It is no secret that today that youth is the future of our country. It is up to us to build our society tomorrow, to solve urgent problems and to determine how our state will develop and what the world will be like. Young people are actively responding to current problems. This is generally due to the physiological and psychological characteristics of youth development in adolescence.
At the same time, compulsory education in the school creates the need for daily implementation of the curriculum. A significant share of free time of the teenager proceeds in the development of school disciplines, which provide not only active in school, but also mandatory for a better understanding and development of knowledge, classes at home. Based on this, the youth is the distribution of their free time, which involves not only the fulfillment of school assignments, but also the passion of many other various kinds of operations. Therefore, the daily life of a high school student is an interesting and relevant phenomenon to study at the present time.
The purpose of the study: analysis of the social portrait of a teenager in a modern school. I was also interested in the problems that teenagers face in their lives and the ways they solve their problems.
Hypothesis: the period of adolescence is saturated with the desire of young people to actively search for the necessary to meet their cognitive needs of various forms and types of leisure, physical, creative activities.
1) Identify the attitude of students to the educational process at school and educational plans.
2) To Study the range of interests of adolescents.
3) To Reveal their attitude to sport and healthy lifestyle.
4) To Study the attitude to social problems.
5) Identify the interests of students in their studies and professional activities, assistance and support.
6) Identify the main forms of leisure activities of students and assess their quality.
The object the research: students of 9 classes of school № 21 of the Mine, a total of 58 students: 23 girls and 25 boys.
The subject of the research is the attitude of adolescents to the above problems.
Research methods: questionnaire survey is provided as the main method of obtaining empirical information. For the successful solution of research problems I have developed a questionnaire for students of 9 classes of our school.
The purpose of the social survey of students: analysis of the social portrait of a teenager in a modern school.
Relevance of the topic: in psychological science has accumulated extensive material on the education of adolescents, their communication with peers and adults, about self-education of adolescents and young men. However, in practical work it is found that this knowledge of the characteristic problems of modern boys and girls is not enough, and sometimes they just do not correspond to today's reality. Relations with high school teachers, parents need to build, knowing the socio-psychological characteristics of modern youth to avoid the problem of "fathers and children". Currently, much attention is paid to the study of mental and physiological health of schoolchildren, but everyday life remains little studied. It is in everyday life that the interests, Hobbies, employment and distribution of free time of the student are most clearly expressed, which gives valuable and significant information about the life of the student from different sides.
The practical significance lies in the fact that this study can become the basis for similar works in terms of comparison and comparison in the analysis of the results of the study on this topic.
Characteristics of teenagers
Adolescence is a period of development of children from 11— 12 to 15 years, characterized by a powerful rise in life and a deep restructuring of the body. At this time, there is not only the physical maturation of man, but also the intensive formation of personality, the energetic growth of moral and intellectual forces. Adolescence is called adolescence, because it is characterized by a transition from childhood to adulthood, from immaturity to maturity. When we hear the word "teenager", we have, perhaps, the same definite and quite vivid image of an inquisitive, active, active and noisy boy or girl.
Adolescence is the age of an inquisitive mind, a greedy desire for knowledge, the age of searching, especially if it is of social importance, the age of vigorous activity, energetic movements. These qualities are often manifested in a very unorganized form. Appropriate guidance and suggestions from adults and at school and at home are more than enough, and yet... The school door opens and out of it rapidly breaks the flow of the guys they are on the go dress up, have something to shout animatedly talk, waving their arms, laughing and keep them hard.
Of course, age-related changes in the processes in the body (growth, weight, the state of the endocrine glands) more definitely correspond to age (although here, of course, a great influence have living conditions). As for the age characteristics of the psyche, they are characterized by a very wide variability, which is based on various individual options for specific living conditions and activities of the student, his education and training.
Of course, a certain role in the formation of individual differences can be played by some innate features, in particular the features of the brain, higher nervous activity. This cannot be ignored. However, the specific features of life, activities, education and training are crucial. Depending on this, students of the same age can show within some limits different features of memory, attention, thinking, feelings, different behaviors.
