Школьная дружба

VI Международный конкурс научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
Старт в науке

Школьная дружба

Гусейнова А.Д. 1Дудорова В.В. 1
1МАОУ "Лицей"Солярис"
Спирягина И.В. 1
1МАОУ "Лицей"Солярис"
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя I степени
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
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This work is devoted to research of concept school friendship andproblem of mutual relations between schoolmates. Of course this topic is not new and there are a lot of investigations about itbut it is very important for us. Our class has been generated last year and all pupils of or class came from different schools of Saratov and others regions. All was new for us - school, teachers, school subjects and schoolmates. We would like to learn more about our new school, its traditions and about each other.

Lucky are those people who have friends. Each of us would like to find a new friend or a pupil with whom it was possible to discuss different problems and share secrets.

The aim of our research- to revealthe basic characteristics of concept friend, friendship, to develop recommendations for behavior a new pupil in class.

Research tasks -to spend questionnaire in a class for searching new friends

-to analyseEnglish sayings and proverbs, and their equivalents in Russian.

During our research we had to find answers to the following problem questions:

What does word friendship mean? Is it important to have friends in the modern world? What is better: one good friend or the noisy, cheerful company? How does the ideal friend look like? How should a new pupil behave in class?

Practical value-our work consists in use of materials of research directly in the course of training to English language; it helps us to improve our English.

We have usedfollowing methods:

Gathering of materials from dictionaries;questionnaireof schoolmates;consultations (with teachers of Russian and English languages); analysis and comparison;generalization;use of computer technologies.

This work may be useful and interesting for us to use the results ofanalysis English and Russian proverbs correctly by the writing «Code of Friendship» of our class.

2. Theoretical part.What is friendship?

We often use words, don’t reflecting about their semantic loading. What is friendship? Who is a friend and why is friendship so necessary in our life? These eternalquestions have no unequivocal interpretation, cause of disputes.

We go to school not only to become knowledge. Our school life would be boring without friends. Everyone understands this word differently: for someone friendis a person with whom it is possible to spend time cheerfully and pleasantly, for another - one whom it is possible to rely, be always sure, that you are not alone.

We have addressed to Russian and English dictionaries to learn etymology and meaning this words:

ДРУ́ЖБА 1, ы, мн. нет, ж. - Близкие приятельские отношения, тесное знакомство вследствие привязанности и расположения.Сделай мне это по дружбе.- Долголетняя дружба

ДРУЖБА 2 -ы, ж. Близкие отношения, основанные на взаимном доверии, привязанности, общности интересов. Давнишняя дружба. Дружба одноклассников. Не в службу, а в дружбу (не по обязанности, а из дружеского расположения; разг.). || прил. дружеский, -ая, -ое.

Friendship Friend"ship,3 n. [AS. fre['o]ndscipe. See {Friend}, and {-ship}.]

1. The state of being friends; friendly relation, or attachment, to a person, or between

persons; affection arising from mutual esteem and good will; friendliness; amity;good will. [1913 Webster]

_________________________

1Толковый словарь русского языка: В 4 т./ Под ред. Д.Н. Ушакова. — М.: Гос. ин-т "Сов. энцикл.", 1935-1940

2Ожегов С.И. Толковый словарь русского языка – 22-е изд., М., 1999г.

3http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/friendship

2. Kindly aid; help; assistance, [Obs.] [1913 Webster]

3. Aptness to unite; conformity; affinity; harmony; correspondence. [Obs.] [1913 Webster]

Friendship was appreciated people by all the times. Proverbs is a great collection of people’s wisdom. We find a lot of treatments of concept friendship in proverbs.

Фольклор1 - это создаваемая народом и бытующая в народных массах поэзия, в которой он отражает свою трудовую деятельность, общественный и бытовой уклад, знание жизни, природы, культы и верования. В пословицах скрывается смысл общепринятого поучения.

___________________________________________________________

1Гуревич П. Словарь по культурологии, 1996 г.

3. Practical part.

Different people have different opinions on friend and friendship.Friendship is when you can enjoy someone and someone can enjoy you. You feel comfortable around each other and like their personality. Sometimes friendly relations become more important than a family.

Certainly, friendship needs time to grow, and a friend in need is a friend indeed.How do school friends influence in our life, and whether it is necessary to find real and loyal friend?

At the beginning of our researchwe have asked questions 25 pupils of our class:

1. Whom or what do you need in a new school?

2. How does the ideal friend look like?

3. Is it possible to have some friends? How many?

We have analyzed pupils’ answers and have showed them in the diagrams. (Supplement 1)

3.1. Research of proverbs about friends and friendship.

Proverbs contain the moral developed by many generations. We have decided to find out what sense people put reflecting about friends and friendship hundreds years ago?

