographs and materials of the Internet resources

Copies of the result of surveying among school children and adults of school №12

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