When psychologists talk about age-related features of the psyche, they mean the most typical, the most characteristic features of age, indicating the General direction of development.
Chapter 2 The life of a teenager
2.1. Free time teenager
The period of adolescence is saturated with the desire of young people to actively search for the necessary to meet their cognitive needs of various forms and types of leisure, physical, creative activities. This is generally due to the physiological and psychological characteristics of youth development in adolescence.
Compulsory education at school creates the need for daily implementation of the curriculum. A significant share of free time of the teenager proceeds in the development of school disciplines, which provide not only active in school, but also mandatory for a better understanding and development of knowledge, classes at home. Based on this, the youth is the distribution of their free time, which involves not only the fulfillment of school assignments, but also the passion of many other various kinds of operations. Therefore, the daily life of a high school student is an interesting and relevant phenomenon to study at the present time.
Currently, much attention is paid to the study of mental and physiological health of schoolchildren, but everyday life remains little studied. It is in everyday life that the interests, Hobbies, employment and distribution of free time of the student are most clearly expressed, which gives valuable and significant information about the life of the student from different sides.
To study this topic, a questionnaire with open questions was developed, taking into account 5 main categories that most clearly characterize the life of a student: family, friends, school, Hobbies and the Internet. In each category, questions have been developed that will most informatively help to study the relationships and factors that unite or alienate the student with the above categories. In total 58 pupils from 9 classes took part.
2.2. Teenager and family.
Adolescence is the time to test all family members for social, personal, family maturity. It flows violently, with external and internal crises and conflicts. Often the whole family begins to fever, exacerbated marital conflicts, all the problems and hidden contradictions between family members come out.
The importance of parental influence on adolescents is difficult to overestimate, but nevertheless it is already limited - it does not cover all areas of the child's life, as it was in primary school age. The opinion of peers is usually more important in matters related to friendship, entertainment, youth fashion, music, etc. But the value orientation of the adolescent, the understanding of social problems depends in the first instance from the position of parents.
At the same time, adolescents are characterized by the desire for emancipation (independence) from close adults. Needing parental love, care, in their opinion, children feel a strong desire to be independent, equal with them in the rights. The way the relationship between parents and adolescents in this period depends, first of all, on the style of education that has developed in the family, on the ability of parents to restructure is to take their child seriously. The main difficulties in communication, conflicts arise due to parental control over the behavior, learning teenager, his choice of friends, etc.
On a question of relationship of the school student with family members, the majority noted that good, positive relationship prevail. Many wrote that they are all well in the family, though there are small misunderstandings. Many guys openly wrote about the quarrels with his brothers and sisters (" sister friendly, but sometimes quarrel"), about the misunderstanding and conflicts with one of the parents ("dad disagree", "mom smooth relations with fathers neutral and stepmother completely positive"), how they cherish and love my family ("everyone trusts me, in General, everyone loved and respected"). Of particular interest is the description of relations with the older generation: "Grandparents are very dear to me", "grandparents are also good, I am very grateful to them". All those who wrote about grandparents, described the interaction with a positive, good side. Among the studied works, there were no strong family conflicts, only minor misunderstandings. For most teenagers surveyed, spending time with family is a significant part of their daily lives.
So, 13 teenagers describe that together go to the city, walk, go on the nature and fishing. For the majority (24 people) joint time is spent at home for dinner, for conversations; watching TV and movies (7 people). Particular attention is drawn to the work in which students in a very tense form described the time together: "I try to avoid spending time with my mother", "live in the same apartment and eat from the same refrigerator", "no". At the same time, these students characterize the relationship with the family as normal, neutral. Here, the misunderstanding and the separation of family members from each other is very clearly presented, unfortunately, which can lead to conflicts, quarrels and the disintegration of the family as a unit of society. Teenagers described their family as a place to understand and support, as a circle of people who will help in difficult times, as the most important and most important thing in life.