We built our research of proverbs as follows:

found English proverbs and quotes about friends and friendship.

translated them into Russian and found their equivalents.

analyzed 50 English proverbs and sayings about friends and friendship.

We have found out thateach of the proverbs or sayings explain only one side ofmany-sided conceptfriend, friendship. We have divided them into 10 groups to show their differences.

Friend is medicine. Friendship is important in our life. If we do not have friends we feel lonely.

«A faithful friend is the medicine of life» (The Bible).

2. Likeness between friends. We choose friends with similar characters or we copy them.

«Tell me your friends, and I'll tell you who» (proverb).

3. Friendship is brotherhood. Sometimes one friend can be closer and better than the family.

«One loyal friend is worth ten thousand relatives». (Euripides)

4. Quantity of friends. There are opposite opinions in Russian and English languages.

«Неимей 100 рублей, аимей 100 друзей » - it means the more the better.

« Count your age with friends but not with years »- it means the less the better.

5. Friendship is wealth. Friendship is appreciated by people more expensive than gold.

«My friends are my estate."» (Emily Dickenson)

6. Friendship is support and mutual aid. Friendly relations are important becausewe havea person who can help you in time, who supports you in all your beginnings and who will never betray you.

«A friend in need is a friend indeed» (proverb).

7. Long relations. We like our friends.If you are in a bad mood, friends are always a good choice to cheer you and make you happy.

«Between friends all is common» (proverb).

8. A choice of friends. A friend who sticks by you through "thick and thin" is a true friend.

«Before you chose a friend eat a bushel of salt with him» (proverb).

9. The real friend. You need to find a person who is eager to do everything for you waiting nothing in return.

«Hold a true friend with both your hands» (proverb).

10. Negative treatment. We spend much time with friends, and it is not positive influence.

«Friends are thieves of time» ( proverb).

We have presented all results of our research of English and Russian proverbs in one table (Supplement 2).

The analysis of Russian and English proverbs has allowed revealing features of their use:

Long relations between people

Mutual attachment

Respect and trust

Mutual understanding

Frankness

Mutual aid

Empathy

Sincerity and unselfishness.

All collected proverbs and sayings have a various origin, give various shades to the statements. We have revealed also that fact, that proverbs and sayings in both languages have similar meaning. No matter what languages people speak, they catch the same laws of life.

Butwe have paid attention to differences in opinions on quantity of friends. In English proverbs to have one friend it’s enough. The British are considered not to make friends easily with people. They are reserved and unsociable.

Books and friends should be few but good.(proverb)

One friend in a lifetime is much; two are many; three are hardly possible.

(Henry Adams)

In Russian proverbs having many friends characterises wide Russian character.The Russian are said to be hospitable and generous.

Одна пчела много мёда не натаскает.

Один в поле не воин.

Один палец не кулак.

Одна рука прут не сломает.

Один за всех и все за одного.

Не имей сто латов, а имей сто друзей.

Не имей 100 рублей, а имей 100 друзей.

4. « Code of Friendship».

The school friendship represents the close relations connected by a generality of interests, pleasures and difficulties. At school we spend all day sharing our dreams, successes and disappointments with schoolmates.

According to pupils’ answers and research of English and Russian proverbs it was possible to make the recommendations how to be the loyal friend. These recommendations became «Code of Friendship» of our class.

Always come to help.

Cheer in trouble.

Rely on your friend.

Don’t criticize your friend.

Keep secrets.

Don’t be greedy.

Don’t gossip.

Try to be opened.

The word friendship is conformable to a word ship. We have presented our recommendations in the shape of the ship, running on the seas of knowledge with filled sails. The only unsinkable ship is friendSHIP. Cicero(Supplement 3)

5. Conclusion

During our work on the theme «School friendship» we have successfully solved research tasks in view:

-investigated various sources of information;

- have revealed the basic characteristics of concepts friend,friendship;

- have carried out the analysis of English statements and proverbs and their equivalents in Russian;

- have spent questionnaire in a class to search new friends.

1.The results of schoolmates ‘questionnaire allow us to say that more than half of our classmates miss their old school, teachers and former schoolmates but they are ready to make new friends.

2. We have carried out the analysis of English proverbs and sayings about friendship and have revealed some features of their use. During research it was found out:

concept friend and friendship have similar meaning in both languages;

word friend has not only positive traits;

quantity of friends varies in Russian and English languages.