For respondents, the main characteristics of the family are support, understanding, love and care, respect, ability to listen. This is the opinion of the majority of students (96.4%). But 2 people (4.6%) believe otherwise. So, these guys write that the family is "blood relatives", "just family", "cell of society". Relationships in the family involve the performance of any household chores, which also form part of everyday life.
For teenagers, the most popular are cleaning (40 %) help at home, on the farm, in the garden (10%), cooking or assistance in cooking (6 pers.), washing (2 %)In General, we can say that at home students greatly help their family and spend part of their free time from school. The question of what is the most important thing in the family for the student was also formulated.
The data obtained show that the most important thing is mutual understanding (14 people). mutual support and good relationships (14 people), as well as trust, sincerity, help, health and well-being in the family, and many other qualities. There were teenagers who allocated the main values in a family financial means (6 people), or "for us those days which we spend together, without quarrels are important" (6 people). Such answers characterize the shift of emphasis from family values to everyday problems, which are dominant in those families.
The next category studied was "Friends." To introduce respondents to this block, it was suggested to tell about their friends and how long they have been friends with them. Few respondents noted that they have friends since childhood (34 people). A lot of guys wrote that they are friends for a long time with friends (17 people), while others wrote about friendship that lasts in between 1 to 4 years (27 people), or friends briefly (for 1 person).
There were respondents who wrote about their friends as an important and valuable part of their lives, "my friends are very good, and are always ready to help in difficult times", "everything is fine", "my friends are very cheerful". At the same time, despite the long period of friendship, only 32 teenagers described their friends as real. I would also like to draw attention to the answers of teenagers who described the loneliness, the lack of real friends or friends in General, "there are friends, but I do not consider them friends", "there are good friends, but there are also Vice versa, but friends for a long time, but in General, currently there are no friends", "good relations with friends do not stay long", "I prefer to be friends only with myself, but still have one friend"). These data show that for some high school students an important and significant component of their daily lives is not fully realized. For teenagers it is very important to have close friends who help high school students to develop themselves, their interests, learn to live in a team.
When asked how much time a high school student spends with their friends, 18 respondents said that a lot of time every day. Also, some wrote that they spend time with their friends a certain amount of time (from 3 to 4 hours, from 6 to 8 hours, on weekends, half a day, etc.). Most noted that the main pastime with friends is school time, and some wrote that they spend more time with friends than with family. Only 6.6% of high school students do not have enough time for friends because of school. In General, it should be concluded that modern high school students tend to allocate their time so that it was enough for friends. Only a few (1 person) wrote that they have reasons for which they see little with friends – school, household chores, mood, circumstances.
Common interest for students and their friends in the majority is the Internet (20 people), music (4 people), games (9 people) views on life (9 people). In equivalent terms, the respondents identified walking, playing, next, movies, Hobbies. Some pointed out that the common is school (study), fun, discussion of problems and just communication. They also pointed out that there are a lot of common interests.
For modern youth music was a common factor uniting them. Perhaps this is due to the fact that with the development of information technology music has acquired the highest relevance among young people, and it should be emphasized that this trend is more girls (85.7%) than boys (14.3%). For guys, the common interests are games and sports (66.6% of the total number of those who wrote these answers).
To the question about the usual time with your friends the guys mentioned most often walking (55,5%), conversation (46.6 per cent), sports (28.8 per cent), games (17.7%). Speaking of walks, the girls mentioned this answer more often than the guys, but most likely, the guys mean doing sports and walking, too. Conversations about various problems, jokes, just communication is significant for both boys (43.7% of the total number of guys) and girls (51.7% of the total number of girls). In General, the usual pastime coincides with these common interests.
For teenagers, friends are the ones who will support in difficult times (31.1%), will help (22.2%). For many respondents, friends are the second family (20%), an important part of life. Among the descriptions given by high school students were understanding, trust, communication and fun ("those who will cheer up in difficult days", "friends give confidence in you that you are not alone", "people who choose you in any moments", "people who will never condemn you to not happen"). For guys, the most important thing in friends is to help in difficult times, and for girls support.
The most important in friends students consider loyalty and devotion (40%), understanding and openness (20%), trust (15.5%), honesty (17.7%). Also highlighted qualities such as: understanding, help in difficult times, kindness, friendship, fun, respect, support and many others. For adolescence is very important is the confidence in their friends, the confidence that they will be there and will not betray them.
The next block that has been analyzed is the «school». On the question of whether to like to go to school, 47 people said "Yes", 11 people said "no". Among the boys, the answers "Yes" and "no" were distributed equally (37.5% of the total number of boys), and among the girls a little more answered "Yes, like to learn" (41.4%) than not (34.5% of the total number of girls). Some wrote that "Yes, I like it, but because of the heavy load I will change my mind", "Yes, but very tired." Those who wrote that they do not like to learn wrote "at school I am interested only in communication", "no, teachers load lessons", "no, but without school it is impossible to become an educated person." Tenth graders like to study more than other classes, and eleventh graders don't like to study anymore. Thus, children like to study at school, but the big educational loadings impose a negative imprint.
Next, we analyzed the relationship of respondents with their classmates. In General, the majority noted that they have good relations (48 people). There were those who wrote about bad relationships (" with some I get along and maintain friendships, but some annoy me and I ignore them"). These results show the need for a social psychologist to work with such students, as such minor quarrels can develop into serious conflicts.
School life is not limited to relationships with classmates and the learning process. The school has school sections, clubs, which allow students to study interesting sports, different activities. The study showed that 67.7% of respondents do not engage in school circles or sections ("no, because I live far away", "no time", "no interest"). Those who go to school after-school classes, engaged in volleyball, basketball, UDP, yuid ("I just like it", "you need to play sports", "I like what refers to the war").
So, it can be concluded that the school as an educational institution pays little attention to the development and promotion of students ' interest in school activities, clubs, sections. Perhaps this greatly affects the perception of high school students as just a place to study and socialize with friends. But, on the other hand, the respondents themselves noted that they do not have enough time, which may be due to intensive preparation for exams, frequent examinations.
The school hosts many different events, concerts, sporting events, competitions, contests. All of them are aimed at the development of interest among students, to unite the team and create conditions for creative and personal growth.
Among the respondents, 41 people took part in various events – were presenters, read poetry, participated in competitions and concerts. But it is worth emphasizing that such activity is observed only in the eleventh and tenth grades, in the ninth took part only 17 pupils (from total number of ninth-graders). Some of them wrote that "I'm afraid to embarrass myself", "I'm not interested." Perhaps this is due to the fact that in the 9th grade children are older, more confident and realize that soon the school years will end and therefore they often take part. But it is also possible that in the 9th grade children are not involved in school life and therefore do not seek to participate. But in General, the school contributes to the development of interest in students, and the guys part of their daily lives are devoted not only to the educational process, but also actively help to create holidays and activities at school.
Relationships with teachers. Relationships with teachers high school students described in the majority as satisfactory (27 people), a third of students relations are either neutral or different with different teachers ("tense, complete misunderstanding, but not with all – there are teachers with whom normal relations", "with each in different ways"). Some high school students wrote that they try to maintain good relations, because they will soon graduate from school.
2.5. The Internet in the lives of adolescents.
Finally, the Internet in the life of adolescents was studied in order to study it was necessary to find out whether the Internet is a significant part of the life of the student. As the study showed, 49 people-79.7% of respondents believe that the Internet is significant for them, and so believe both girls and boys ("Yes, often", "Yes, but could do without it", "Yes, I'm used to it and difficult to refuse"), 8 people (16.6%) - do not consider it a significant part ("not significant, the Internet contributes to degradation"), and 1 person (3.55) could not decide ("not significant, but necessary", "and Yes, and no").