3. As a result of the analysis of English and Russian proverbs we made «Code of Friendship » of our class.

In the modern world people have many friends. Having old friends they get new, that confirms our hypothesis creation of friendly class.

This research work will be continued and enlarged in future.We hope to continue collecting materials about friendship. We’d like to know more about our classmates to make an internet site of our class.

To be a friend is difficult, to become friend is a big work!

6. Literarysources

1.Толковый словарь русского языка: В 4 т./ Под ред. Д.Н. Ушакова. — М.: Гос. ин-т "Сов. энцикл.", 1935-1940

2.Ожегов С.И. Толковый словарь русского языка – 22-е изд., М., 1999г.

3.Гуревич П. Словарь по культурологи, 1996 г.

4.Английский язык: учеб. для 7 кл.общеобразоват.учреждений / В.П.Кузовлев,Н.М.Лапа, Э.Ш. Перегудова и др.- 2-е изд.-М.:Просвещение,2002

5.Кон И.С. Дружба 4 изд.доп.СПб: Питер, 2005-

6.Дубровин М.И. Английские и русские пословицы – М., 1993год.

7. English Proverbs and Sayings, 1971год.

55http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/friendship

http://www.razumniki.ru/poslovica_drugba.html

7.Supplement 1

7.Supplement 2

 

English quotes and proverbs about friends and friendship

Translation

Russian equivalents

 

1. Friend is medicine

1

A faithful friend is the medicine of life (Apocrypha)

Настоящий друг-лекарство жизни

Дружба крепка не лестью, а правдой и честью.

2

The best elixir is a friend (William Somerville)

Друг – лучшее лекарство

Друг – лучшее лекарство

 

2. Likeness between friends

3

The best mirror is an old friend.

Старый друг – лучшее зеркало

Друг – твоё отражение.

4

The only way to have a friend is to be a friend (Emerson )

Чтобы иметь друга, будь им

Единственный способ иметь друга – это быть им

5

A friend is it were a second self (Cicero)

Друг - можно сказать, это второе я

Друг - второе я

6

A friend is one who dislikes the same people you dislike

(Aristotle)

Друг-тот, кому не нравятся те же люди, что и тебе

Был бы друг, найдется и досуг.

7

We should behave to our friends as we would wish our friends behave to us.

Мы должны так поступать со своими друзьями, как мы хотели бы, чтоб поступали с нами

С кем поведешься, от того и наберешься

8

Tell me your friends, and I’ll tell you who you are.

Скажи мне кто твой друг, и я скажу, кто ты

Скажи мне кто твой друг, и я скажу, кто ты

9

A man is known by the company

Человека узнают по его окружению

С кем хлеб - соль водишь, на того и походишь

 

3. Friendship is brotherhood

10

One loyal friend is worth ten thousand relatives. (Euripides)

Один близкий друг стоит десяти тысяч родственников.

Добрый друг лучше ста родственников.

11

There is a friend that sticks closer than a brother (The Bible)

Друг ближе, чем брат

Друзья прямые — братья родные.

 

4. Quantity of friends.

12

Books and friends should be few but good.

Книг и друзей должно быть мало, но хороших.

Oppositeopinion

Одна пчела немного мёду натаскает

13

One friend in a lifetime is much; two are many; three are hardly possible.

(Henry Adams)

Один друг в жизни это много; два - слишком много; три - едва ли возможно

Oppositeopinion

Сто друзей - мало, а один враг - много.

14

Friends are like melons. You may try fifty before you find a good one.
(Claude Mermet)

Друзья подобны дыне. Ты можешь перепробовать их 50, пока найдёшь одну хорошую

Друг не испытанный, что орех не расколотый.

15

Make new friends
but keep the old.
One is silver and the other gold!

Заводи дружбу с новыми друзьями, но сохраняй и старых. Один - серебро, а другой - золото

Старый друг лучше новых двух.

16

Count your age with friends but not with years.

Считай возраст по друзьям, а не по годам.

Доброе братство милее богатства.

 

5. Friendship is wealth

17

Where there are friends, there is wealth.

(Titus Muccius Plautus)

Гдедрузья, тамбогатство

Друг денег дороже.

18

My friends are my estate.

(Emily Dickenson)

Моидрузья - моебогатство.

Моидрузья - моебогатство.

19

They are rich who have true friends (Tomas Fuller)

Тот богат, кто имеет настоящих друзей

Дерево держится корнями, а человек друзьями.

20

Without friends, no one would want to live, even if he had all other goods.

Нет жизни без друзей, даже если есть все остальные блага

Не мил и свет, коли друга нет.