Further, the purposes of using the Internet were studied. Most students use the Internet to search for knowledge (14 people) ("search for the right information", "just learn the news", "for cognitive purposes", "for interests", "for development"). For 30 teenagers, the Internet is important for communication ("communication with people who are far away", "communication with friends", " social.toils.)» A quarter of respondents noted that the Internet is necessary for them to find information related to study, preparation for exams, classes. 7 students wrote that through the Internet they listen to music, watch videos, play games. For the study, it was necessary to study how much time students spend on social networks.
Most of the respondents wrote that they often go to social networks (85.7%, "during the day", "a lot of time", "every day", "3-4 hours"). Other come not often (14.2 percent, "different", "less hours", "seldom", "1-2 hours"). Further, a question was asked about the purpose of staying in social networks, and the study showed that 73.3% of social networks are needed to communicate with family and friends. Also, with the help of social networks, high school students listen to music, look for the necessary information, watch videos, get acquainted with people and just learn their homework.
So, the range of interests of modern high school students is wide. They spend their leisure time communicating with each other, listen to music, spend a lot of time at the computer. But, the problem of reading books, and especially popular science literature, among young people there and its solution should be addressed now.
The research of the daily life of modern adolescents revealed that this age period is characterized by a high need for support, recognition and respect from both the inner circle and society as a whole. The importance of family can not be overestimated, because the family helps to become a teenager stable personality, formed a member of society. Undoubtedly, the existing conflicts and disagreements in families overshadow the life of a teenager, but this is an inevitable fact, because in any social groups there are different views.
Friends contribute to the necessary development of the teenager. Today's young people tend to spend a lot of time with friends, spend as much time together to build positive relationships. Common interests reinforce friendship, but the most important thing is the ability to support in difficult times, sincerity, loyalty and openness.
Teenagers spend most of their time at school. Relations with classmates, teachers, undoubtedly, leave their mark on teenagers. The main value of the school is the ability to organize not only the educational process, but also a variety of leisure activities outside of school. The correct formation of interests in school activities, school clubs and sections will create a positive emotional state of high school students, which is very necessary in a series of preparations for exams and various tests.
Hobbies are good indicators of self-development of students. Despite the developed entertainment industry, teenagers are fond of various Hobbies, which devote their time every day. Drawing, playing musical instruments, self – development, sports-a small list of Hobbies that indicated high school students. Support and approval of the chosen hobby by the family positively affects the interest and desire to achieve results. The Internet is conducive to high school education, communication with friends and recreation, which is very important in the lives of adolescents.
Thus, the studied categories play a significant role in the life of a modern student. Various problems, experiences and excitement, very much affect the unstable psyche of adolescents. Thoughts about the future life, life prospects are replaced by worries about exams, friendship, relationship with family. Failure to meet the needs for support, self-realization, recognition and respect can create wrong values, distortions in the worldview. This should be avoided, studied and corrected at an early stage. Because such minor misunderstandings can pose a serious threat to public life in the future.
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The questionnaire "the Interests and Hobbies of teenagers»
1. How do you study at school?
1) I study perfectly
2) I study well
3) I study satisfactorily
2. Do you consider yourself a sociable person?
1) my level of sociability is high, I have a lot of friends
2) my level of sociability is average
3) the level of my sociability is low, I prefer loneliness
3. What do you like to do most in your free time?
1) read books
2) watch TV
3) watch videos
4) meet friends
5) listen to music
6) go in for sports
7) play computer games
4. What are your biggest concerns?
2) choice of profession
3) relations with classmates
4) relationship with parents
5) relationship with the opposite sex
6) relationship with teachers
5.What additional classes, clubs, sections, creative associations do you attend in your free time?
9.The main characteristics of the family for you is
2) mutual understanding
4) the ability to listen
5) social unit
6.What do you think is the most important thing in the family?
1) mutual understanding
2) mutual support
6) the absence of quarrels
7. Is the Internet a significant part of your life?
3) can't determine
8. Purposes of using the Internet:
2. learn the news
4. games, music, videos