 

6. Friendship is support and mutual aid

21

A friend is someone who is there for you when he'd rather be anywhere else.(Len Wein)

Друг это тот, кто с тобой, хотя ему надо быть в другом месте.

Кто разделяет с тобой трудную минуту - настоящий друг.

22

A friend in need is a friend indeed

Друг в беде, настоящий друг

Друг познается в беде.

23

A friend is never known till a man have need

Никогда не узнаешь друга, пока не попадёшь в беду

Назвался другом - помогай в беде.

24

А friend's someone who lends you an umbrella on a rainy day

Друг - тот, кто одолжит зонтик в дождливый день

Для милого дружка и серёжку из ушка

 

7. Long relations

25

Between friends all is common

У друзей всё общее

Свои люди, сочтемся.

26

Love comes from blindness, friendship from knowledge

Любовь начинается вслепую, а дружба со знания

Любовь слепа

27

Reprove your friends in secret, praise them openly. (Publilius Syrus)

Порицайте своих друзей в тайне, похвалите их открыто.

Не тот друг, кто потакает, а тот, кто на ум на­ставляет

28

It is better to be in chains with friends, than to be in a garden with strangers. Sent in by Shawn

Лучше быть в цепях с друзьями, чем в саду с незнакомцами.

Лучше умереть возле друга, чем жить у своего врага.

29

Friendship isn't a big thing – it’s a million little things. (Mark Twain)

Дружба это не что-то одно большое - это множество мелочей.

Не тот друг, кто на пиру гуляет, а тот, кто в беде помогает.

30

Life without friendship is like the sky without sun

Жизнь без дружбы подобна небу без солнца

Человек без друзей, что сокол без крыльев

31

No man is useless while he has a friend.

Человек не бесполезен, если у него есть друг

Птица сильна крыльями, а человек дружбой.

32

A road to a friend’s house is never long

Дорога к дому друга никогда не бывает длинной

Для друга семь верст не околица

 

8. A choice of friends

33

Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing him

Выбирай друга медленно, ещё медленнее меняй его

Без друга в жизни туго

34

Before you chose a friend eat a bushel of salt with him

До того, как выбрать друга, съешь с ним бушель соли

Надо пуд соли вместе съесть, чтобы друга узнать.

35

The friends you choose help you win or lose.

Друзья помогают тебе выиграть или потерять

Друзей, которых мы сами себе выбираем, мы или находим или теряем.

36

Friends may meet, but mountains never

Друзья могут встречаться, а горы никогда

Гора с горой е сдвинется, а человек с человеком свидятся

37

In prosperity it is very easy to find a friend;
in adversity, nothing is so difficult.
(Epictetus)

В процветании очень легко найти друга;

в бедственной ситуации ничто не является настолько трудным.

Кто разделяет с тобой трудную минуту - настоящий друг.

38

A friend is easier lost than found

Друга легче потерять, чем найти

Легко друзей найти, да трудно сохранить.

39

Company is distress makes trouble less

Когда есть друзья по несчастью, и несчастье меньше

На миру и смерть красна

 

9. The real friend

40

A true friend is a forever friend

Настоящий друг – друг навсегда

Настоящий друг – друг на всю жизнь

41

A good friend as the sun in winter

Хороший друг подобен солнцу зимой

Дружба великая сила.

42

Hold a true friend with both your hands.

Держи верного друга обеими руками

Нет друга, так ищи, а нашел, так береги.

43

Only your real friends tell you when your face is dirty.

Только настоящие друзья скажут тебе, когда твоё лицо грязное

Не тот друг, кто мёдом мажет, а тот, кто правду в глаза скажет.

44

Old friends and old wine are best

Нет ничего лучше старых друзей и вина

Вещь хороша пока новая, а друг старый

45

Friend’s frown is better than a foe’s smile

Лучше хмурое лицо друга, чем улыбка врага

Лучше правда друга, чем лесть врага

 

10.Negative traits

46

Friends are thieves of time

Друзья – воры времени

Вор крадёт деньги, друзья время

47

Broken friendship may be soldered but will never be sound

Треснувшую дружбу можно склеить, но она никогда уже не будет звучать

Дружба как стекло: разобьешь — не сложишь.

48

A friend to all is a friend to none

Друг для всех ничей друг

Тот, кто со всеми хорош, тот друг никому

49

Better an open enemy than a false friend

Лучше открытый враг, чем ложный друг

Не та собака кусает, что лает, а та, что молчит да хвостом виляет

50

False friends are worse than open enemies

Фальшивые друзья хуже явных врагов

Друг до поры хуже недруга

7.Supplement 3

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